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couldn't resist the temptation to investigate. Let scientists rejoice, the
stomach is full of undigested food — ^now we will learn positively
whether or not the mammoth could live in prehistoric Siberia, Europe,
and North America. The food in the stomach will settle the question
once and for all. It is very considerable in quantity, and more is found
on the tongue and between the teeth.

" My mammoth undoubtedly died during the pleasant occupation of
feeding. He probably rolled off a precipice while reaching opt for a
coveted branch or plant ; the position of his forelegs shows that almost
to a certainty. The left one is bent into a semi-curve, indicating that



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578 ASIATIC RUSSIA

the ponderous and unwieldy animal tried in vain to climb upward, while
his right foot was struggling to maintain a hold, but the soil or rock,
presumably, was slippery or too steep to afiFord a safe foothold for so
large a beast. In gliding down the mountain-side, the animal's hind legs
were forced into a horizontal position and got under his body, which
circumstance made it completely impossible for the mammoth to raise
himself by his own eflForts.

" The impromptu grave into which the animal plunged was made of
sand and clay, and his fall probably caused masses of neighboring soil
to loosen and cover him completely. This happened in the late h\\, or
at the beginning of winter, to judge by the vegetable matter found in
the stomach; ^t any rate, shortly afterward the grave became flooded,
ice following. This completed the cold storage, still further augmented
by vast accumulations of soil all around — a shell of ice, hundreds of
feet thi<;k, inclosed by yards upon yards of soil, that remained frozen
for the greater part of the year. Thus the enormous carcass was pre-
served, for how long no one knows.

"As to measurements, exact figures cannot be given at the present
time. I am inclined to think that my mammoth, when mounted will
exceed in height the most famous specimens known, that at St Peters-
burg and the other in Chicago. The first measures iiine feet three
inches, the latter nine feet eight inches in height"

Besides the mammoth and rhinoceros mentioned above, there
are many remains of the bison, horse, tiger, saiga, and the
wapiti, found in such positions as to prove without doubt that
they lived where they were found, even as far north as 74*
N. Lat., while now none of them live north of 60* N. Lat.
The remains of animals found by the German Academy of
Science expedition to the region at the mouth of the Yana
River and the New Siberian Islands, in 1885 and 1886 includes



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FLORA AND FAUNA 579

the following as mentioned by J. D. Tscherski in his report;
Felis tigris, Cants lupus. Cants familiaris, Vulpes lagopus,
Gulo luscus, Ursus maritimus and arctos, Proca foetida, Tri-
chechus rostnarus, Spermophilus Eversmanni, Lemmus obensis,
Cuniculus torquatus, Lepus variabilis, Bison priscus, Ovibus
moschatus, Ovis nivicola, Colus saiga, Alces palmatus, Rangi-
fer tarandus, Cervus canadensis, var. maral, Equus caballus.
Rhinoceros tichorhinus, and Elephas primigenius.

The distribution of the mammoth and his final extinction
have been, as remarked in a previous chapter, the ground for
many theories as to the climatic conditions of the Northern
Hemisphere during Pleistocene time. It is now generally be-
lieved that the species originated in northern India, and from
there migrated to the north and spread out till his habitat ex-
tended from England and France, across Europe and Asia into
North America, where his remains have been found as far
south as Mexico, and as far east as New York. The signs of
land elevation make it probable that they reached North
America by land or archipelago connection in Bering Sea.
The climate was probably more mild and equable at that time
than at present, so that the northern limit of trees was much
further north. In fact, the stomachs of some of the mammoths
have been found containing leaves of trees whose present
habitat is hundreds of miles south of the locality where the
animal perished.

James Geikie suggests as one of the causes of their extinc-
tion in Northern Siberia that they were mired in the tundra
in the following manner. During the glacial epoch great



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58o ASIATIC RUSSIA

snowdrifts accumulated and became consolidated. Over this
ice, mosses and lichens crept until a tundra was formed over
solid ice, a condition now to be noted in places. Later this
ice in places might melt away leaving the ttmdra apparently
firm. In such traps as these many of the great animals might
be caught and perish.

Mr. Robert Bell,"^ who has spent a great amount of time in
the northern parts of North America, has studied the present
migrations and catastrophes which befall whole herds of the
larger mammals of the north, and arrived at the following
theory as to the extinction of the Mammoths.

He notes that the reindeer and arctic fox make great annual
migrations, while the Canadian lynx migrates according to the
food supply. The American bison used to make great annual
migrations. Also " the moose, or American elk (Alces atneri-
canus), migrates slowly from one large area to another through
periods extending over many years." Judging from this, it
seems probable that during the milder period of their time the
mammoth in Siberia spent their winters in the forest belt, and
came north to the tundra region and the shores of the Arctic
Ocean during the summer. This annual migration from
forest to tundra, in the case of the deer at present, was noted
in the previous chapter on the Arctic Littoral, where mention
was made of the vast herds of reindeer which annually swim
to the islands of the Lena delta in the early summer to escape

♦ " On the Occurrence of Mammoth and Mastodon Remains around
Hudson Bay," Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. Vol. 91
pp. 3^390.



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FLORA AND FAUNA 581

the flies and mosquitoes of the mainland, and then return be-
fore the ice forms to spend the winter in the edge of the
forest belt.

Mr. Bell thinks that as the climate gradually became more
and more severe, and the summers shorter and shorter, the
inertia of this migratory spirit continued, and large herds of
mammoth from time to time were caught in the fearful bliz-
zards, so common now during the early autumn in Northern
Siberia, and perished from cold and hunger. At times now
large herds of deer are killed in our Northwest country by
such blizzards, especially when a crust forms over the snow
so that their food supply of lichens is cut oflf. On Okpatok
Island, which (Mice swarmed with reindeer, such a crust formed
over the snow and continued so long that the whole herd
perished of starvaticm — and the island has never been
restocked.

Another circumstance which might have hastened their ex-
tinction may have been in the breaking of the ice when large
herds were crossing the rivers in the late autumn or early
winter. This was a common occurrence in the plains of our
west when great herds of bison were crossing the rivers.

All these circumstances, together with the advent of man,
may well have been the cause of their extinction. That man
appeared before the mammoth disappeared is shown by the
occurrence of the human implements already alluded to in the
same deposits at Irkutsk and Tomsk, Siberia.

THE END



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INDEX



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INDEX



ABKHASIANS, 374. 344-
Achinsk, 397, 422.
Adam Krylgan, sufferings of Russian army at, 234.

Adrianople, treaty of, 247.

Adzarts, the, 344.

Agricultural resources, (fj, 77, "3. "5, 182, 380, 384, 441, 442, 445.

Agriculture, wasteful methods of, 304.

Aigun, 178, 203, 207; treaty of, 2ia> 404.

Ainos, the, 407.

Aitsi-kul, salt marshes of, 347.

Ak Kum, 375.

Ak Metched, capture of, 223.

Akmolinsk, province of, area and population of, 347; physical charac-
teristics of, 348; census returns from, 349.

Aksu, 47, 48, 353.

Alaska, possession of, by the Russians, 159, 195; ceded to the United
States, 214.

Albazin, battle of, 168; sieges of, I77-I79-

Alexander the Great, 26, 35, 245; at Samarkand, 38; at Merv, 265;
discovers petroleum, 448.

Alexander II., assassination of, 316 ; reforms of, 47a

Alexandrovsldi Mountains, 29, 43; geology of, 489.

Alexis, 19a

Altai Mountains, 383, 385; geology of, 487; flora of, 543.

Alty-Kuduk, 235*

585



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586 ASIATIC RUSSIA

America, probably peopled from Siberia. 254, 257.

Amu Daria River, 32; deserted chamiels of, 56; navigation of, 421.

Amur, province of, 403-405; area and population o£^ 403; physical
characteristics of, 404; Chinese in, 404; census returns from,
40s; geology of, 488, 489* 494. 497; flora of, 547, 549; fauna of,
565-568.

Amur River, chapter on, 111-120; size of, iii, 210; tributaries of, 112,
114, 116; climate of, 113, 163; vegetation of, 113, 118^ 119; in-
dustries of, 114; navigation of, 114, 420; age of, 116; geology
of, 116, 488; former mouth of, 118; inundations of, 119; fisheries
in, 119; struggle for the, chapter on, 160-180; discovery of, 102;
Chinese claim to the, 169; occupation of, chapter on, 198-214;
first steamboat on, 203; Cossack settlements on, 211 ; steam navi-
gation of, 308.

Anadyrski, 148, 152.

Andidjan, 41, 367.

Androssoff saves Nindeman and Noros, 102.

Anna, 193.

Anti-Caucasus, 19.

Antyzphor, fate of, 157.

Aral-Caspian Depression, chapter on, 25-64; extent of, 25; mountain
border of, 26-30; river basins of, 30-54; general view of, 54-64;
original Aryan center, 262.

Aral Sea, ancient outlet of, 36; changes in, 37; general description of,
58-60; desiccation of, 58; amount of water in, 59; navigation oi,
421 ; possible abolition of, 447 ; saltness of, 505.

Aralsk, fort established at, 221.

Archaeology. See Colonization, Pse-Russian.

Archaology of Minusinsk, 72.

Arctic Littoral, chapter on, 92-110; description of, 92; exploration of,
93» 9S» 98, lOi; geology of, 106, 512; mammoth remains in, 107,
144; eastern portion of, 109; flora of, 532-535; fauna of, 551-563.



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INDEX 587



Arctic Ocean Ri/er Basins, chapter on, 65-91.

Argonautic Expedition, ai.

Aristan Bel Kuduk, 233.

Armachevsky, Prof., discovers paleolithic remains at Kief, 50&

Armenian Church separates from the Georgian, 246.

Armenians, 344; favored by the Russians, 479.

Artel, importance of the, 468.

Aryan civilization, center of, 34, 262 ; extent of, 263 ; date of, 264.

Asia, physical geography of, 27.

Asiatic-Russia, area of, 13; boimdary of, 14; natural divisions of, 1$.

Astara, 26.

Astrabad, 26.

Astrakhan captured, 190.

Atbazarsk, population of, 347.

Athanasieff, I., expedition of, 149.

Atlasoff, v., hero of Kamchatka, 151.

Atok, the, 31, 241, 270^ 355.

Attila, 5.

Aulieata, 43, 373 ; capture of, 224.

Avacha, 157.

Avakkum, 191*

B

n ACTRIA, 34; early history of, 264.

Bagae. See Bokhara.
Baikoff, T., 196.
Baku, 246, 264.
Baku, province of, 343.
Balagansk, 388.
Balamir, 5.
Bala Sagun, 45.

Balkh, ruins of, 34; antiquity of, 264.
Baraba Steppe, 66, 69, 134. 38^ 384.



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588 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Barley in Semipalatinsk, 352; in Semirechensk, 354; in Tnmscaspian
Province, 356; in Ferghana, 370; in Samarkand, 370; in Syr
Daria, 376; in Tobolsk, 383; in Tomsk, 386; in Transbaikalia,
393 ; in Amur, 405 ; in Maritime Province, 41a

Barnaul, 187, 383-

Barometric pressure in Asiatic Russia, 518-521.

Barrows, from Tashkent to Semipalatinsk, 252; in Mongolia, 252.

Basmanoff, General, 189.

Batu, founder of Sarai, 6.

Beaches, elevated, at Trebizond, 506; at Samsun, 507; on the Crimea,
507; on the Lena, 508.

Bees, 572; in Semipalatinsk, 352; in Semirechensk, 354; in Tomsk, 386;
in Yeniseisk, 401 ; in Maritime Province, 41a

Beet sugar in Yeniseisk, 401.

Beketoff, P., founds Nerchinsk, 175; reinforces Stepanoff, 1761

Bell, Mr. Robert, on extinction of the mammoth, 58a

Bcrezof, 93; founded, 135, 379.

Bering Strait, rediscovered by Bering, iio^ 192; discovered by Dejneff,
147, 192; width of, 254.

Bering, V., arctic expedition of, 192.

Bez Popovists, 284.

Biisk, 383.

Biloisk, 394.

Birars, 259.

Birds of Northern Asia, 560, 562; of Eastern Sibei-ia, 566; Kamchatka,
568; Turkestan, 570, 571.

Black earth of Akmolinsk, 348.

Black Kirghiz, home of, 218.

Black Sea, northern coast of, 21; province of, 343.

Blagovestchensk, 115, 163, 209, 212, 403; siege of, by Chinese, 404.

Bogdonoff, cited, 64.

Bogeras, 319.



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INDEX 589



Bokhara, 35, 39; province of, submits to Russia, 227; area and popula-
tion of, 363; physical characteristics of, 364; history of, 364;
productions of, 364; relation of, to Russia, 365.

Bokhoff, arctic voyager, 107.

Boutakoff, cited, 5a

Breweries in Irkutsk, 39a

Brick in Akmolinsk, 349; in Ferghana, 370; in Yeniseisk, 401; in
Amur, 405.

Buffaloes in Tomsk, 386.

Buckwheat in Tobolsk, 382; in Tomsk, 386; in Transbaikalia, 393; in
Amur, 405; in Maritime Province, 410.

Bugor, v., expedition of, against the Buriats, 140, 143.

Bukholts, G>lonel, 196.

Buldakoff, T., arctic expedition of, 145.

Bulkur, 105.

Bulun, 103.

Bunge, Dr., cited, 108.

Buriats, I39» 14^ 160, 261, 319. 388^ 39h 47^

Buruts, 368.

Busa, Elisei, arctic expedition of, no, 141.



/^ AMELS in Akmolinsk, 349 ; in Semipalatinsk, 352 ; in Semirechensk,
354; in Transcaspian Province, 356; in Turgai, 359; in Uralsk,
361 ; in Bokhara, 364 ; in Ferghana, 370 ; in Samarkand, 371 ;
in Syr Daria, 377 ; in Tomsk, 386 ; in Amur, 405.
Canal from the Ket to the Kas, 386, 423, 430.
Capes.

Chelyuskin, 93.
Lopatka, 154.
Monument, 103.
Northeast. See Chelyuskin.
Sviatoi, 75. 107, 145.
Capital ptmishment abolished, 328.



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590 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Caravan routes, Kiakhta to Kalgaii» 185, 198^ 474; in Turkestan, 218,
223.367.

Caspian Sea, depth of, 26; general description of, 60-64; former extent
of, 60; saltness of, 62, 504; animal life of, 63; recent connection
with the Arctic Ocean, 64; important channel to commerce, 421.

Catharine II., 194.

Catholicism in Russia, 261.

Catholics in Siberia, 29a

Cattle in Akmolinsk, 349 ; in Semipalatinsk, 352 ; in Semirechensk, 354 ;
in Transcaspian Province, 356 ; in Turgai, 359 ; in Uralsk, 361 ;
in Ferghana, 370; in Samarkand, 371; in Syr Daria, 377; in
Tomsk, 386 ; in Irkutsk, 390 ; in Yakutsk, 396 ; in Yeniseisk, 401 ;
in Amur, 405; in Maritime Province, 410; in Sakhalin, 411.

Caucasia, occupation of, chapter on, 245-250.

Caucasian Gates, 18.

Caucasus Mountains, description of, 16; geology of, 17, 22; peaks
of, 17.

Celestial Mountains. See Tian-Shak.

Central government, organs of^ 465.

Chaldeans, 344.

Chang Chung, quoted, 49.

Charjui, 363.

ChecHenians, 344.

Chelyuskin, expedition of, 102.

Chemaieff, General, career of, in Turkestan, 224-226.

Chemoba, 68.

Chevsurs, 344.

Chikishliar, expedition from, 236.

Chimkent, 42, 373-

China claims the Amur, 169; opposes KhabaroflF, 171; defends the
Upper Amur, 178; negotiates treaty of Nerchinsk, 179; contact
of, with Russia on the west, 196 ; fails to develop the Amur, ^03,
211; distractions of, 211, 478; opposed to Russia in the East,
476; loess in, 501.



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INDEX 591



Chipp, sad fate of, 102.

Chorasmia, 35.

Chuguchak, 49.

Chukchcs, 256, 319, 407, 408.

Chvoinov surveys New Siberian Islands, 107.

Circassians resist the Russians, 248; emigrate to Turkey, 248; home

of, 274; in Transcaucasia, 344.
Climate, chapter on, 517-531; long observations on, in Russia, 517;

barometric pressure, 518-521; temperature, 521-525; humidity,

relative, 525; precipitation, 526-530; freezing of rivers, 530.
Gimate of Akmolinsk, 348; of Turgai, 358; of Uralsk, 360; o£ Syr

Daria, 376; of Tobolsk, 381; of Tomsk, 386; of Irkutsk, 389;

of Yakutsk, 395; of Maritime Province, 409; of Sakhalin, 411;

of Turkestan, 452.
Clover in Semirechensk, 354.
Coal in Sakhalin, 120, 411; in Akmolinsk, 349; in Semipalatinsk, 351;

in Ferghana, 367; in Irkutsk, 389; in Yakutsk, 394; distribution

of, 448, 451 ; in the Tian^Shan range, 492; in the Angara Valley,

493.
Cold, the pole of, 522.

Collins, P. M., projects for Siberian railroad, 428.
Colonization of Asia, Russian, chapter on, 278-313; the pioneers, 279;

the Raskolniks, 280; influence of the church on, 291; village

commune, 296, 301; Siberian home, 301; methods of farming,

303; the mines, 305; steam transportation, 307, 310; extent of,

308, 310; emigration, 309; railroad transportation, cheapness of,

311 ; peaceable character of, 472, 473, 475.
Colonization of Semirechensk, 218.
Colonization of Siberia begun, 133; obstacles to, 134, 139, 145, 197;

reasons for delay in, idi, 183, 187; inducements to, 183.
Colonization, Pre-Russian, chapter on, 251-277; paleolithic remains,

251 ; mounds and barrows, 252 ; the bronze age, 253 ; the history



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592 ASIATIC RUSSIA

of the Mongols, 254; the northeastern tribes, 356; the Yakuts,
257; Tunguses, 258; Samoyedes, 260; Ostiaks, 261; Buriats,
261 ; Aryan center, the original, 262; the Turkish races, 26$; the
Tartars (Kirghiz), 267; Usbegs, 270; Turkomans, 270; tribes of
Transcaucasia, 271 ; the Georgian group, 272 ; Qrcassian group,
274.

Commune. See Village Commune.

Communication, difficuhies of, 182, 208, 220; means of, 41^437.

Copper in Akmolinsk, 349; in Semipalatinsk, 351, in Tomsk, 387.

Cossacks, origin of, 8; Zaporog, 8^ 194; Ural, 53, 64, 360; mission of,
in Siberia, 137; hardships of, 146, 165, 215; dissensions among,
149, 156; settled on the Amur, 211; settled in Semirechensk,
218; heroism of, 247; as colonists, 279; insurrections of, 315;
settled in Transbaikalia, 391.

Cotton (American) in Samarkand, 370; in Syr Daria, 377.

Cotton in Transcaspian Province, 356, 357; in Bokhara, 364; in IChiva,
365; in Ferghana, 370; in Samarkand, 370; in Syr Daria, 377.

Cotton, production of in Ferghana, 370; Samarkand, 370; Syr Daria,

377.
Crimean War, influence of, felt on the Pacific, 202.



"P^AGHESTAN, province of, 19* 343; occupied by the Russians, 249;

home of the Lesghians, 276.
Dariel CJorge, 275.
Darius, 26.

Dauria, vegetation of, 1 13; geology of, 392, 488.
Daurians, 163, 168, 170, 259.

Deer, habits of, 103; in Irkutsk, 390; in Yakutsk, 396.
Dejneff, S., discovers Bering Strait, 147, 192.
De Long, tragic death of, 103.
Derbent, 246.



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INDEX 593

Desert, flora of the, 544.

Desiccation of Semipalatinsk, 351; of Central Asia, 351, 392, 505, 514;
of Turgai, 358

Development, capacity for, 438-453; increase of population, 439; agri-
cultural area, 441 ; water power, 443 ; summer resorts, 444 ; irri-
gation, 445; improved transportation, 447; home manufactures,
450-

Distilleries in Irkutsk, 390; in Yeniseisk, 401.

Dmitri, untimely end of, 187; murderers of, banished, 314.

Dmitri Donskoi, 7.

Dmitri the Pretender, 188.

Dobnmin, 155.

Dogs in Yakutsk, 396; in Maritime Province, 41a

Dolgans, 100

Dolmens in Japan^ 252.

Doukobourtski^ a88L

Dudinskoe, 991.

E

pARTHQUAKES about Lake Baikal, 496.

Eastern Question, irrepressible factors in, 476.
Eastern Siberia, political divisions of, 388-402.
Educational work o£ Akmolinsk, 349; of Semirechensk, 354; of Tomsk,

387; of Irkutsk, 390; of Transbaikalia, 393; of Yakutsk, 396;

of Yeniseisk, 401; of Amur, 405; of Sakhalin, 411.
Elisabethpol, province of, 343.
Elk in Yakutsk, 396 ; in North America, 58a
Elh'ott, Commodore, outwitted by Nevelskoy, 206.
Embinsk, Verefkin at, 237.
Engelians, the, 344.
Erivan, province of, 24, 343.
Erman, cited, 152.
Ermines in Yakutsk, 396; in Maritime Province, 41a



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594 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Exiles, useful careers of, 177, 193, 317-3^1; as colonists, 379; s^t by
village communes, 399; character of, 315, 316; classes of, 326;
number of, 338; fate of, 339.

Exile system, relation of, to colonization, 185, 191, 315; chapter on,
314-340; origin of, 314; compared with that of England and
France, 321 ; abuses in, 323 ; abuses compared with prison abuses
in the United Sutes, 324, 33^537; abolition of, 339>



l^AIRS in Tomsk, 387; in Yeniseisk, 401.

Family, Russian, 30a
Fauna, S59-58i; birds, 560; Arctic, 561-563; Western Siberia, 564-565;

Eastern Siberia, 565-569; Turkestan and the Steppes, 569-574;

extinct of Northern Siberia, 574-581.
Fedcbenko, Prol, A. P., zoological collections of, 569.
Federof, scientific exploration of, 216.
Feodor, 187.

Ferghana, province of, area and population of, 366; physical character-
istics of, 367; history of, 368; subjugation of by Russians, 369;

census returns from, 370.
Finns, 344-

Fires, destructive, 303.

Fish in Transbaikalia, 565 ; in Turkestan, 571.
Fisheries, in Transcaspian Province, 356; in Uralsk, 361; in Yakutsk,

396; in Yeniseisk, 401; in Amur, 405; in Maritime Province,

410.
Flax in Semirechensk, 354.
Flood, possible indications of the, 515.
Flora and Fauna, chapter on, 532-5^1.
Flora, 532-559; of the Arctic Tundra, 532-535; of the Forest Zone,

535-539; of the Steppe Zone, 539-54^; of the Desert Zone, 542;

Mountain, 542-548; of the Pacific Border, 54^559-



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INDEX 595

Foreign relations of Russian Empire, 474*48i; expansion logical and
natural, 472; railroads to the sea, essential, 474; irrepressible
problems of, 476-478; conditions on Armenian border, 479;
Russia's unique position, 481.

Forests, destruction of, 304; scarcity of, in Akmolinsk, 34S; M>ound
in Semipalatinsk, 351; scarcity o£ in Turgai, 358; abound in
Tobolsk, 380; in Tomsk, 383; in Yakutsk, 394; products of in
Amur, 405; in Maritime Province, 408; zone of, 535-539; soli-
tude of pine, 536; birch, 536.

Fort Naryn, 47.

Foxes in Akmolinsk, 349; in Yakutsk, 396; in Maritime Province, 410.

Frozen soil, depth of in Verkhoyansk, 87, 51a

Fruits, dried, in Transcaspian Province, 357.

Furs in Yakutsk, 396.

Future, the, grounds for confidence in, 454-471.



/^EESE in Akmolinsk, 349.

Geok-Tepe, capture of, 242; museum at, 242.

Geikie, Prof. J., on extinction of the mammoth, 579.

Geological elevations, eras of, 490.

Geological erosion, 491-494; in the Pamir, 491 ; in the Tian-Shan range,
492; in the Obi and Yenisei valleys, 492; in the Selenga Valley,
492; in the Lena Valley, 493; in the Amur Valley, 494.

Geological History, chapter on, 485-516; general view, 485; early geo-
logical periods, 490; more recent geological changes, 494; evi-
dence of a post-Tertiary subsidence, 498 ; distribution of the loess,
500; Arctic seal in Lake Baikal, 503; freshness of the internal
teas, 504; other evidences of a recent continental subsidence,
506; advent of man, 508; Siberia during the glacial period, 509;
rise and fall of the mammoth, 512; possible confirmations of
the flood, 515.



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596 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Geological periods, early, in Asia, 490; more recent, 494; post-Tertiary,

498-S08.
Georgian church, union of the, with the Russian, 246.
Georgians, kingdom of the, 245; seeks protection of Russia, 197, 247,

479; church in, 245; resistance of the, to Mohammedanism, 246;

locality of, 272; in Trans-Caucasia, 344.
George XIII. abdicates in favor of Russia, 245, 246, 473.
Ghilaks, 256, 407.
Gilan, 26.
Glacial period, the, no signs of, in Mongolia or Manchuria, or Vitim

Plateau, 499; or in Turkestan, 500; small influence o^ in Siberia,

S09.

Glaciers, existing, enumerated, 511.

Glass works in Irkutsk, 390; in Yeniseisk, 401.

Gmelin, S. G., scientific expedition of, 193.

Goats in Akmolinsk, 349; in Semipalatinsk, 352; in Semirechensk,
354; in Turgai, 359; in Uralsk, 361; in Bokhara, 364; in Syr
Daria, 377; in Tobolsk, 382; in Tomsk, 386; in Irkutsk, 390; in
Yakutsk, 396; in Yeniseisk, 401; in Amur, 405; in Maritime
Province, 410.

Gobi, Desert of, 474.

Godunoff, B., 187-189.

Goklan Turkomans, occupation and number of the, 241.

Gold, in Akmolinsk, 349; in Semipalatinsk, 351; in Semirechensk, 354;
in Bokhara, 364; in Tomsk, 387; in Irkutsk, 389; in Trans-
baikalia, 393; in Yakutsk, 394, 396; in Yeniseisk, 397, 401; in
Amur, 405; in Maritime Province* 410*

Golodnaya Steppe, 348.

Goltschicha, 98.

Golubeff, Capt., exploring expedition of, 219.

GortchakoflF, Prince, expedition of, 217.

Grxco-Bactrian kingdom, 265.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



INDEX 597

Grapes in Ferghana, 370; in Samarkand, 371; in Syr Daria, 377.


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