Henry John Rose Hugh James Rose.

A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 8 online

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nitudine inventa : accedunt Problematum

Jiuorundam iUustrium Constructiones, 4to.
n the following year he visited France,
and was admitted to the degree of doctor
of laws at Angers. In 1658 he pub-
lished a treatise, entitled, Horologmm,
4to, in which he describes the applica-
tion of the pendulum to the cIock, of
which improvement he was the inventor.
He soon after discovered the ring, and
one of the satellites of Saturn, and in
1659 he published his Systema Satumi-
num, sive de Causis miraudoram Satumi
Pbaenoroendn, et Comite ejus Planet&
novo, 4to; which was followed by his
Systema Saturainum; cum Assertione
Systematis sui, 4to. He remained in
Holland till 1660, when he took a'
second journey into France; and in the
following year he passed over into Eng-
land, where he communicated his art of
polishine glasses for telescopes, and was
admitted a member of the Royal Society.
He also made considerable improvements
in the air-pump, then recently invented;
and he discovered the laws of the colli-
sion of elastic bodies. In 1663 he visited
France for the third time; where his
merit became so conspicuous, that, in
1665, the minister Colbert was deter-
mined on attempting to fix him at Paris
by the ofier of a considerable pension,
which he accepted; and he resided at
Paris from 1666 to 1681, and was ad-
mitted a member of the Academy of
Sciences. In 1673 he published, Horolo-
gium Oscillatorium ; sive de Motu Pen-
dulorum ad Horologia apteto, Demon-
strationes Geometries, foi.; discovering
a method of rendering clocks exact, by
applving the pendulum, and of rendering
aU Its vibrations eoual, by the cycloid.
By his continual application, however, he
gradually impaired his health, for the
recovery of wnich he was obliged to visit
his native country in 1670, and again in
1675; and in 1681 he found himself
under the necessity of returning to it alto-
gether. Moreri says that he was partly
determined to take this step in conse-
quence of the revocation of the Edict of
Nantes. Accordingly, in the year last
mentioned, he quitted Paris and returned
to his native country, where he spent the



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renuunder of his life, with the exception
of another visit to England in 1689. The
last work which Huygens committed to
the press, was his KOIMOeEOPOI ; siye
de Terris Coelestihus, eorumque Ornatu,
conjecture, 4to, conceminff a plurality
of worlds, and the prohahiiity that the
planets are inhabited; but he died while
It was in the press, in June 1695, in the
sixty-seventh year of hu age. His ^loge
was written by Condorcet By his will
he left his MSS. to the university of
Leydeuy and requested De Voider and
Fullenius, the former of whom was pro-
fessor of philosophy and mathematics at
Leyden, and the other at Franeker, to
examine them, and publish such as they
should think proper. Accordingly, in
1 703, they published, Christiani Hugenii,
&c. Opuscula Posthuma, 4to. In 1704
were published the author's Opera Varia,
4to, edited by s'Gravesande, who inserted
several additions to the pieces contained
in it, extracted from Huygens' MSS. In
1728 the same editor published a new
collection of our author's pieces, entitled,
Opera Reliqua, 2 vols, 4to. In 1833
Huyffens' correspondence was published
for we first time, under the following
title : Christ Hugenii aliorumque Exer-
citationes Mathematicae et Philosophicse,
ex MSS. in BibL Acad. Lugd. Bat,
edente P. J. Uylenbroek, Hag. Com.
Huy^ns was distinguished as much for
his virtues and the amenity of his temper,
as for the depth and compass of his learn-
ing. He was never married.

HUYGHENS, (Gomarus,) a cele-
brated Romish divine, bom in 1631 at
Liere, or Lyre, in Brabant He pro-
fessed philosophy at Louvain, ana in
1677 was made president of the college
of pope Adrian VI., where he died m
1702, leaving several works in Latin;
the principal are. The Method of re-
mitting and retaining Sins; Theses on
Grace; Theological Conferences; and a
Course of Divinity, 15 vols, 12mo, &c
He refused to write against the four
articles of the French clergy, which dis-
pleased the court of Rome and the Jesuits.
Huyghens was the intimate friend of
Quesnel, and zealously defended hhn.

HUYOT, (John Nicholas,) an archi-
tect, bom in Paris in 1780. He studied
at Rome, where in 1807 he obtained the
prize, and was appointed to restore the
temple of Fortune at Preneste. After
visiting the Greek islands and the Levant,
he returned to France in 1821, and was
nominated professor of the School of
Architecture, and was appointed to super-
428



intend the restoration of the Palais dn
Justice, but died in 1840, before he could
commence his labours.

HUYSMAN, or HOUSEMAN, (Cor-
neb'us,) a painter, was bora at Antwerp
in 1648, but lived mostly at Mechlin,
and studied under Gaspar de Witt and
Artois. Vander Meulen endeavoured to
draw him to Paris; but Huysman de-
clined all his offers, and continued at
Mechlin till his death, which happened
in 1727. Huysman is considered as one
of the best among the Flemish painters
of landscape; his style is much in the
Italian taste; his colouring is bold, and bis
touch free and excellent ; and in most of
his pictures he is fond of introducing a
strong warm mass of light breaking on
some part of his fore-ground, which ia
usually enriched with plants and herbage.
He always painted the figures and animala
in his own landsci^es, and designed them
so well, that he was frequently employed
hy Minderhout, Achtschellings, and Ar-
tois, to adom their works in the tame
manner. He likewise painted the land-
scapes in the back-grounds of historical
pictures for oUier eminent artists.

HUYSMAN, or HOUSEMAN,
(James,) a painter, was born at Antwerp
in 1656, and studied under Giles Backe-
reel. He afterwards came to England,
and painted both history and portrait, in
whicn last he was a successful rival of
Lelv. He painted a fine portrait of the
duchess of Richmond ; but the one which
he most admired himself was that of
Catherine of PortUjg;al, queen of Charles II.
Huysman also painted the altar-piece in
the queen's chapel at St James's. He
died in London in 1696.

HUYSUM, (Justus van,) called the
Oldt a painter, was born at Amsterdam
in 1659, and was a disciple of Nicholas
Berchem. His landscapes are labori-
ously finished, and his scenery is
pleasing and picturesque; but there is
rather an appearance of stiffiiess in his
manner, wiu too great a predominancy
of a yellowish tint ; and nis trees and
shrubs have often too pale or a bright
verdure. He died in 1 7 1 6, leaving three
sons, who were very eminent artists ; and
a fourth, who taught the art of drawuig
and design.

HUYSUM, (Justus van,) called the
Young, He was born at Amsterdam in
1684, and learnt the principles of paint*
ing from his father, the preceding artist
He painted battles, both in a large and
small size, with astonishing facility, and
without having recourse to any models,^



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composing his subjects merely by the
power of his imagination, and disposing
them with equal jud^ent and taste. He
died at Amsterdam m 1706.

HUYSUM, (John van,) an eminent
flower-painter, was bom at Amsterdam
in 1682» and was the disciple of Justus
Tan Huysum, his father. His pictures
are finished with wonderful truth ; for he
painted every thins after nature, and was
so exact as to, watch even the hour of the
day in which his model appeared in its

greatest perfection. He had greater free>
om than Mignon or Breughel ; more
tenderness and nature than Mario da
Fiori, Michael Angelo di Campidoglio,
or Seghers; more mellowness than De
Heem ; and greater force of colouring
than Baptist. Hence his reputation rose
to such a height that he fixed immoderate
prices on his works; so that none but
persons of fortune could become pur-
chasers. This encouragement made him
redouble his endeavours : no person was
admitted into his room while he was
painting ; and his method of mixing the
tints, and preserving the lustre of his
colours, he kept an impenetrable secret
From Uie same principle he would never
take any pupils, except one lad^, named
Haverman ; and he grew envious even
of her merit Domestic disquietude at
last soured his temper ; he grew morose
and fretful, and withdb'ew himself from
society. Yet he continued indefatigable
in his profession, and excelled all who
painted fruit and flowers before him, by
the superiority of his touch, the delicacy
of his pencil, and his exouisite manner of
finishing. The care wnich he took to
purify ms oils and prepare his colours,
and the various experiments he made to
discover the most lustrous and durable,
are proofs of^is extraordinary diligence.
His canvass was prepared with the greatest
care, and primed with white with all
possible purity, to prevent his colours
from being obscured, as he laid them on
Terv lightly. The matest truth united
with the greatest brilliancy, and a velvet
softness on the surface of his subjects, are
visible in every part of his compositions,
and his touch looks like the pencil of
nature. When he represented flowers
placed in vases, he always painted the
latter after some elegant moael, and the
bass-relief is as exquisitely finished as
any of the other parts. In the groupinff
of his flowers, he generally designed
those which were brightest in the centre,
and gradually decreased the force of his
colour from thence to the extremities.
429



The birds' nests and their eggs, feathers,
insects, and drops of dew, are expressed
with the utmost exactness. Van Huy-
sum also painted landscapes in a good
taste. He died in 1749.

HYDE, (Edward,) earl of Clarendon,
and lord high-chancellor of England, was
ihe third son of Henry Hyde, of Dinton,
in Wiltshire, where he was bom on the
16ih Febmary, 1608. He received his
early education in his father's house,
under the tuition of the vicar of the
parish, and at the age of thirteen he was
sent to Oxford, where he remained for
one year a student in Magdalen hall.
In the following year his father resolved
(as he was now become an only son) to
bring him up to the law, and he was
entered of the Middle Temple, whither,
in his seventeenth year, he removed
under the protection of his uncle, Nicho-
las Hyde, afterwards chief-justice of the
King's Bench. In his twenty-first year
he married the daughter of Sir George
Ayliffe, a beautiful young lady, whom he
had the misfortune to lose by the small-

Eox within six months. After a widow-
ood of three years he married the daugh-
ter of Sur Thomas Aylesbury, master of
requests to the king. He was early in-
troduced to several of the most eminent
persons in the kingdom for learning and
tidents, — as lord Falkland, Selden, Kenelm
Digby, Carew, Waller, Majr, Sheldon,
Morley, Hales of Eton, Chillingworth,
&c., of whom he has given very charac-
teristic and entertaining sketches in his
memoirs. He has likewise paid a ver^
affectionate tribute to the memory of his
father, who died soon after the son's
second marriage. A cause in which he
was engaged on the part of the London
merchants introduced him to the notice
of archbishop Laud, then a commissioner
of the treasury, who treated him with
much regard, and favoured his profes-
sional advancement The easiness of his
fortune, and his other connexions, also
contributed to bring him forward, so that
his emplo3rment as a barrister became
considerable. He did not, however, so
far immerse himself in legal pursuits as
to neglect polite literature; and in his
manner of living, and the company he
kept, he rather affected the eentleman
than the mere lawyer. Such was his
reputation, that in the parliament called
by Charles I. in 1640, on occasion of the
Scotch rebellion, he was returned both
for Wootton Basset and Shaftesbury ; for
the former of which places he chose to
serve. Public grievances being the topic



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immediately entered upon by the house,
Hyde brought forward a complaint of the
illegal practices and oppressions of the
earl-marshal^s court ; but the dissolution
of the parliament in twenty-two days
after its assembling prevented any pro-
ceedings upon it at that time. He was,
howerer, returned to the Long Parlia-
ment (Nov. 1640) for the borough of
Saltash, and renewed with so much effect
his attack upon the marshal's court, that
he procnrea its suppression. He now
laid aside his gown, and gave himself
up to public business; and being con-
sidered as enlisted in no party, he was
frequently appointed chairman of com-
mittees in matters of the greatest import-
ance. One of these was that which
drew up the charges against the judges
for their decision in the case of ship-
money. He also attacked the despotic
Court of the North, and took part in the
proceedings against the earl of Strafford.
After the fall of that nobleman a bill was
passed for preventing the dissolution of
parliament without its own authority and
consent. This caused his secession from
the popular party, and he thenceforth
ffave his support to the Church, and de-
fended the prerogative of the crown. He
was represented in so favourable a light
to the king, that his majesty desired a
private conference with him, in which he
expressed his acknowledgments for what
he had done in his service, and especially
for his affection to the Church. When
the Commons' Remonstrance on the state
of the nation came out, Hyde drew up
a Tcply to it, which he suffered to appear
as, The King's Answer, with the Advice
of his CouncU. He was soon after offered
the place of solicitor-general, which he
dechned ,* but he' agreed to be one of a
private consultation on the king's affairs
and their management in parliament,
with lord Falkland and Sir John Cole-
pepper. In this office he stood apart
from the others, by opposing the king's
assent to the bill for depriving the bishops
of their seats in the House of Lords ;
which, however, Charles was prevailed
on to give. In April 1642 Hyde was
sent for by the king to York ; and re-
pairing thither, he assisted in drawing up
many papers in the royal cause, and in
private consultations. The parliament
sent an order to recall him, with which
he refused compliance till hb majesty
should give him permission ; and, in re-
turn, he was excepted from pardon by a
special vote. After the commencement
ik the civil war, when the king held his
430



court at Oxford, Hyde was nominateii
to the chancellorship of the Exchequer,
sworn of the privy council, and knighted.
He remained with his majesty till the 5th
March, 1644, when he saw him for the
last time. He then repaired with prince
Charles to Bristol; and on the 16th of
April, 1646, he landed with him in tl£d
island of Jersey. After the prince's de-
parture thence Sir Edwarct remained
there two years longer, pursuing his
studies, and attending to the eompositioD.
of a history of the transactions in whiok
he had borne a part He also drew up
and published an answer to the parlia-
ment's declaration of February 1647,
against sending any more addresses to
the king. In 1648 he was ordered to
attend the prince at Paris ; but as he had
in the meantime proceeded to HoUaad,
Sir Edward embarked fbr Dunkirk. He
found the prince at the Hagve, where
news arrived of the king's execution. A
resolution being then Uken in the young
king's council of sending an embassy to
Spam, Hyde and lord Cottmgton were
nominated the ambassadors, and arrived
at Madrid towards the end of 1649.
When their attendance in that capital
was perceived to be of no avail, Hyde
returned, in the deepest penury, to Paris,
where he found great dimrences prevail-
ing between the queen-mother and the
dwne of York. The king's'court at the
Hague was not in a better state of union ;
and he found so little good to be done by
a personal attendance, that he obtained
leave to retire to Antwerp, where his
wife and children were, with whom he
lived in a studious and domestic retreat
suited to his reduced circumstances. The
assignment of a bouse, rent free, at Breda
bv the princess of Orange, the late king's
eldest oaughter, induced hilh to remove
to that city. That prinoees also manifested
her kindness to his family by proposing
to take his daughter for one of her maids
of honour. The only further remarkable
incident that occurred to him before the
king's restoration was his appointment^
in 1657, to the post of lord h^n-chaned-
lor of England. At the Restoraticm it is
agreed that he displaced ffreat wisdom
and integrity in setthng the many dif-
ficult affairs, public and private, which
thb event brought for aecisioB. He
also moderated Uie fnrward seal of the
royalists, and checked their appetite for
revenge. His honours naturally rose
with his power : in 1660 he was created
a peer, and elected chancellor of the
umversity of Oxford; and in 1661 ho



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was advanced to the titles of viscount
Corabury and earl of Clarendon. A
short time after the lying's return, in the
autumn of 1660, a circumstance occurred
of immediate personal interest to the
chancellor. His daughter, in her situa-
tion with the princess of Orange, had
attracted the notice of the duke of York,
who, failing in an attempt to obtain her
favours upon easy terms, had entered
into a private contract of marriage with
her. She returned to her father's house
in a state of pregnancy, and having, with
a proper spirit, insisted upon an avowal
of her mimriage from the duke, who
meanly wished to keep it secret, it be-
came necessary to inform the king of the
affair. The chancellor was at the same
time made acquainted with it In his own
account of the transaction, he says that
«he looked upon himself as a ruined
person," and expected *Mhe king*s indig-
nation to fall upon him as the contriver
of that indignitv to the crown." It may
be added, that his high notions of royalty
were likely enouffh to make. him regard
with real dread the alliance of one of so
inferior a rank with the presumptive heir
to the crown. Charles behaved with
great justice and nropriety in the busi-
ness ; and though the duke basely denied
his marriage, and even encouraged scan-
dalous reports against his wife, she was
at length acknowledged as duchess of
York, and eventually ffave two queens to
England. In 1663 Hyde was attacked
by the earl of Bristol, a bold, ambitious,
intriguing man, who was poUtically em-
barrassed to such an extent that he could
only extricate himself by some desperate
effort; and thinking that Clarendon
might be successfully assailed, he drew
up articles of impeachment, and accused
him of hiffh treason in the House of
Lords. The Lords referred the charges
to the judges ; the judges unanimoiuly
returned an answer, that the charge had
pot been regulariy and le^ly brought
in, inasmuch as a charge of high treason
cannot be originally exhibits to the
House of Peers by any one peer against
another; and if the chsirges were admitted
to be true, yet there is not any treason
in them. The lords reedved unani-
mously that they concurred with the
judges. Bristol absconded, and a pro-
clamation was issued for his amnrehen-
iion ; and thus ridiculously and utterly
^led this rash attemnt to assail the cha-
racter and power or Clarendon. But,
notwithstanding the general integrity and
ability of his pubUo conduct, several
431



things occurred soon after, which rendered
him unpopular, and at length made him
odious to the king. The sale of Dun-
kirk to the French, however it might be
justified io policy and economy, was re-
garded by the nation as highly dishonour-
able. The marriage of the king with
Catharine of Portu^d, and, above all, his
suffering his royal master to become a
dependent borrower from the king of
France, were faults which rendered Cla-
rendon exceedingly unpopular. The bad
success of the Dutch war, though he had
opposed it, was also made a charge
against him ; and he unwisely aggravated
the public discontents by building a mag-
nificent house during the most calamitous
period. The stateliness of carriage which
be assumed was prejudicial to him; nor
did his conduct fail to alienate from
him the regard of his fickle sovereign,
whose inclination to Popery he strenu-
ously opposed. The true dignity with
which he refused aU communication with
the royal mistresses, and the freedom
with which he admonished the king of
his misconduct, did not fail to injure him
with a master who was radically corrupt
in his own principles, and had little
esteem for virtue in others. Notwith-
standinff all his £utbful services to the
crown, he was, therefore, without reluc-
tance, ffiven up as a sacrifice to the
national odium; and on the 30th of
August, 1667, he was required to resign
the great seal, and was removed from all
offices of public trust. This was followed
by an attack upon him in the House of
Commons by Mr. Seymour, which pro-
duced an impeachment of high treason,
consisting of^ seventeen articles, carried
to the bar of the House of Lords. That
house refused to commit him upon the
charge; and during the debates upon
this head he received the king's com-
mands to withdraw fVom the ungdom,
(Nov. 29, 1667.) The tfoXogy mhSch he
sent to the House of Loe£ upon his
departure was voted a libel, and burnt
by the common hangman ; and a bill of
banishment was passed afainst him as a
ftigitive from justice. He landed at
Cfdais, and was proceeding to Rouen,
when he was met by an order from the
court of France instantly to quit its terri<*
tories. A fit of sickness rendered this
impossible, and he finally obtained per-
mission to reside in that country. Being
on his way firom Rouen to Avignon, at
the town of Bvreux, he was very near
losing his life through the outrage of
some English seamen, who broke into



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hit lodeings, and gave him a wound in
his head. I'hey biui been taught that it
waa the chancellor who had defrauded
them of their pay, and they partook of
the hatred against him on other accounts.
He was wim difficulty rescued out of
their hands ; but the French court apo-
logised to him for the injury, and
punished Uie perpetrators. He proceeded
to Montpdlier, where he was treated with
much respect during a residence of four
years, which he employed in a vindica-
tion of his conduct, and in other writings.
He afterwards passed some time at Mou-
lins, and finally removed to Rouen, where
he died on the 9th December, 1674. His
bod^ was brought to England, and was
buned in Westminster Abbey, on the
north side of Heniy VHth's Chajpel ; but
no inscription marks the place or his in-
terment. By his second wife, who died
in 1667, he had six children, four sons
and two daughters. Henry, the second
earl of Clarendon, died in 1709; Law-
rence, created earl of Rochester, died in
1711 ; Edward and James died unmar-
ried ; Anne married James, duke of York,
and was the mother of queen Mary and
queen Anne; Frances was married to
Thomas Keiehtly, of Hertingfordbury.
Lord Clarendon, besides various occa-
sional writings upon public topics, was
the author of, Contemplations and Re-
flections on the Psalms ; Animadversions
on a Book of Mr. Cressy's in the Roman
Catholic Controversy ; A brief View of
the Errors in Hobbes's Leviathan ; The
History of the Grand Rebellion, 3 vols,
fol., 6 vols, 8vo, to which was added his
Life, and a Continuation of his History,
2 vols, 8vo, published in 1759 by the
universilT of Oxford. His style is not
without beauty, but the construction of
his sentences is often extremely per^
flexed, and great ambiguity results from
ikis unskilful use of the relative pronoun.
His peculiar excellence is in drawing
characters, and few have ever exceeded
him in the truth and animation of his
portraitures. An edition of the genuine
text of the History of the RebeUion was
published at Oxford in 1839, in 8vo, and
m 7 vols, 12mo, printed firom the original
MS. in the Bodleian Library: in this^
edition the suppressed passaj^es have been'*
restored, and tne interpolations made by
the first editor have been expunged.

HYDE, (Henry,) carl of Clarendon,
eldest son of the preceding, was born in
1638. He entered early mto business;
for his father, apprehending of what fatal
consequence it would be to the king's
432



affairs, if his correspondence should be
discovered by unfaithful secretaries, en-
gaged him, when very young, to write all
nis letters in cypher. After the Restora-



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