C. K. OGDEN
ORIGINAL SIN, FREE-WILL,
GRACE, REGENERATION, JUSTIFICATION,
FAITH, GOOD WORKS,
AS MAINTAINED IN CERTAIN
DECLARATIONS OF OUR REFORMERS,
ARTICLES OF OUR ESTABLISHED CHURCH
UPON THESE SUBJECTS :
* WITH AN IMPORTANT ACCOUNT
SUBSCRIPTION/ TO THE ARTICLES IN 1604,
HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL INTRODUCTION TO THE WHOLE.
REV. HENRY JOHN TODD, M.A. F.S.A.
CHAPLAIN IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY, AND KEEPER OF THE
ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY'S RECORDS.
Hoc memn studium, quuni niulta intricatius disputarentur, ut excerperem
res utiles, casque ex iUa caligine evolntas, quanUim possein, plane recitarem,
Melanethcm ad Calvimtm.
PRINTED FOR F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON,
NO. 62, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH-YARD ;
By R. and R. Gilbert, St. John's Square, CterkentoeU.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNH
Extracts from the Articles of Religion, 1536 . ... 1
Extracts from the Articles of Religion, 1540 .... 11
Extracts from the Necessary Erudition of a Chris-
tian Man 13
Extracts from the Book of Homilies 47
Extracts from the Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasti-
Extracts from the Catechismus Brevis 132
Extracts from the Apologia Ecclesia Anglican^.. 138
Extracts from the Confessio Augustana 143
From the Confessio Saxonica . . 167
From our Liturgy 187
Account of the Subscription to the Articles in 1604 201
Charge on Subscription to the Articles , 219
HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL
THE pieces, which compose the present
volume, are of the highest importance, and of
the most authentick character, in our theological
,. They shew, in chronological order, from the
beginning of the Reformation, till the Articles
of our Religion were set forth in the reign of
Elizabeth, the sentiments of our Reformers upon
doctrines in these Articles, which some have sup-
posed to express the language, and to breathe
the spirit, of Calvin : not their private and in-
dividual sentiments, but what they collectively
or by authority pronounced.
Of these venerable memorials some are not
now of common occurrence. To many persons
it may, therefore, be acceptable, thus to have
brought before their view, and to have connected,
ii Historical and Critical Introduction.
materials, to which references are often made by
our theological writers, and by which our Arti-
cles, Homilies, and Liturgy, may be mutually
illustrated, but which are not easily attainable.
Some remarks connected with the historic*
which speak of them, and with the doctrines
which they exhibit, may be offered. And first
for what is historical.
I. The first extracts are taken from The Arti-
cles of Religion, " set out by the Convocation,
and published by the King's authority," in 1536 ;
the evidence of the first publick and authorized
attempt at a reformation, in this reign, of religious
opinion. In the next year appeared, ( a) The In-
stitution of a Christian Man; a work prepared by
bishops and other divines, consisting of an Ex-
position of the Creed, the Sacraments, the Com-
mandments, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ave
Maria; with the Articles of Justification, Pur-
gatory, Baptism, Penance, and the Eucharist,
() The Institution of a Christen Man, conteynyng the
Exposytion or Interpretation of the commune Crede, of the
gevcn Sdcramentes, of the x Commandementes, and of the
Paternoster, and the Ave Maria, Justyfication, and Purgatory.
4to. Lond. T. Berthelet, M.D.XXXVII. For a more full ac^
count of the Articles, (as collated also with this book,) see
the first note in the following compilation.
Historical and Critical Introduction. iii
adopted, with some verbal variations, from the
Articles of 1536. Thus identified, the propriety
of collating both, in those Articles which T have
selected, will be obvious. An " Epistte Prefa-
tory," accompanied the latter, signed by the two
archbishops, nineteen bishops, eight archdeacons,
and seventeen doctors of divinity and law. It
was sometimes called the bishops' book ; from the
circumstance, no doubt, of so many prelates
having been concerned in the composition of it.
It was a fatal blow to the enemies of the Re-
formation, and was confirmed in its triumph by
an act of parliament. This book has been some-
times confounded with the edition of it greatly
enlarged, and (as an historian observes) "amended
much," in 1543 ; of which edition I am pre-
sently to speak more largely. For thus Dr.
Nichols has written, (b ) " A. D. 1537. The
bishops and clergy being assembled in Convo-
cation, was published the book, called The Insti*
tution of a Christian Man, in which the rudi-
ments of the Christian religion are laid down in
a plain and most excellent method ; the chief
(b) Defence of the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church
f England. Introduction.
a % Articles
iv Historical and Critical Introduction.
Articles of Faith being therein clearly proved
out of God's Word. And it can hardly be ex-
pressed how excellently well the popish errors
are here confuted, and how, though with the re-
tention of the ancient terms, the sound and
orthodox doctrine is taught. It was, indeed, a
noble work; and, considering what the ears of
those times could bear, composed with admirable
wisdom. And I dare engage, that it is hard to
find a writer in any former or in any following
age, who has gone through these controverted
heads of divinity, viz. Free- Will, Justification,
and Faith, with that clearness and freedom, and
without giving up their judgement to other great
men's opinions, and determined these disputed
points so distinctly, so smartly, and so much to
the edification of the common people, as the
authors of this book have done/' Now, in the
Institution, the doctrines upon Faith, upon Free-
Will, and upon Good Works, are not to be
found ; and that upon Justification is merely the
copy of the brief Article in 1536, not the abun-
dant and perspicuous illustration which is found
in the augmented Institution, with a new title,
of 1543. Again, Dr. Nichols refers to the In-
Historical and Critical Introduction, v
stitution as containing' the rejection of dangerous
conceits on the subject of (c) Predestination ;
which judicious and animated advice (d) exists
only in the Article of Justification enlarged in
Nor is this the only mistake in regard to this
important work. Bishop Burnet, in his History
of the Reformation, has asserted, that the Insti-
tution with its varied name, and augmented sub-
stance, appeared in (e) 1540. Strype, with
more caution, has said, (f) " this book came
forth again in 1540, (unless my manuscript mis-
take this year for 1543,^ very much enlarged,
and reduced into another form, and bearing
another name, A Necessary Doctrine and Eru-
dition of any Christian Man." Wheatly has
(g) followed the mistaken assertion of Burnet
as to a republication in 1540; and a learned
(c) Defence of the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church
of England. P. I. ch. 4.
(d) See the present volume, p. 33.
(e) History of the Reformation, B. III.
(/) Memoirs of Archbishop Cranmer, B. I. ch. 13.
(g) Illustration of the Common Prayer. Appendix to the
vi Historical and Critical Introduction.
(h) Roman Catholick of modern times, without
further inquiry, has chosen to adopt the error.
A real production of the year 1540, however,
is exhibited in the second Article of the present
compilation ; which forms (i) part of the con-^
sultations of bishops,, and other divines, com-
missioned, in that year, by the king, to examine
religious points ; intended, in the opinion of
Strype, to contain "the publick judgement and
professed doctrine of the Church of England."
This extract briefly illustrates the points of Jus-
tification, Faith, and Good Works.
The business, assigned to these commissioners,
was divided into particular heads, proposed as
queries ; the answers to which were returned in
writing. Accordingly, there remain (k) The
(A) An Historical and Literary Account of the Formula-
ries, Confessions of Faith, cr Symbolic Books, of the Roman
Catholic, Greek, and Principal Protestant Churches. By
the Author of the Horae-Biblicae. [Charles Butler, Esq.]
8vo. J816. p. 81.
(i) Strype, Ann. of th Reformation, who mentions the
MS. from which it is taken. Vol. I. Appendix, p. 301.
(k) Burnet, History of the Reformation, Records, B. III.
No. XXI, The Manuscript, which contained these Resolu-
Historical and Critical Introduction, vii
Resolutions of several bishops and divines of
some Questions concerning the Sacraments ; by
which it will appear with what maturity
and care they proceeded in the Reformation ;
taken from the originals, under their own
hands. Contrariety of opinion there was, as
might be expected ; and some opposition to the
firmness of Cranmer. But this, in the words of
Strype, (I) " ended in two good issues ; that
the archbishop's enemies were clothed with
shame and disappointment ; and a very good
book, chiefly of the archbishop's composing,
came forth for the instruction of the people,
known by the name of A Necessary Erudition
of any Christian Man."
We are thus brought to the third Article of
lions, was the property of Dr. Stillingfleet, when Burnet was
allowed the use of it. It is now, with another volume of equal
value, in the archiepiscopal library of Manuscripts at Lambeth
Palace. They contain abundant materials, subservient to
the history yf the Reformation, which the learned historian
of it has been pleased to overpass j and bear the ancient titlet
of Archbishop Cranmcrs Collections of Lave, and Archbishop
Cranmer's Collection of Divinity ; the one, a folio of 219
leaves ; the other a folio of 181.
(1) Memoirs of Archbishop Cranmer, B. I. ch. 20.
viii Historical and Critical Introduction.
the present work, the Necessary Erudition;
from which the entire declarations of Faith,
Free- Will, Justification, and Good Works, are
copied. This book, it has been already observed,
is the Institution enlarged ; having (m) passed
a revision of the commissioners, appointed in
1540 to examine religious matters ; having been
corrected by the king's own hand ; having been
again transmitted to the review of Cranmer, and
by him referred to the Convocation of 1543,
where it was received with approbation.
It was published in 1543, both in a quarto and
duodecimo form ; in either shape no other than a
manual, though bishop Burnet has thought pro-
per to call it " (n) a large book." I have fol-
lowed the quarto copy. To some of the impres-
sions of the other, the erroneous date of 1534 for
1543 is prefixed; and being desirous that no
reader may be misled by this circumstance, I
may add that this transposition of a figure at the
(m) Plaifere, Appeal to the Gospel, ch. 14, note, Camb.
edition, 1719, p. U7.
(n) Introduction to his Exposition of the 39 Articles. Dr.
Laurence doubts, that Burnet had ever seen the Institution of
a Christian Man. Serm. p. 190. I suppose, also, that he
^as as much a stranger to the Necessary Erudition,
Historical and Critical Introduction. ix
press is not without parallel ; as, in the title of
the Vision of Pierce Plowman, 1505 is printed
for 1550. A Latin translation of the Necessary
Erudition,, with a preface, was published in 1544,
and entitled Pia et Catholica Christiani Hominis
Institutio. The English work bears in its title
the date of the very day of its publication, " A
Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Chris-
ten Man, set furthe by the Kynges Majestic of
Englande. T. Berthelet, xxix. day of Maye,
M.D.XLIII." The annals of our typography ex-
hibit no earlier copy. And a further detection of
bishop Burnet's elaborate error has been acutely
and satisfactorily made by Dr. Laurence.
(o) " To corroborate his statement, Burnet mis-
quotes an act of parliament, which passed in the
year when thejpork actually appeared, but be-
fore it was completed for publication. In this
statute (he remarks) all the books of the Old and
New Testament of Tindal's translation are for-
bidden to be kept or used in the king's dominions,
' with all other books contrary to the doctrine
aet forth in the year 1540,' And again, ' Every
() Eight Sermons preached before the Univ, of Ox. in
1*04, by Rich. Laurence, LL.D. p. 192.
x Historical and Critical Introduction.
person might read and teach in their houses the
book set out in the year 1540.' vol. i. p. 322.
Now the words of the act are these : in the first
instance, ' contrary to that doctrine, which, since
the year of ofcr Lord 1540, z's, or any time here-
after during the king's majesty's life, &c. shall
be set forth by his highness ;' and in the second
instance, (not the book set out in the year 1540,
but) * all such doctrine, as, since the said year of
our Lord 1540, is or shall be set forth by thfc
king's majesty/ &c. expressions certainly con-
veying a meaning very different from that of
Burnet. The truth was, that the commissioners,
appointed to draw up the work in question, did
certainly meet in 1540 ; but that the work itself
was not published until after the prorogation of
the parliament on the 12th o May, [1543.]
During the last week in April we find it in the
bands of the convocation ; and on, the following
29th of May it was printed.' 1
From the Necessary Erudition, (which indeed
the simplicity and elegance of the language, as
. well as the doctrine, discover in many parts the
hand and heart of Cranmer, especially in those
which 1 have selected,) we pass to the next ar-
ticle of the compilation ; the Homilies on Salva-
Historical and Critical Introduction. xi
lion, Faith, and Good Works. These I have to
assign expressly to the pen of this archbishop,
upon authority which will hardly be questioned,
notwithstanding the contrary suppositions of some
historians; and which will be gladly received,
where any opinion approaching to the fact ha
been entertained, i am not aware, that the au-
thority has ever been noticed ; but he who affords
it, will be found worthy of respectful notice, both
as an acute and powerful writer.
Fuller is perhaps the first historian, who
(p) relates, that " some beheld the Homilies as
not sufficiently legitimated by the 35th Article to
be, for their doctrine, the undoubted issue of the
Church of England ; alledging them composed
by private men of unknown names, who may
probably be presumed, at the best, but the chap-
lains of the archbishops, under whom they were
made. Hence is it, that some have termed them
homely Homilies, others a popular discourse^
&c." They, who could make such observations,
were strangers to the dignity, and comprehen-
siveness, and perspicuity, of illustration, which
at least in these Homilies of Cranmer (not to
00 Church Hist. B. IX. p. 75.
xii Historical and Critical Introduction.
mention several other) are obvious, and are worthy
of him. But to proceed historically. Heylin
seems to consider the encouragement, rather than
the composition, of the archbishop, as the cha-
racteristick of his grace's share in the Homilies.
C<7)"Though the making of these Homilies be com-
monly ascribed (and in particular by Mr. Fox) to
archbishop Cranmer, yet it is to be understood no
otherwise of him, than that it was chiefly done by
encouragement and direction ; not sparing his
own hand to advance the work, as his great oc-
casions did permit." What Strype has said, is
embodied in the following conjectures of a very
learned theologian of modern times. " (r) Who
the authors were of the book of Homilies, has
never been ascertained. Of the second, published
in the reign of queen Elizabeth, I am not aware,
that the writer of any single Homily has been in-
dubitably specified. With regard to the first
part, we may, I think, agree with Strype, who
says, ' the Homily of Salvation particularly
seems to be of his [Cranmer's] own doing.'
(p) Quinquarticular Controv. P. II. c. 8.
(r) Eccl. Biography, by the Rev. Dr. Wordsworth, 1810.
Vol. iii. p. 505.
Historical and Critical Introduction, xiii
Life of Archbp. Cranmer, p. 149. And the same
may perhaps reasonably be conjectured of the
second Homily, fc of the Misery of all Mankind;
of the fourth, of the true and lively Faith ; and
of the fifth, of Good Works." This therefore
brings me to the proof, that Cranmer wrote the
three Homilies in question.
John Woolton, the nephew of the celebrated
Alexander No well, was the author of several theo-
logical works in the reign of Elizabeth. He was a
canon residentiary of the Church of Exeter, and
afterwards bishop of that see. Wood describes
him as " (s) a person, of great piety and reason,
and an earnest assertor of conformity against
the opposers thereof, for which he was blamed by
many, but commended by more, after his death/*
In 1576, not long before he was (t) advanced to
the prelacy, he published The Christian Manuell
or the Life and Maners of True Christians,
12mo. Herein he says, with manly eloquence,
" (u) What wee teache and thinke of Good
Workes, those Homelies written in our Englishe
Cs) Ath. Ox. Tol. i. p. 230. edit. 1691.
(0 July 2, 1579. Le Neve, Fasti Eccl. Angl. p. 83.
(u} Christian Manuell, sign. c. iii.
*lv Historical and Critical Introduction.
tounge of SALVATION, FAITH, and WORKES, by
that lyght and martyr of Christes churcke,
CRANMER, archebyshoppe of Canterburie, doo
playne testifye and declare ; which are buylt upon
so sure a foundation, that no sycophant can de-
face them, nor sophyster confute them, whyle the
worlde shall endure: unto whom I remytte the
reader desyrous of an absolute dyscourse in this
matter." Living so very near the time when
Cranmer flourished, of such distinguished cha-
racter in the Church, and to this day not contra-
dicted in his plain assertion, bishop Woolton
therefore appears to me an evidence, in this case,
of indisputable authority.
It is to the first of these Homilies that the
framers of our Articles of Religion, both in the
time of Edward the Sixth and of Elizabeth, re-
fer ; though under the name of the Ifomily of
Justification : our reformers, it has been (w) ob-
served, understanding the terms justification and
salvation as equivalent.
The First Booh of Homilies (x) was pub-
lished in 1547. The earliest -copy, however,
(u) See the prcseu t volume, p. 47.
(j) By Grafton, in 4to "See Ames, Hist, of Printing.
Historical and Critical Introduction, xv
which I have met with, bears the date of
(y) 1548. This 1 have followed in the present
publication ; not without noticing the several
variations from it, (in the Homilies cited,) which
first appeared in the reign of Elizabeth, when it
was republished with the Second Book of Homi-
lies. It is due to the memory of the prelate, as
well as to the cause of sound criticism, that hiss
own words be not overpassed. They have been
often altered, it will be seen, with little judge-
The next venerable monument of our re-
formers, from which I have selected several
chapters, is the Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasti-
carum, composed under the superintendence of
the same watchful primate. This work compre-
hends not only a system of ecclesiastical laws, but
in the doctrinal part frequent positions almost in
the words of our Articles. It had been begun in
Henry the Eighth's time. But Fox the historian,
who first published it in the reign of Elizabeth,
(y) Certain Sermons or Homilies appointed by the king's
majesty to be declared and read by all parsons, vicars, or
curates, every Sunday in their Churches where they have
cure. Anno 1548. 4to.
xvi Historical and Critical Introduction.
says, (z) " nescio quo modo, quaque occasione,
res successu caruit, sive temporum iniquitate, sive
nimia eorum cessatione, quibus tune negotium
committebatur." The design was revived in
1549 ; and under the year 1551 Strype informs
us, that out of the number of two and thirty per-
sons appointed to conduct it, eight were espe-
cially selected; out of the bishops, archbishop
Cranrner and the bishop of Ely ; out of the di-
vines, Cox and Peter Martyr ; out of thd
civilians, Taylor and May ; out of the common-
lawyers, Lucas and Goodrick. " (a) This work
they plied close this winter : this was a very
noble enterprize, and well worthy the thoughts
of our excellent archbishop ; who, with indefa-
tigable pains, had been, both in this and the last
king's reign, labouring to bring this matter
about ; and he did his part ; for he brought the
work to perfection. But it wanted the king's '
ratification, which was delayed partly by business,
and partly by enemies." While it was thus wait-
ing for the royal confirmation, the king died.
(b) " God grant," bishop Burnet exclaims, " that
(z) Ref. Leg. Eccl. Praef. ad Lectorem.
(a) Mem. of Archbp. Cranmer, B. II. c. 26,
(b) Hist, of his Own Time, Conclusion.
Historical and Critical Introduction, xvii
a time may come, in which that noble design, so
near being perfected in King Edward the sixth's
days, of the Reformatio Legum Ecclesiastica-
rum, may be reviewed and established !" It
appears to have been (c) fi offered to the Com-
mons, at the beginning of the session in 1571,
by the puritan members ; and that the queen,
jealous of their encroachment upon her su-
premacy, told them* she had seen their articles,
and liked them well, but would do something of
herself." Under the direction of archbishop Par-
ker, however, the work was in ( d) that year
published by Fox ; and prefixed to it are the let-
ters recommendatory of the sovereigns Henry and
Edward. The Latmity of it has been (e) repeat-
edly admired. It was again published in
(c) Dr. Winchester, Dissert, on the 17th Article, eil. Ox.
1773. p. 47.
(d) Ex officinS. Joh. Daij. 1571, mensc Aprilis.
(e) Fox, Przef. ad Lect. Burnet, Hist, of the Rcf.
(/) Dr. Winchester cites an edition of 1 641, which he calls
the second. Dissert, on the 17th Art. ut supr. p. 52. The real
second edition, which I possess, is dated 1640, " typis T. H.
et R. H. impensis Laurentii Sadler habitautis iuparva Britan-
xviii Historical and Critical Introduction.
The Articles of Religion, formed in 1552, al-
most wholly by Cranmer, are the next object of
notice in the present volume, (g) "Cranmer
was not only officially deputed to the task on ac-
count of his rank and situation, but eminently
qualified for it by his character and abilities. In-
deed, when interrogated on this very point by his
relentless persecutors, not long before his death.,
he unequivocally avowed himself to have been the
author -of them. It has nevertheless been usually
conceived, that he derived much assistance from
Ridley, who, as far as the paucity of his writings
enables us to judge, seems to have no less excelled
in perspicuity than in solidity of argument, in
manliness of conception than in energy of ex-
pression. Latimer likewise has been considered
as his coadjutor in the same undertaking. That
each of these respectable bishops was consulted
on the occasion, appears highly probable. Rid-
ley, if an anecdote recorded of him be accurate,
expressly stated, that he both perused the produc-
ing, &c. But there are certainly copies, which bear another
notification, with the date of l6'4.1, viz. " impensis Societatis
Stationariorum." One of these is in the Lambeth Library.
It is the same book with a different title-page.
(if) Dr. Laurence, Seim. p. 29, ct seq.
Historical and Critical Introduction, xix
tion before its publication, and noted many things
for it; that he thus consented to it, but that he
was not the author of it. The venerable Latimer,
who had resigned his bishopric in the reign of
Henry, declining a reinstatement in it, then dwelt
under the roof of the archbishop, by whom, for
his virtues and integrity, he was sincerely re-
spected and cordially beloved. To a divine of
this description so peculiarly circumstanced, it is
impossible to suppose a design of such importance
not to have been communicated ; to one who had
acquired the proud title of the apostle of England,
who had long been the primate's fellow-labourer
in the work of reformation, ai|d who was capable
not only of improving it by his wisdom and ex-
perience, but of conferring upon it an old man's
benediction. But although we allow this, and