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associated the Manchurian cedar (Pinus fnandshurica, Rupr,), the
ayan pitch-pine (Picea ajanensis, Fisch,), and an ally of the conifers,
the yew (Taxus toccata, L.), peculiar to the mountains of the Cau-
casus. The yew nowhere else is to be met with in Siberia, and shows
by its appearance on the lower Amur the nearness of the sea. The
flora of the foliage trees and shrubs is both richer and more varied,
here going to meet the beneficent marine influences of the Eastern
Ocean. The lime genus is here represented by two peculiarly eastern
forms, TUia cordata, Mill, and T. mandshurica, Rupr, et Max, The
maple, a stranger to the whole of Siberia, has here four representatives,
of which the Acer mono, Max., is a characteristic local kind, the A,
ginnala. Max,, a species closely allied to the eastern European A,
tataricum, L., and the Semirechensk A, Semenowii, Reg.; the A, teg*
mentosum, Maxim., bears a resemblance to the American kind (A,
pennsyhanicum, L,); finally, the A, spicatum. Lam,, is undoubtedly an
American variety. The apple, already appearing in Transbaikalia in
the shape of a very small fruited variety (pyrus baccata), is here
represented by a beautiful new species (P. Usuriensis, Max.), and the
bird cherry by two local varieties (Prunus Maackii, Rupr., and P, Max-
imozvic£ii, Rupr.), Two local species of walnut embellish the forest of
the Amur (Juglans mandshurica, Max,, and J. stenocarpa. Max.), at
also the local species of the ash unknown to the whole of Siberia (Frax»
inus mandshurica, Rupr. With the European and Transbaikal varie-
ties of the elm is associated the local Ulmus montana, Winckl. Further
alongside the species of hazel already appearing in Transbaikalia
(Corylus heterophylla, Fisch.) is found a new species {Corylus mand*

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ihurica, Max,), Finally, among the birches res^rpear a Kamchatka
variety (Betula Ermanni, Cham.) and one local timber tree (B. cos-
tata, Trautv,). The third local variety of birch (B. Middendor£i,
Trautv,) is a shrub. The charming little tree of the Amur country
with a palmy crown (Dimorphanthus mandshuricus, Rupr,) is far
removed from the character of the Siberian trees. It belongs to the
family of Araliaceae, which loves a moist climate and is nowhere
to be met with in Siberia. Not less remarkable is the cork tree of
this country {Phellodeniron amurense, Rupr.), belonging to the
family of Zanthoxykae nowhere to be met with in the whole of

" The shrubs of the Amur country are still mort peculiar than ^e
trees. Not less than twenty-four varieties of shrubs here met with
are entirely new for any one arriving from Siberia and Transbaikalia.
Of these, three climbers are the lianas of the woods here. They are
first of all, a beautiful plant belonging to the rare family of Schizan-
draceae with pale rose-scented flowers and red berries (Maximoviosia
Chinensis, Rupr.), spread from Northern China through Manchuria
to the Amur country; a species of vine, very slightly distinguished
from the true vine (Vitis amurensis, Rupr.) ; and finally the wild vine
(Cissus hrevipedunculata, Max.), The species of clematis appearing
here for the first time {Clematis mandshurica, Rupr., and C. aethfuae-
folia, Turcs.) belong to the non-climbing shrubby varieties of this
genus. Of the two species of local barberry one is also peculiar to
Northern China (Berberis sinensis, Desf.) ; another, local (B. amu-
rensis). The very curious shrub of the Amur country, Actinidia
komolikta, Rupr., covered with large white-scented flowers, has not yet
found a strictly definite position in systematic botany, it being now
referred to one, now to another, of the exotic families. Of the four
local varieties of spindle tree there is one Japanese (Euonymus alatus,
Th,), and three local (£. pauciflorus, Max., E. Maackii, Rupr,, and

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E. macropterus, Rupr.). Of the Leguminosae the small shrub found
here (Lespedesa sHpulacea, Max,), also grows in the environs of Pekin.
Of the rose family, the local species of cherry (Prunus glanduHfolia,
Rupr.) and meadow sweet (Spiraea Amurensis, Max.) are shrubs.
Two local species belonging to the same genus as our so-called garden
jasmine (Philadelphus), are a conspicuous adornment of the forests
(Philadelpkus tenuifoUus, Rupr,, and P. Schrenkii, Rupr.), The beau-
tiful local shrub of the same family (Deutsia parviHora, Bge.) is a Chi-
nese plant, spread by cultivation. To the family of Araliaceae not to
be met with in Siberia belong two shrubs common to this flora and that
of Northern China {Panax sessiliAorum, Rupr. and Eleutherococcus
senticosus, Max.). Of the honeysuckles, there are here one Chinese
species (Lonicera chrysantha, Turcz.) and two local (L. Maackii, Rupr,
and L, Maximowicsii, Rupr.), Common to Northern China is a
species of lilac occurring here on the skirts of the woods with somewhat
minute whitish flowers (Syringa amurensis, Rupr.). A variety of laurel,
met with on the lower Amur is that called after Kamchatka (Daphne
kamtchaiica. Max.).

" Among the herbs of the Amur cotmtry not less than no species are
exclusively peculiar to this region, the rest are common to the Amur
with China, Japan, Kamchatka and even America, but especially with
Transbaikalia and Siberia. The whole flora of the Amur has 340 plants
common with that of European Russia, that is, thirty-eight per cent,
while with Transbaikalia it has 527, or more than fifty-eight per cent." *

The Usuri flora is very similar to that of the Amur, but
contains a higher per cent of European Russian forms than
the Amur r^on, it being forty-seven instead of thirty-eight
per cent. This is due to a greater similarity of climate.

* Siberia and the Great Siberian Railway, pp. 62-63.

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" The species of trees are identical with those in the Amor country.
Only one new tree i4>pears, a hornbeam {Carpinus cordata, BL) and
two shrubs, the wild vine crossing from North China (Cissus humuUfo-
lia, Bge,), and the common European barberry (Berberis vulgaris, L,).
Only a little over eighty species of herbaceous plants are found in the
Usuri country and not met with in Amur, among them being species
conmion to North China, Japan and America. Only seventeen local
plants are loiown which have been fotmd nowhere except in Usuria.
Among them is the celebrated ginseng (Panax ginseng, Reg.), whose
root is so prized as a remedy by the Chinese. Probably many of these
plants will be subsequently found in the Amur country also, but some of
them bear undoubtedly a more southern character. To the latter are
to be referred, from the pea family, the beautiful climbing Glycine
usuriensis, Reg., of the exotic family Pontederiaceae, the very showy
marsh plant (Monochoria Korsakavii, Reg.); of the family of
Eriocauleae, Eriocaulon usuriense; finally, of the ferns with a sub-
tropical appearance, Pleopeltis usuriensis, Reg. The flora of the Usurl
country has many forms common to North America; twenty-five per
cent of the whole Usuri flora is met with in North America, but of
course the majority of these species belong to those equally existent
over the whole northern zone alike of the Old and the New World,
and only thirty-two species entirely foreign to European Russia, cross
from America, fourteen through the Yakutsk region and eighteen

The flora of Kamchatka and the region just northwest of
the Sea of Okhotsk, as has been mentioned before, belongs to
quite a different zone from any of the others described. Here
there is a mingling of species from Manchuria and the Amur
with those from North America. The flora bears a greater

* Siberia and the Great Siberian Railway, pp. 68^

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resemblance to that of Eastern than to Western North Amer-
ica, or to Siberia or even Eurc^, — a fact which Professor
Asa Gray brought out so dearly for the whole east coast of
Asia, in his celebrated essay on the " Flora of Japan."

With Professor Gray's generalization, that the floras of
North America and Eastern Asia mingled by crossing Bering
Strait, it will be interesting to note some of the similarities
between the floras of Kamchatka and Okhotsk provinces and
North America. The list of Kamchatkan plants used in this
comparison is taken from a Russian Government report, 1900,
on the provinces of Okhotsk and Kamchatka.

This list contains 746 species of phaenogamous or flowering
plants, 173 identical species of which are common to North
America, that is, twenty-three per cent are found in North
America. Many of these species are distributed universally
through the North Temperate Zone, and twenty-one are known
to have been introduced into America from Europe, but have
become naturalized. If now we compare the flora of Man-
churia, using the list published in the Russian Government
report on Manchuria for 1897, with that of Kamchatka and
Okhotsk, we find that there are 193 identical species common
to both, that is, nearly twenty-six per cent, only five per cent
more than that with North America. Of the 173 species com-
mon to North America and the Provinces of Okhotsk and
Kamchatka, seventy-seven are also found in Manchuria.

Out of the 2&4 genera found in Okhotsk and Kamchatka
there are sixty-two genera not to be found in North America.
This number will probably be increased when the Kamchatkan

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flora has been better studied, for the region is so inaccessible
that the lists at present must be quite incomplete. Under the
genera not found in North America, there are, of the Ranun-
culaceae two genera, — Atragene with two species, and Pulsa-
HUa with three species; of the Fumariaceae one genus —
Dietytra; of the Cruciferae fiVe genera, — Parrya with three
species, Braya, Cochlearia with three species, Tetrapoma with
two species, and Dontostemon; of the SUeneae one genus —
Sypsophila; of the Alsiniae four genera, — Honkeneja, Alsine
with five species and nine varieties, Mohringia with four vari-
eties of its species laterUlora, and merckia; of the Papittionaceae
three genera, — Caragana, Pisum, and Phaca with two species ;
of the Rosaceae three genera, — Sieversia with two species,
Sanguisorba with three species, and Comarum; of the Portu-
laceae one genus, — Montia; of the Crassulaceae one genus, —
Umbilicus; of the Saxifragaceae one genus, — Leptarrhen; of
the Umbelliferae six genera, — Libanotis, Tilingia, Physolo*
phium, Pleurospermum, Pachypleurum, and Angelophyllum ; of
the CapHfoliaceat one genus, — Calyptrostigma; o^ the Valer-
ianeae one genus, — Patrinia; of the Compositae ten genera, —
Nordosmia with three species, Galatella, Calimeris, Ligularia,
Sausurea with six species, Scorzonera, Chorisis, Inthybus,
Berinia with two species, and Pilosella; of the Vaccineae one
genus, — Oxycoccos; of the Primulaceae one genus, — Cortusa;
of the Gentianeae two genera, — Stellera, and Swertia with two
species; of the Borragineae one genus, — Eritrichium with
seven species ; of the Selaginaceae one genus, — Gymnandra; of
the Polygoneae one genus, — Rheum; of the Betulaceae one

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genus, — Alnaster; of the Aroideae one genus, — SimplocarpiAs;
of the Orchidaceae five genera, — Gymnadenia, Parularia, Pla-
ianthera with five species, Peristylis with two species, and
Neottia; of the Smilaceae two genera, — Paris with two species,
and Kruhsea, of the Liliaceae three genera, — Lloydia, Gagea,
and Fritillaria; of the Melanthaceae three genera, — AcedUan-
thus, Anticlea, and Tofieldia with three species; of the Cm-
mineae three genera, — Coeleria, Limnas, and Digraphis,

The number of cryptogamous plants given in the Okhotsk-
Kamchatkan list is only thirty-four, of which seven are
Equisetaceae; all of them found in North America; nine are
Lycopodiaceae, six of which are found in North America;
eighteen Filices, ten of which are found in North America.
All of these with two or three exceptions are common in

The following list gives the plants common to the Okhotsk-
Kamchatkan region and North America, those marked with a
star (*) are common to Manchuria also.

Anemone pennsylvanica, L. Dicentra lachenaliaeflora,
*A. nemorosa, L. Ldb.

A. parviflora, Mich. Nasturcium palustre, Leyss.

Ranunculus Flammula, L. *Barbarea vulgaris, R. Br.

R. Cymbalariae, Purch. *Arabis hirsuta. Scop.

*R. repens, L. Cardamine bellidifolia, L.

Caltha palustris, L* C. pratensis, L.

Coptis trifolia, Salsb. Draba incana, L.

Actaea spicata, L. *D. nemorosa, L.

Chelidonium majus, L. *Thlaspi arvense, L.

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♦Gipsella Bursa pastoris, L. G. macrophyllum, Willd.
♦Sisymbrium Sophia, L. Potentilla norvegica, L.

♦Erysimum cheiranthoides, L. P. Anserina^ L.

Viola palustris, L.

V. blanda, Hook.
♦V. canina, L.

Drosera rotundifolia, L.
♦Stellaria media, Willd.
♦S. borealis, MB.

S. humifusa, Rot.
♦S. longifolia, Muhl.
♦S. longipes, Gold.

Cerastium vulgatam, L.
♦C. arvense, L.

Linum perenne, L.
♦Geranium sibiricum, L*
♦Oxalis Acetosella, L.

Trifolium medium, L.

T. pratensc, L.

Oxytropis campestris, DC.

Astragalus alpinus, L.
♦Vicia cracca, L.
♦Lathyrus palustris, L.

L. pratensis, L.
♦Spiraea betulifolia, L.
♦S. salicifolia, L.
♦Geum striatum. Ait

♦P. fruticosa, L.
♦Fragaria vesca, L.

Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham. e£

♦Epilobium angustifolium, L.

Hippuris vulgaris, L.

Claytonia virginica, L.

Sedum Rhodiola, DC.
♦Ribes rubrum, L.

Saxifraga oppositifolia, L.
♦Chrysosplenium altemifolia,

Mitella nuda, L.

Ligusticum scoticum, L.

Coelopleurum Gmdini, Ldb.

Carum carui, L,

Comus Canadensis, L.
♦Adoxa Moschatellina, L.
♦Sambucus racemosa, L.
♦Linnea borealis, L.
♦Galium Aparine, L.

G. trifidum, L.
♦G. verum, L.
♦Erigcron acris, L.

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Solidago Virgaurca, L.
♦Achillea millefolium, L.

A. Ptarmica, L.

Matricaria discoidea, DC.

Tanacetum vulgare, L.

Artemisia biemiis, Willd.

A. Stelleriana, Bess.
♦Gnaphalitmi uliginosum, L.
♦Senecio pseudo-Arnica, Less.
♦Picris hieracioides, L.
♦Taraxacum officinale, Wigg.

Crepis tectorum, L.
♦Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea, L.

V. uliginosum, L.


Samolus Valerandi, L.

Gentiana Amarella, L.
♦Menyanthes trifoliata, L.
♦Polemonium coeruleum, L.
♦Mertensia maritima, G. Don.
♦Echinospermtun Lappula,

♦E. deflexum, Lehm.

Limostdla aquatica, L.

Veronica Anagallis, L.

V. serpyllifolia, L.

Castilleja pallida, Kunt
♦Euphrasia officinalis, L.
♦Mentha arvensis, L.

Arctostaphylos alpina, Sprgl. ♦Thymus Serpyllum, L.

A. uva ursi, Sprgl. ♦Nepeta Glechoma, Benth.
Andromeda polifolia, L. Scutellaria galericulata, L.

Phyllodoce taxifolia, Salsb. Galeopsis Tetrahit, L.

Loiseuria procumbens, Desv. ♦Plantago major, L.

♦Ledimi palustre, L.
♦Pyrola rotundifolia, L.

P. minor^ L.

P. secunda, L.
♦Moneses grandiflora, Salsb.
♦Utricularia intermedia, Haync. Empetrum nigrum, L.

Primula farinosa, L. Salix phylicifolia, L.

♦Lysimachia th)rrsiflora, L. ♦S. myrtilloides, L.

♦Rumex acetosa, L.
♦Polygonum Bistorta, L.
♦P. viviparum, L.
♦P. aviculare, L.
P. convolvolus, L.

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'I'Populus tremula, L.
*P. alba. L.

♦Humulus Lupulus, Ldb'.
♦Urtica dioica, L.
♦Alnus incana, Willd.

Myrica Gale, L.
♦Juniperus ccHnmunis, L,
♦Chenopodium album, L.

Atriplex patula, L.

Sparganium simplex, Huds.

Acorus calamus, L.

Zostera marina, L.


P. perf oliatus, L.

Triglochin palustris, L.

Alisma plantago, L.

Corallorhiza innata, R. Br

Juncus balticus, Dethar.

J. filiformis, L.

J. articulatus, L.

Eriophorum vaginatum, L.

Carex alpina, Sw.

C. vulgaris, Fries.
*C. stenophylla, Wahl.

C. rariflora, Smit.
♦Elymus mollis, Trin.

Festuca ovina, L.

Poa laxa, Henke.
*P. pratensis, L.
praelongus, P. compressa, L.

P. serotina, Ehrh.
*P. nemoralis, L.

P. annua, L.

♦Hierochloa borealis, R. et
monophylla, H. alpina, R. et Sch.

Deschampsia caespitosa, P.

Calypso borealis, Salisb. Bea.

Streptopus amplexifolius, Calamagrostis



Smilacina trifolia, Desv.

Allium Schoenoprasum, L.
♦Veratrum viride, Ait.

Luzula spadicea.
*L. campestris, DC.

Agrostis canina, L.
Trisetum subspicatum,

♦Phleum alpinum, L.

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"^Equisetum pratense, Chrk. Botrychium Lunaria, Sw*

E. limosum, L. Polypodium vulgare, L.

*E. silvaticum, L. *Woodsia ilvensis, R. Br.

E. variegatiun, Sehleich. W. glabella, R. Br.

E. scirpoides, Mich. Aspidtun fragrans, Sw.

*E. arvense, L. *Cystopteris fragilis, Bemh.

*E. hyemale, L. *Asplenium Filix-foemina,

Lycopodium Selago, L. Bemh.

*L. annotinum, L. *Pteris aquilina, L.

*L. alpinum. L. ^Adianthum pedattun, L.
^L. complanatum, L. Struthiopteris germanica,

♦L. clavatum, L. Willd.

Selaginella nipestris, Spring.


The boundary lines so pronounced in the flora of Asiatic
Russia are less distinct in the fauna, especially for the higher
forms. However, among the invertebrates there is a marked
change noted between those of Western Siberia and those of
Transbaikalia. The insects of the steppes of Western Siberia
are very similar to those of European Russia, but in many
places, as on the Altai Mountains, show great variations. In
Transbaikalia there is a very decided change. The fauna of
Turkestan from its comparatively isolated position, as regards
Siberia proper, deserves separate mention. For convenience
we will consider, first the fauna of the Arctic Tundra ; second.

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that of Western Siberia; third, that of Transbaikalia and
Eastern Siberia ; and fourth, that of Turkestan.

The Birds

Before taking these up, however, the birds might be spoken
of in a general way, for their great migrations take them from
season to season into widely separated regions, from the Arctic
coast to the forests and even the steppes of Siberia.

" The birds of prey, which are found as far as the Taimur peninsula,
are : one of the ea^le tribe, probably AquUa aUncilla, Bris,, and a buzzard
(Buteo lagopus), two sorts of falcons (Falco gyfalco, JL, Fako tinun-
cula, St.), and some bats {Stryx brachyotus, Forst,, Stryx nictea, L.,
Stryx funerea. Lath.). The small birds (Passeres) which nest far
north in Siberia, are some varieties of larks (Alauda alpistris, L.,
Plectroph nivalis, L., Plectroph lappomca, Emberhisa polaris. Mid.,
Fringilla linaria, L., Parus sibiricus, Pm., Motacilla alba, L.). The
fowls which are found partly in the polar zone and especially in the
forest zone are particularly the Lagopus albus, L., and Lagopus alpinus,
Nilss., the heathcock (Tetrao urogallus, L., Tetrao tetrix, L. and Tetrao
bonasia, L.). There are numerous long-legged birds in Siberia, but
principally of the same kinds as those in Europe. Siberia is, however,
particularly rich in water-fowls, which nest in countless numbers oo
the shores of the Arctic Ocean, and also on the banks of the rivers
and lakes. On Lake Baikal the gulls are so numerous that the crags
and rocks overhanging it are covered with a thick layer of guano,
which for a long time will serve as manure for the future generations
of Siberian farmers. One of the many remarkable phenomena of Lake
Baikal is the existence of a species of seal (Phoca baicalemis), in the
water of this inland sea." *

* Siberia and the Great Siberian Railway, pp. 41-42.

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Kropotkin observes that:

"no less than 285 species [of birds] have been observed in Siberia,
but of these forty-five only are absent from Europe. In Southeast
Siberia we find forty-three new species belonging to the North Man-
churian or Amur fauna ; and in Southeast Transbaikalia, on the borders
of the Gobi Steppe, only 103 species were found by Radde, among which
the most numerous are migratory birds and the birds of prey which
pursue them."

Arctic Fauna

The Arctic Tundra is often visited along its ocean border
by the white polar bear (Ursus maritifnus, L.). They come
on floating ice from their native islands of the Arctic Ocean,
and land on the coast, from which they never wander any
great distance. They have been known to go up the Gulf of
Yenisei as far as Tolstyi Nos, the most northern settlement
on the Gulf.

" Next come those arctic wild animals which almost exclusively in-
habit the pdar tundra region: the arctic fox {Canis logo pus, L,),
fotmd in the Taimursk peninsula under 75° northern latitude, and the
small striped or Obi lemmings (Myodes torquatus and Myodes Oben-
sis). There was formerly another large animal contemporaneous with
mankind existing in the polar tundra region corresponding to the musk
ox {Bos moschatus), which is found in the polar regions of America,
but has now entirely diss^peared; this Siberian ox (Bos pallasii) was
distinct from the American variety, but is only known by the skulls and
bones found in the Taimursk tundras. Finally, as characteristic animals
of the tundras, the northern hare (Lepus variabilis, Pall.) and the
reindeer {Cervus tarandns, L.) may be mentioned, although they

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Spread far down into the forest zone. The latter is found in the
mountainous parts of South Siberia ; on the Urals it goes down south
as far as sa"" northern latitude, on the Altai to 49*", on the Sayan and
StancToi chain to 53^, and in the Amur region it reaches the mouth
of the Usuri tmder 49° north latitude." *

Of the numerous birds which visit the Arctic Tundra for
breeding, there are only five land-birds which make it their
permanent home, "the ptarmigan (Lagopus alpinus), the
snow-bunting, the Icelandic falcon, the snow-owl, and the

The life in the Arctic Ocean bordering on the Arctic Littoral
is rich in rare types. The Kara Sea furnishes many beautiful
and peculiar types of Umbellularia, Elpidia, Alecto, and many
kinds of asterids, besides a rich flora of Algae.

From the collections of the Vega Expedition, gathered near
Beli Ostrov, the most remarkable, according to Stuxberg, are
" a species of Mysis, Diastylis Rathkei, Kr., Idothea entomon,
Lin,, Idothea Sabinei, Kr., two species of Lysian assida, Ponto-
porta setosa, Stbrg., Halimedon brevicatcar. Goes., an annelid,
a Molgula, Yoldia intermedia, Sars., Yoldia ( ?) arctica. Gray,
and a Solecurtus.'^ Off the mouth of the Lena River the inter-
esting species Idothea entomon, Lin., and Idothea Sabinei,
Kroyer, were found.

In the Arctic Ocean near Bering Strait and in Bering Sea,
besides the fur seal, so scarce now, there is another {Histrio^
phoca fasciata, Zimm.) which is tnarked with large beautiful

* Siberia and* the Great Siberian Railway, p. 41*

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white circles. Of the larger sea animals of this section, Stego-
cephalus Kessleri, Stuxb., Sabinea septemcarinata, Sabine, and
Acanthostephia Malmgreni, Goes,, might be mentioned. Fur-
ther south oflf Kamchatka there is found the so-called sea
otter (Enhydris lutris, Lin,) ; the sea lion (Eutnetopias Stelleri,
Lesson), and the sea bear (Otaria ursina), which are nearly-
extinct; and the sea cow (Rhytina Stelleri, Cuvier), which is
now extinct. Among the fish there is one specially interesting
new species Dallia delicatissima, Smidt, which is related to the
ordinary dogfish.

In Bering Sea and Strait the Vega Expedition found that
hundreds of crabs (Chionoecetes opilio, Kroyer) were brought
up with the dredge at almost every haul. Also the starfish
(Ophioglypha nodosa, LUtken) and Fusus deformis. Reeve
were very abundant. The phosphorescent crustacean (Metri-
dia armata. A, Boeck) is of very striking interest. Norden-
skjold found this animal living on the Arctic shore where the
sea beats over ice and snow beds whose temperature is near
the freezing point of mercury. These are so numerous that
when one walks over this snow-sludge on a dark day, or at
night, a bright flash of light from their bodies accompanies
each step. Their proper element seems to be snow-sludge
soaked in sea water at a temperature of about 32** F. Their
power to emit light ceases at 14° F., but a temperature of — ^22*
P., does not kill the animal.

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Online LibraryH[enry] Justin RoddyComplete geography → online text (page 18 of 22)