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in Tomsk, 387.
Sah works in Irkutsk, 390>



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INDEX 621

Samarkand, the ancient Maracanda, 38; history of, 39, 371 ; captured by
the Russians, 227; ruins of, 372.

Samarkand, province of, area and population, 369; census returns from,
369.

SanK)yedes, the, 93, 379, 399; origin of, 253; characteristics of, 26a

Sanagirs, 259.

Sanjar, 45.

Sannikof, cited on Kotelnoi Island, 108.

Sarai, 6.

Saratof, 60.

Sarkent, 352.

Sarts, the, 368.

Sayan Mountains, 388, 397; geology of, 487; flora of, 545.

Schamyl, heroism of, 247-249.

Schklovsky, 319.

Schmalhausen, 109.

Schmidt, Dr. F. R., interest in science, 320; on the glaciation of Si-
beria, 510.

Schrenk, scientific expedition of, 216.

Schuyler, cited, 224.

Scientific explorations in Turkestian, 216, 219.

Scythians, 4.

Seal, Arctic species of, in Caspian Sea, 63; in Lake Baikal, 63, y6, 560;
in Aral Sea, 64; in Bering Sea, 562.

Seal, in Transcaspfajn Province, 356; in Maritime Province, 410; in
Lake Baikal, 503.

Secret police, justification of, 469.

Secretarians among the Raskolniks, 2B5, 315.

Seebohm, cited, 82.

Seas.

Aral, q, v.
Black, q. v.



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622 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Sets.

Caspian, q, v.
Karaj 79-
Okhotsk, 420.

Selifontof, survey by, 93.

Semenpv, P. P., explores Turkestan^ 219.

Semipalatinsk, 49, 66; fort at, 196, 216; population of, 35a

Semipaktinsk, province of, area and population of, 350; physical
features of, 351 ; census returns from, 352.

Semirechensk, province of; the seven rivers of, 51; organized, 220;
area and population of, 351; physical characteristics of, 353;
census returns from, 354.

Sergiopol, 49, 57; fort at, 216.

Seven Rivers. See Semirechensk.

Sesame in Semirechensk, 354; in Transcaspian Province, 356.

Shaler, N. S., cited, 183.

Shamans, 100; religion of, 256.

Sheep, in Akmolinsk, 349; in Semipalatinsk, 352; In Semirechensk,
354; in Transcaspian Province, 356; in Turgai, 359; in Uralsk,
361; in Bokhara, 364; in Samarkand, 371; in Syr Daria, 377;
in Tobolsk, 382; in Tomsk, 386; in Irkutsk, 390; in Yakutsk,
396; in Yeniseisk, 401; in Amur, 405; in Maritime Province, 410;
in Sakhalin, 411.

Shehri-Sebz, 363.

Siberia, name o^ 123; first colonization of, 133, 138; Cossacks in, 134,
143; early attractions in, 135; water communication in, 136, 139,
419-421; difficulties of exploration in, I37» I39» i4Si IS^; slow
development of, 180-197; religious dissenters^ in, 186; scientific
explorations of, 193; for the Russians, 455; extinct fauna of
Northern Pacific border, 513, 579-581 ; flora of, 532-539.

Sibir, captured, 123.

Sidoroff attempts to open the commerce of the .Yenisei, 79.



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INDEX 623



Siedensner's project for Siberian railroad, 430.

Sikhota-Alin Mountains, 118, 409; geology of 489.

Silk, inJBokhara, 364; in Khiva, 365; in Ferghana, 370; in Syr Daria,

377.
Silver, in Semipalatinsk, 351; in Semirechensk, 354; in Tomsk, 387;

in Transbaikalia, 393.
Silver mines at Nerchinsk, 114. 161.
Sivers, 216.
Skins, sheep, 357.

Skobeleff, General, campaign of, against Tekke Turkomans, 242.
Skoptsy, the, 288, 394.

Skunks in Akmolinsk, 349; in Maritime Province, 41a
Slaves in Khiva, 216, 230, 239.
Snakes in Transbaikalia, 566.
Sogdiana, 38.

Solomon, M., on the exile system, 326, 33S, 339.
Sophia, 19a

Speculation among Siberian pioneers, 151.
Squirrels, in Yakutsk, 396; in Maritime Province, 41a
Stadiing, J., expedition of, 99, 104, 105, 400.
Staduchin, M., discovers the Kol3rma, no, 144, 148.
Stanovoi Mountains, 87, 90, 408; glaciation of, 510.
Statistics, lessons of, 415.

Steam ti^nsportation, introduced in Siberia, 307; growth of, 308.
Stepanoff, O., expedition of, to the Sungari, 175.
Steppe, the, political divisions of, 347-362 ; flora o£ the, 539-542 ; izunz

of, 569-574.
Strielitz, as colonists, 279; insurrection of, 314.
Strogonofs, family of, 10, 124.
Stryetensk, 114.

Sturgeon fisheries in the Caspian Sea, 64.
Subsidence of Central and Northern Asia, 56, 100, 105, 384, 495, 498, 516.



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624 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Sugar in Transcaspian Province, 35^

Sulphur in Bokhara, 364.

Summer resorts, Attractions of, 444*

Sunflower seed m Semirechensk, 354.

Sungari River, 116, 424; supposed to be the Amur, 1614, 166; ascended
by Stepano£F, 175.

Sungarian depression, 4, 30, 217.

Sungarian kingdom, 217.

Sungarieski, 209.

Suram, mountains of, 19.

Surgut, 379.

Swania, strongholds of, 22.

Swanians. See Swannetians.

Swannetians, the, 273, 344.

Swans in Akmolinsk, 349.

Swine, in Akmolinsk, 349; in Semipalatinsk, 352; in Uralsk, 361; in
Syr Daria, 377; in Tobolsk, 382; in Tomsk, 386; in Irkutsk, 390;
in Yakutsk, 396; in Yeniseisk, 401; in Amur, 405; in Maritime
Province, 410; in Sakhalin, 411.

Syr Daria, province of, area and population of, 373; physical char-
acteristics of, 374; census returns from, 376.

Syr Dari|i River, importance of, 40; flow of, 42; deserted channel of,
43; navigation o^ 421.



npAIMUR Peninsula, description of, 93. 99. 100; flora oi, 533.

Tajiks, 368.
Tallow in Akmolinsk, 349; in Yeniseisk, 401.
Tamerlane, 39. 43. 364, 369; beautifies Samarkand, 371.
Tanneries in Irkutsk, 390.
Tara, 66; founded, 133, 379.
Taranchis, outbreak of the, 229.



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INDEX 625



Tarbagatai Mountains, 30, 353; geology of, 487.

Tartars, subdue Russia, 6; driven from Russia, 7; Kirghiz, q. v,

Tashi, Yeliui, 45.

Tashkent, 42, 43, 373; captured t^ Chemaie£F, 224; museum at, 265.

Tatuishin^ 344.

Tchemigofski, N. R., career as a freebooter, 177; conquers Albazin, 178.

Tchetchegin, T., expedition of, to the Amur, 173.

Tchetch^s, 275.

TchulkoflF, 132.

Tea in Transcaspian Province, 357.

Tekke Turkomans, description of, 241; campaign against, 242; home

of, 270.
Temperature of Asiatic Russia, 521-525.
Terraces on the Siberian rivers, 497.
Tertiary deposits, elevation of, 487, 494; in the basin of the Selenga^

494-
Thousand Springs, land of the, 44, 55, 220; occupied by Russians, 223.
Tian-Shan Mountains, general description of, 29; geology of, 486.
Tiflis, 20; capture of Georgian kingdom, 245; military museum in, 247;

a cosmopolitan city, 272.
Tiflis, province of, 343.
Timur. See Tamerlane.
Tiukalinsk, 379.
Tiumen, 125, 379.
Tobacco in Akmolinsk, 349; in Bokhara* 364; in Khiva, 366; in Syr

Daria, 377-
Tobol, expeditions of, 96.
Tobolsk, 126, 132, 138.
Tobolsk, province of, area and population of, 378; physical charac

teristics of, 379; census returns from, 382.
Tokmak, fort of, captured, 220.
Tolbuzio, surrenders Albazin, 178.



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626 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Toll, Baron, on the New Siberian Islands, 513.

Tomsk, 187; paleolithic man at, 251, 383; university of, 387.

Tomsk, province of, area and population of, 382; physical characteristics
of, 383; census returns from, 386.

Tracy, C, observations of, 507.

Trails, 85, 90.

Transbaikalia, development oi, 201; area and population o( 391;
physical characteristics of, 392; census returns from, 393; flora
of, 546; fauna of, 565.

Transcaspian Province, area and population of, 355; physical charac-
teristics, 355 ; census returns from, 356.

Traos-Caucasia, description of, 16-24; climate of, 20; occupation of,
245-250; history of, 245, 271; oppressed by Mohanmiedans, 246;
supported by Russia, 24^ 475; desperate defense of, 248; tribes
o^ 272-276, 344; area and population o^ 343; census returns
from, 345; resources of, 452.

Transportation, wasteful methods ot 447; recent rapid improvements
in. 448.

Travel, cheapness of, 455.

Treaty of Nerchinsk, 179, 181, 198; of Aigun, 212, 404; of Peking. 220,
475 ; of Khiva, 231 ; of Adrianople, 247.

Trebizond, elevated beach at, 506.

Tschekanovsky, 319.

Tscheraschevsky, 319.

Tschemyschev, Prof., on gladation of the Stanovoi Mountains, 510.

Tscherski, 109.

Tsitsikar, province of, 412.

Tundra, 379» 399; character of, 70, 92, 95; exploration of, 93» 99;
geology of, 94; flora of, 95, 98» 100, 532-535-

Tunguscs, 138, 142, 149, 258, 391, 394. 397. 399, 407.

Turgai, province of, area and population of, 357; physical character-
istics of, 358; census returns from, 359*



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INDEX 627



Turinsk, 379,

Turkestan, 43, 43, 373.

Turkestan, province of, early history of, 4; occupation of, chapter on,
215-344,473; indefinite boundary of, 214 ; climate of, 236; politi-
cal divisions of, 363-377; isolation of, 447; rivers of, 421; flora
of, S39» 542; fauna of, 569-574.

Turkish races, described, 265-270.

Turkomans, 270, 344, 473.
Tekke, q, v.
Yomud, q, v,

Turks, origin of, 266; westward movement of, 267; branches of, 267;
in Transcaucasia, 344.

Turphan, 4B.

Tumkhansk, 397.

Tushin, 344.

Tzaritzin, 53.

u

T TKRAINE annexed, 190.

United States of America, prison abuses in, 324, 332, 333, 335,
336; increase of population in, 455.

Unity, religious, 460-464.

Uralo-Altaic family, 255.

Ural River, fisheries on> 467.

Uralsk, 60; fort at, established, 220; expedition from, 237.

Uralsk, province of, area and population of, 360; physical character-
istics of, 360; census returns from, 361.

Urmans, area of, 69; in Western Siberia, 38a

Urumchi, 48.

Usbegs, 270, 364, 368, 473.

Ush, 42, 368.

Ust-Kamenogorsk, population of, 35a



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628 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Ust-Namangan, 3681.

Ust-Urt, 60, 356.

Ust-Zeiski, 209.

Usuri, province of, flora of, 551.

Utch-Utchak, 234.

Uzboi, 36, 61; exploration o^ 231, 240; military expedition through,

236; former condition of, 506.
Uzgent, 41*



TTAKHTANG, King, founded Tiflis, 245.

Valekino£F, Captain, expedition of, 219.
Vega, voyage of, 88, 94, 96.

Verefkin, General, sets out for Khiva, 237; assaults the dty, 238.
Verkhni Kamchatka, 154.

Verkhni Udinsk, 187; fort established at, 139* 160.
Verkholensk, 388.
Verkhoyansk, 86, 394. 395-
Vemi, sa 352; founded, 218.
Village commune, organization of, 296; power of, 297, 298; shapes

colonization, 301 ; among the Ural Cossacks, 361 ; compared with

artels, 468.
Village, the Siberian, 302
Visigoths, 5.

Vitim Plateau, 112, 392; geology of, 488.
Vladimir, capture of, 5.
Vladivostock, harbor of, 117, 214, 406; founded, 214; growth of, 406;

climate of, 409.
Vlasieff, V., expedition of, against Buriats, 14a
Voguls, 379.
Volosts, 468.
Von Baer, cited, 62, 63.



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INDEX 629



Volcanoes in Kamchatka, 8$^
Voynaralsky, 319.

w

TTTATER power, possibilities of, 443, 451.
Wax in Ye;niseisk, 401.

Western Siberia, political divisions of, 378-387.

Wheat, in Akmolinsk, 349; in Semipalatinsk, 352; in Semirechensk,
354; in Transcaspian Province, 356; in Bokhara, 364; in Fer-
ghana, 370; in Samarkand, 370; in Syr Daria, 376; in Tobolsk,
382; in Tomsk, 386; in Transbaikalia, 393; in Amur, 405; in
Maritime Province, 410.

Wiggins^ Capt, voyage of, 80.

Winds, 4aa

Wolves, in Akmolinsk, 349; in Yakutsk, 396; in Maritime Province,
410.

Women, Russian, characteristics of, 138.

Wood, Major, quoted, 58.

Wool, in Akmolinsk, 349; in Transcaspian Province, 357.

Woronzoff, General, conquers the Lesghians, 247.

Wright, F. B., visits Central Asia, 501 ; chapter of, on climate, 517-531.



VTABLONOI Mountains, 90, 113, 395; not glaciated,, 510.
Yakuts, 142, 257, 319^ 394; speak Turkish language, 266.

Yakutsk, 84, 142, 154, 165, 395; fort established at, 139, 394.

Yakutsk, province of, area and population of, 393; physical character-
istics of, 394 ; census returns from, 401 ; flora of, 534.

Yamschiks, 279.

Yelutorovsk, 379.

Yenisei River, basin of, 70-83; steam navigation of, 307; upper portion
of, 397; lower portion of, 419.

Yeniseisk, gold mines near, 185, 397.



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630 ASIATIC RUSSIA

Yennak, 472; early history of, 9; advance of, into Siberia, 123-132;

crosses the Urals, 124; captures Sibir, 128; reports victory to

Moscow, 129; value of services of, 129; tragic death of, 131;

successors of, 135-147.
Yochelson, 319.
Yomud Turkomans, campaign against, 239; migrations and numbers of,

241.
Yukagir, iio^ 142, 394; revolt of, 143; defeat of, 144; origin o^ 256.



r^AISAN, population of, 3Sa
Zakataly, province of, 343.
Zaporog Cossacks, origin of, 8.
Zemstvo, 468.

Zinoveff, successor of KobclcflF, 155 ; expedition to the Amur, 174.
2^roaster, burial-place of, 34; field of influence of, 264.



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BIBLIOGRAPHY



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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anntial Publications of Agricultural Department of Russia for '94, '9Sf

'96, '98^ '99. In Russian.
An Outline of Developments on the Confines of the Settled Portions

of Siberia. 1893- 1899. Published by Agricultural Department. In

Russian.
Apcr^u des Explorations G6ologiques et Mini^res le Long du Trans-

sib^rien. Publi6 par le Comit^ G^logique de Russie. St Peters-

bourg. 1900.
Atlas Climatologique de L'Empire de Russie. Publi6 par L'Observa-

toire Physique Central Nicolas i TOccasion de Cinquantieme An-

niversaire de Sa Fondation. 1849- 1899. St. P6tersbourg.
Caucasus Almanac for 190a Tifiis: M. Sharadze and Co. In

Russian.
Crimea and Transcaucasia. By Commander J. Buchan Telfer, R. N.,

F. R. G. S. In Two Volumes. LondoA: Henry S. King & Co.

1876..
Description of Manchuria. Compiled in the Office of the Minister

of Finance and edited by Dimitrij Pozdnieff. Volume I. St

Petersburg: In Russian.
Doctrine of the Russian Church. Translated l^ the Rev. R. W. Black-
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The Empire of the Tsars and the Russians. By Anatole Leroy-Beau-

lieu. Translated from the Third French Edition by Z^naide A.

Ragozin. In Two Volumes. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons,

1893.

633



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634 ASIATIC RUSSIA

From Peking to Petersborg. By Arnot Reid. London: Edward
Arnold. 1899.

Geological and Orographical Description of Turkestan i874-i88a By
I. V. Mushketo£F. St Petersburg. 1886. In Russian.

Geological and Mineralogical Explorations along the Line of the Si-
berian Railway. Published by the Russian Government Twenty
Volumes. In Russian and French.

Guide des Excursions du VII Congres G^logique IntemationaL St
P^ersbourg. Imprimerie de M. Stassul6witsch. 1897.

Guide du Grand Chemin de Fer Trans- Sib^rien. fidit6 par le Minia-
ture des Voies de Communication, sous la Redaction de A. I.
Dmitrief-Mamonof et de Tingenieur A. F. Zdsiarsky. Traduit du
Russe par P. Tacchella. Contenant 2 phototypies, 363 photo-typo-
gravures, 4 cartes de la Sib^rie et 3 plans de villes.

History o£ the Eastern Church. By A. P. Stanley. London : Murray.
1862.

History of the Mongols. By Henry H. Howorth, F. S. A. In Two
Parts. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1876.

History of Russia. By Alfred Ramt>aud. Translated by Leonora B.
Lang. In Two Volumes. London: Sampson Low, Marston,
Searle, & Rivington. 1879.

History of Russia. By W. Tooke, F. R. S. In Two Volumes. Lon-
don : T. N. Longman and O. Rees. i8oa

In the Lena Delta. By George Wallace Melville. Boston: Houghton,
Mifflin & Co. 1885.

La Russie i la fin du 19* Si^e. Ouvrage publi6 sous la Direction de
M. W. De Kovalevsky, Adjoint du Ministre des Finances de Rus-
sie. Paris; Guillaumin et Cie. 14, rue Richelieu. 1900.

La Russie Extra-Europ6enne et Polaire. Par M. P. de Semenoir.
Commission Imp^riale de Russie a TExposition Universelle de 1900.

Man Past and Present By Augustus Henry Keane. Cambridge, Eng.
At the University. 1899L



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 635

Memoirs of a Revolutionist. By P. Kropotkin. Boston and New
York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 1899.

Natural History of Okhotsk and Kamchatka. By H. V. Slunin. St.
Petersburg. In Two Volumes. 1900. In Russian.

Notes on the Late Expedition against the Russian Settlements in East-
em Siberia. By Capt. Bernard Whittingham. London: Long-
man, Brown, Green, and Longmans. 1856.

Nouvelle G^ographie Universelle. VI. L'Asie Russe. By E. R6clus.
Paris: Hatchette & Cie. 1881.

Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia. A Study of Historical Biography.
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Picturesque Russia. By P. P. Semenov. Vol. XII. Parts I and II.
Treating of Siberia. St Petersburg & Moscow: M. O. Wolf. In
Russian.

Russia. By D. Mackenzie Wallace, M. A. In Two Volumes. Lon-
don, Paris & New York : Cassell Petter & Galpin. 1877.

Russia on the Pacific and the Siberian Railway. By "Vladimir."
London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company. 1899.

Russian Empire and Trans-Siberian Railroad. United States Consular
Reports. Public Documents. 1899.

Russian Central Asia including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv.
By Henry Lansdell, D.D., M. R. A. S., F. R. G. S. I'o Two Volumes.
London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington. 1885.

Russian Church and Russian Dissent. By Albert F. Heard. Lottidon:
Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington. 1887.

Shores of Lake Aral. By Herbert Wood. London : Smith, Elder, &
Co. 1876.

Siberia and Central Asia. By John W. Bookwaltcr. Springfield, Ohio:
John W. Bookwalter. 1899.

Siberia and the Exile System. By George Kennan. In Two Volumes.
New York: The Century Co. 1891.

Siberia and the Great Siberian Railway. By the Department of Trade



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636 ASIATIC RUSSIA



and Manufactures Ministry of Finance for the World's Columbian
Exposition at Chicaga John Martin Crawford, U. S. Consul Gen-
eral to Russia, editor of the English Translation. VoL V. St
Petersburg. 1893.

Siberian Almanac Calendar for 190a Tomsk: F. P. Romanova. In
Russian.

Statesman's Year-Book for the year 1901. Edited by J. Scott Keltic,
LL.D. London: Macmillan and Co. 1901.

Tent Life in Siberia. By George Kennan. London: Low. 187a

Travels in the Regions of the Upper and Lower Amoor. By Thomas
Witlam Atkinson, F. R.G. S., F.G. S. London: Hurst and
Blad^ett i86a

Travels in Siberia. By Adolph Erman. In Two Volumes. London:
Longman, Brown, Greeny and Longmans. 1848.

Through Asia. By Svcn Hedin. In Two Volumes. New York and
London: Harper & Brothers. 1899.

Through Siberia. By Henry Lansdell. In Two Volumes. London:
Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington. 1882.

Through Siberia. By J. Stadling. New York: E. P. Dutton & Com-
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Truth About Russia. By W. T. Stead. London, Paris, New York &
Melbourne: Cassdl & Company. 1888.

Turkistan. By Eugene Schuyler, Phil. Dr. In Two Volumes. Lon-
don: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington. 1877.

Underground Russia. By Stepniak. London: Smith, Elder, & Co.
1890.

View of the Russian Empire During the Reign of Catherine the Second,
and to the Cose of the Present Century. By William Tooke,
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Visit to the Valley of the Yenisei. By Henry Seebohm. London:
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BIBLIOGRAPHY 637



Visit to the Valley of the Yenisei. By Henry SeebohnL Journal of
the Royal Geographical Society. Vol. 48. pp. 1-15.

Voyage Down the Amoor. By Perry McDonough Collins. New York:
D. Appleton and Company, i860.

Voyage of the Vega around Asia and Europe, with an Historical Re-
view of Previous Voyages along the North Coast of the Old
World. By A. E. Nordenskjold. Translated by Alexander Leslie.
London: Macmillan & Co. 1881.

Wissenschaftliche Resultate der von der Kaiserlichen Akademie der
Wissenschaften zur Erforschung des Janalandes und der Neusibir-
ischen Inseln, in den Jahren 1885 und ;886 Ausgesandten Expedi-
tion. St. P^ersbourg: Commissionnaires de TAcadtoie Imp^riale
des sciences. Abtheilung II : Tertiare Pflanzen der Insel Neusibir-
ien von J. Schmalhausen. Mit 2 Tafeln. Mit einer Einleitung von
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Abtheilung III: Die fossilen Eislager und ihre Beziehungen zu

den Mammuthleichen. Von Baron Eduard v. Toll. 1895.

Abtheilung IV: Beschreibung der Sammlung Posttertiarer Sauge-

thiere von J. D. Tscherski. Aus dem Russischen Cbersetzt Mit
6 Tafeln. 1893.
The series of articles upon Siberia and Central Asia by P. Kropotkin

in the Encyclopedia Britannica must also be referred to as marvels of

exact and comprehensive information.



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