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Henry Kiddle.

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one opened at Lexington (afterwards removed
to Framingham, Mass.), July 3., 1839, under the
principalship of Cyrus Peirce (q. v.); although S.
R. Hall (q. v.) had opened a teachers' seminary of
a private character as early as 1823. From that
time till 1850, only seven schools were founded :
three in Massachusetts, and one each in New
York, Maine, Ohio, and Illinois. During the next-
decade, from 1850 to 1860, but twelve normal
schools were established, three in Ohio, two in
Massachusetts, two in Illinois, and one each in
Connecticut, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey,
and Pennsylvania. Between 1860 and 1870,
fifty-two schools for teachers were established ;
and, from 1870 to the close of 1875, sixty-six
normal schools were founded. Very many of
these schools have connected with them model
schools, or schools of practice, sometimes called
training schools, in which the students of the
normal school proper are afforded an oppor-
tunity, under the supervision and direction of
experienced teachers, of putting in practice,
to some extent, the pedagogic principles and
rules which they have acquired theoretically, so
as to be prepared for actual work on emerging
as graduates from the normal school. Such schools
constitute a part of the means of professional
training, as indispensable to the teacher as the



hospital and clinique to the young and inexperi-
enced physician. The following table exhibits
the statistics of normal schools in the United
States for 1876.



NAME



tn rmal Inst.. .

State X irmal School

State Norma] School

N. D. of Delaware College
Del. State Normal Univ...

N. D. of Atlanta Univ

Haven Normal School

Fvan.I.ut h. Normal Scl 1

Southern 111. Normal Univ.

Chicago Normal School. . .
N. D. of Bock IUver Univ.
Cook Co. Normal School. .
N.W. German-EnglishN.8.
State Normal University. .
Peoria Co. Normal School.
Normal and Class. School.

N.W. Normal School

La Grange Co. Nor. School
Ind. State Normal School.
N. Ind. Normal School audi

Business Institute . . . .
K. Iowa Normal School. . .1
i hair of Didactic, lmva

State University i

Nor. Inst. Whittier Coll.

Kan. State '\ i nial School

forma] School

mworth St. N. s

N. D. of Berea College

HCky Normal School.

I die Training School
Minden High PublicSohoo]
N. D., New i ni. ans Univ..
N. D., Straight University

Peabody .Normal Sem

n State N. S

State Normal School

N. i >., Bfain < i uti al Inst. .
N. D., Oak Grove Seminary
Bait. N.S.forCol.Teachera

M. State Normal School . .

st. i latherine'a v ir. [net.

ii Normal School . . .
Normal Art School.

statu Normal School

Eramingham State V s. . .

Normal School

1.1 Stato N. S

State Normal School

Michigan State N. 8



Elon nee, Ala

Huntsville, Ala

Marion, Ala ,

Talladega, Ala

Faj i'tt. \ ille, Ark.. ,

Pine Bluff, Ark

sau Job . t'al ,

New Britain, Conn.

Newark, Del ,

Wilmington, Del

Atlanta, Ga

Waynesboro, Ga...

Addison, 111

Carbondale, 111

( Ihicago, 111

Dixon, 111

Englewood, 111

Galena. Ill

Normal, 111 ,

Peoria, 111 ,

Goshen, Ind ,

Rentland, Ind

La Grange, Ind.

Terre Haute, Ind.. .
Valparaiso, Ind



< ii-anih lew, Iowa.
Iowa City, Iowa. . .



1873
L866
1870
1870
1872
L870
L862
1850
1878
L866
1869
1868
1847
1874
L856
in;:.

1SG7
1868
1 857
1868
1873
1874
1875
1870
1873

1874
1872



Salem. Iowa 1868

( loncordia, Kan 1874

Emporia, Kan 1864

Leavenworth, Kan.... 1870

Berea, Kv 1866

Carlisle, Ky ' s 7.i

1871

is;:;



1868
L867



Louisville, Ky

Minden, La

New Orl( ans, La
Now Orleans, Da.
Now Orleans, Da.

Castillo. Me

ETarmington, Ale 1864

Pittsneld, Me 1872

Vassalboro, Ale 1846

Baltimore, Aid 1866

Baltimore, Md 1866

Baltimore, Md 187B

Cost. .n. Alass L852

Host. .ii, Alass 1^73

t ater, BCass, . . L840

l'i '.-mi i 1 1 . ■ I i:in i. Bfass, . . 1839

Salem, Alass 1854

Westneld, Alass 1889

Worcester, Mass i , i

N psilanti, Mich L852




54 State N. S. at Mankato Alankato, Minn 1868

56 state N. s. at St. Cloud. . . St. cloud, Alum 1868

56 First State Normal School Winona. Aliun 1864

57 Mississippi State N.S Holly Springs, Aliss... 1870

58 Tougaloo I'n. & state N.s.Tougaloo, Miss Is7l

69 Normal Institute Bolivar, Ah. 1868

t'.u s. K. Missouri state N. S. Cape Girardeau, Mo... 1873

61 N. C, I'niv of Missouri. . Columbia, AIo 1863

62|Fruitland Normal Inst... Jackson, Mo 1864

63 N. D., Lincoln Institute. . Jefferson Citv, Mo.. . . 1866

t.4 X. Alissouri State X. S. . . . Kirksville, Mo 1867

65 Normal School St. Louis, Mo 1957

instate n s. District No. 2. Warrensburg, Mo 1871

07 Nebraska State N. S Peru. Neb... 1867

68 X. H. State Normal School Plymouth, N. H 1870

69 State Normal School Trenton, N.J 1855

70N.Y. state Normal School Albany, N. V 1844

71 State Normal School Brockport, N. V 1867

7J State Normal School Buffalo, N. Y 1871

73 State Normal and T. S ... Cortland. N. Y 1869

74State Normal and T. S.... Fredonia, X. Y 1S66

75 State Normal and X. S.. . . Geneseo, N. Y 1871

76 Female Normal College.. . New York. X. Y 1870

77 Oswego State Nor. ami T.s. Oswego, N. Y 1861

7* State Normal ami T. S. . . . Pots.lam. X Y 1869

70 Ray's Normal Institute.. Kernersville. N. ('.. . . L873
so Kliendale Teachers' Inst.LitUe River, N.0 1872

81 shaw University Raleigh, N. C 1865

82 I .1st. .ii Normal School.... Wilmington, N. C 1872

83 North western Ohio N. S.. Ada, Ohio 1871

84 Ohio. N.S.& Business Inst. Bloomingburgh, Ohio

85 Cincinnati Normal SchooLCincinnati, Ohio 1808

86Hopedale Normal School. Hopedale, Ohio

87 National Normal School. . Lebanon. Ohio

88 Western Reserve N. S Alilan. Ohio 1852

89 N. D. Mt. Union College.. Mt. Union, Ohio 1846

Oinirwell Normal Inst itute. Orwell. Ohio 1865

'.'i Southern Ohio N. s Pleasantville, Ohio... L876

92 Republic Normal School. . Republic, Ohio is74

o-ohio Centra] N. s Worthington, Ohio... 1871

oi n. s. of will., rforce Univ. Xenia, Ohio 1872

96 N. ( onrse in Pacific Univ. Forest Grove, Oreg.. . 1871
96| Allegheny Normal Inst... Allegheny City, Pa 1874

97 Bloomsburg state N.S... Bloomsbiirg Pa I860

98 Northwestern State X. S.. Edenboro', Pa lsr.l

99 State Normal School Indiana, Pa 1875

ion Keystone State N.S Kut/towu, Pa 1866

lOljCentral X. S. Association. Lock Haven, Pa 1870

L02 state Normal School .Mansfield, Pa 1862

L03 Southwestern N. C Sagamore, Pa 1865

104 state Normal School Millersville, Pa 1859

105 Snyder Co. Normal Inst.. Selin's (i rove. Pa 1872

106 Cn'mb. Valley State N. S... Shippensburgh, Pa... 1873

107 Westchester State N.S... Westchester. Pa 1871

I os Rhode Island N. S Providence, R. 1 1871

lwo Avery Normal Institute.. Charleston, 8. C 1866

II" state Normal Sel 1 Columbia, S. C 1874

111 Nor. or T. S. tor l'reedmeii Knoxville, Tenn

112 Freedmen's Normal Inst. Mary-wile, Tenn 1873

113 New Providence Institute

tfaryville College Maryville, Tenn 1868

114 Le Moyne Normal school. Memphis, Tenn 1871

116 N. D. of Pisa University. Nashville, Tenn 1866

1 16 N. i>. Centra] Tenn. Coll.. Nashville, Tenn 1866

1 17 state Normal University. Nashville, Tenn 1876

I188tate Normal School..... Castleton, VI 1867

no Johnson Normal School.. Johnson, vt isijt

120State Normal School Randolph, Vt 1866

121 1 lain]. t..n Normal and Agri

cultural Institute Hampton. Va 1872

122 Richmond Normal School Richmond. Ya 1m',7

123 Fairnioiint State N. S I'airmount. W. Va 1868

124 Glenville State N s Glenville, W. Vt 1876

126 Storer Normal School..., Harper's Perry, W.Va, 1868

126 Marshal] Coll. state N.s.. Huntington, w. Va... 1868

127 shepherd College Shepherdetown.W.Va. 1878

1870

1871

i so;

1ST5
1870
1868

1867
1873

1S75



128 W.st Libert} Stat.- N.S... West Liberty. W. Va
1'j; 1 State Normal School Oshkosh. Wis

130 Wisconsin State n 9 Platteville, Wis

131 River Palls Normal School River lulls. Wis

132 Holj Camih Teach. Sem st. Francis, Wis

13:; state Normal School W Int. water. Wis

134 Kit a N.S Washington, D. C

[36 n n. , ii.war.l University i Washington, D. C

136 Washington Nor. School., Washington, D. C.

157 St.i .. i . i - Normal School St. George, I'tah



TECHNICAL EDUCATION



811



TECHNICAL EDUCATION has for its
object the improvement of the various arts ami
trades by imparting the requisite scientific
knowledge and practical skill for their successful
prosecution. Two great classes of tradesto which
it may be applied, may be noticed; (1) work-
ing trades (including chemical trades, as dyeing,
tanning, etc.; mechanical trades, as watch-making,
carpentry, etc.; artistic trades, as of the decorator,
jeweler, engraver, etc.), and (2) commercial trades,
as of the iron-monger and retailer of glass, ce-
ramic wares, etc. The higher branches, — those in
which the value of the product consists rather
in the labor and skill bestowed than in the ma-
terial used, and those involving the exercise of
taste, have been naturally found to exhibit most
improvement under a proper system of instruc-
tion, and, in this aspect, may be said to need
most a special training. The International Ex-
hibition in London, in 1851, which revealed the
superiority of the Continental nations in all
that relates to the application of art and beauty
to manufactures, gave a special impulse to tech-
nical education. This superiority was traced
directly to the facilities for special instruction
afforded to manufacturers, artisans, and others,
especially in France, Germany, and Switzerland,
(the need of which has been increasingly felt
with the progress of modern inventions), the ad-
vance of science, and the decay, in England, of the
system of apprenticeship. A theoretical knowl-
edge of principles, in addition to mere manual
dexterity and empirical insight, has become
more than ever necessary. Among the branches
generally requisite, are drawing, geometry, and
chemistry. Experience has proved that, to be
in the highest degree efficient, technical educa-
tion must begin in the primary school, and be
based on general literary culture. In continental
Europe, technical schools are generally supported
by the government, either local or general. The
means of instruction include lectures, evening
schools and Sunday-schools, museums, etc. In
Great Britain, mechanics' institutes are a prom-
inent feature. These generally have a library, a
reading-room, and evening classes in various
branches. In Germany, there are, among inferior
institutions, handicraft schools, further-improve-
ment schools, etc., in which, sometimes, the com-
mon-school branches are taught to apprentices
and journeymen, and, sometimes, instruction is
given in geometry, drawing, and other special
branches, as a qualification for the practice of the
lower trades. The higher institutions impart tech-
nical instruction calculated to aid in the pursuit
of the higher trades. They generally presuppose
such a training as is given, for instance, in the
higher real schools. Some are connected with the
real schools as their higher classes ; some are
separate institutions, with three or four classes or
courses, either similar to gymnasia, or between
these and the u ni versifies ; others are, in form,
technical universities on the plan of the Poly-
technic School of Paris. The branches taught
are mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry,
natural history, technology, drawing, modeling.



etc. There are many special schools for appren-
tices on the Continent (giving instruction to
weavers, watch-makers, machinists, etc. according
to the needs of the locality], in which labor per-
formed under the direction of experienced work-
men occupies a large part of the time, while the
rest is devoted to studies immediately bear-
ing on the art or industry taught. In West

Flanders, Belgium, there are communal schools
for apprentice weavers, in which primary and
religious instruction is joined with manual labor.
In the power-loom weaving school of Mulhouse,
Alsace, instruction is given of a grade to prepare
superintendents of factories. The most impor-
tant agency in the direction of technical educa-
tion in Great Britain is found in the numerous
art schools that have sprung up in various parts
of the kingdom, at the head of which are those
of the South Kensington Museum. These have
been instrumental in diffusing a knowledge of
industrial drawing, and their effects have been
widely felt. The establishment of a central
technical university (with subordinate colleges,
etc., in regular gradation) has been advocated.
In the United States, but little has been done to-
ward technical education. There are mechanics'
associations in various cities, which afford, to a
greater or less extent, means for the general or
technical improvement of the working classes, and
numerous business colleges, in which a knowl-
edge of book-keeping and other business opera-
tions is imparted. Industrial training is given
in Girard College. Philadelphia. The Worcester
County Free Institute of Industrial Science (see
Science, Schools of) may be classed as a tech-
nical school. Industrial art is taught in the
schools of the Cooper Union (New York), in
the Philadelphia School of Design for Women,
and in various scientific schools. In 1870, the
state of Massachusetts provided by law that
" Any city or town may, and every city and
town having more than ten thousand inhabitants
shall, annually make provision for giving free
instruction in industrial or mechanical drawing
to persons over fifteen years of age, either in
day- or evening-schools, under the direction of
the school-committee." Under this act, consider-
able progress has been made. A similar law was
enacted in the state of New York in 1875.
Among European institutions, the following may
be mentioned: in Austria-Hungary, the Imperial
Royal Commercial and Nautical Academy, in
Triest, the Commercial High School, in Vienna,
the commercial academies in Prague, Gratz, and
Buda-Pesth, the Imperial Royal Technical In-
stitute, in Cracow, the School of Industrial Arts
and the School for Architects and Machinists, in
Vienna, the schools for artisans in Gratz, Prague,
Briinn, Bielitz, Czernowitz, and Kaschau, the
Higher Weaving School, in Briinn, and numer-
ous inferior schools, special and general, for arti-
sans, etc.; in Germany, the higher commercial
institutions in Berlin, Breslau, Dantzic, Coblentz,
Frankfort, Hanover, Augsburg, Leipsic, Dres-
den, ( Jhemnitz, < Jera, Bostock, Brunswick, Ham-
burg, and Liibeck, the technical schools in Fran-



812



TEMPER



TENNESSEE



kenberg and Mittweida, the 30 royal and pro-
vincial schools of trades in Prussia, the superior
school for artisans in Chemnitz, the commercial

and industrial art schools in Munich and Nurem-
berg, the art-industry school in Offenbach, the
8 art and architectural schools in Prussia, the
14 architectural schools in the other states,
the 8 superior weaving schools, the royal school
of pattern drawing in Berlin, the school of
modeling and ornamental and pattern drawing
in Dresden, the 21 navigation schools, and the
numerous inferior schools of commerce and
trades; in France, the 12 professional schools
(ecoles professionneUes), the schools of arts and
trades (ecoles des mis et metiers) at Aix, Angers,
and Chalons-sur-Marne.the courses of instruction
in the application of the sciences to industry, and
in drawing, in various cities, the watch-making
schools at Oluses and Besancon, the school of
tobacco-manufacture and the superior commer-
cial school in Paris, numerous inferior commer-
cial schools, and the 42 hydro-graphic schools
(for the instruction of seamen for the mercantile
marine) ; in Italy, the 74 technical or trades in-
stitutes (istituti teanici, islituti industrials epro-
fessionali) of the second grade, the royal superior
commercial school of Venice, the 2.'5 nautical in-
stitutes and schools, and the inferior schools of
special trades : in the Netherlands, the 42 inter-
mediate schools lor the working classes, the 30
drawing and handicraft schools, the school of

trade and industry in Amsterdam, the school
for architects at Bois-le-Duc, and the 9 aaviga-
tion schools : in Belgium, the superior commer-
cial institute in Antwerp, the 26 industrial

schools (including the provincial school of trade,
industry, and mining at Monsi. and the naviga-
tion schools in Antwerp and ( tatend ; in Switzer-
land, the technical institute in Winterthur. the

watch-making school in Geneva, and the com-
mercial schools in various places. According to
the regulation of March 21., 1870, the Prussian
schools of trades thereafter organized, consist
of three classes (each with a course of one
year), two lower and one higher : the last is the
special class, and embraces four departments
(one for the instruction of candidates tor higher
technical institutions, one of architecture, one
for mechanical trades, and one for chemical
trades). The complete technical institutes in
Italy have four departments Iphysico-mathcinat-

ical, agricultural, commercial, and book-keep-
ing); a few have a fifth department, the indus-
trial. Those at Kabriano and Tcrni are schools

of i banics and construction. The institute at

Girgenti has a department for the sulphur in-
dustry.— See Walter Smith. Art Education,
Scholastic i,,>.
(Boston, L876).

TEMPER, the disposition or constitution of
the mind, in relation particularly to the affec-
tions and the passions. Good temper implies a
serenity of mind, and a natural or habitual

cheerfulness, which is not easily disturbed. It



is opposed to peevishness and sullenness. which
seem to be characteristic of certain minds. As
good temper predisposes to docility, so ill-temper
is directly antagonistic to it ; hence, the educator
must cultivate the former in the mind of his
pupil, and strive to eradicate the latter. In
dealing with this fault, the utmost patience is
requisite ; since any exhibition of ill temper on
the part of the educator will, from the force of
example, as well as from the additional irritation
caused by it. aggravate the difficulty, and foster
the natural failing in the pupil's mind into a
confirmed vice. Allowance must always be
made for the natural peculiarities of children ;
since these cannot be immediately or forcibly re-
pressed, but must, by careftd training, be brought
under self-control, which is one of the earliest
lessons to be taught, but one of the last objects
attained in education. Discouragement may
sometimes take the form of ill temper ; and. in
such a case, the teacher must make concessions,
and give special attention to remove the feeling
and restore confidence. A violent, irascible, or
stubborn temper in the pupil is to be met with
calmness and firmness on the part of the teaehi r;
and very often the marked contrast between his
manner and that of the pupil will Serve to recall
the latter to himself, and excite in his mind a
feeling of shame at his haste or violence. Nothing
will tend so strongly as this to cure the vice,
since it really leads the child to punish himself
tor his Fault. Ill temper that takes the form of
obstinacy, is the most difficult to deal with ; and
it is this that- Locke reserves as the special and
only ease lor the use of the rod. A resort to
this should not. however, be hastily made, and
will scarcely ever be needed, if the circumstance s

admit of persistent discipline of another kind by
the educator. In school, unfortunately, this is
not always the case, the teacher being obliged

promptly to choose between the immediate con-
quest of his stubborn pupil, or the disorganiza-
tion of his school. (See CORPORAL PUNISHMENT.)
TENNESSEE, one of the southern states
of the American Onion, admitted in L796. Its
area, according to the federal census, is 45,600

square miles ; and its population, in L870, was
1 ,258,520, of whom 936,1 1 !> were whites. :;•_'•_>.:{.•{ 1 .
colored persons, and 70, Indians.

Educational History. — The first incorporated

seminary of learning in the valley of the Missis-
sippi was founded at Nashville, in L785. In L806,
this was raised to the rank and title of Cumber-
land College, and. in L826, became the University
of Nashville. In L794, Blount College, sA Knox-
\ille, was incorporated; and. immediately after-
ward. Greene College. In L795, Washington
College was founded. In L806, an act of Con-
gress provided that the state should appropriate
L 00,000 acres for the use of two colleges to be
established, one in east, and one in we.-t Tennes-
see; 100,000 acres for academies, and 640 acres



Online LibraryHenry KiddleThe cyclopædia of education: a dictionary of information for the use of teachers, school officers, parents, and others → online text (page 207 of 229)