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Henry Kraemer.

Applied and economic botany for students in technical and agricultural schools, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, for chemists, food analysts and for those engaged in the morphological and physiological study of plants online

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Online LibraryHenry KraemerApplied and economic botany for students in technical and agricultural schools, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, for chemists, food analysts and for those engaged in the morphological and physiological study of plants → online text (page 1 of 58)
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Frontispiece, i, cell of fleshy scale of bulb of onion (Allium Cepa) showing cyto-
plasm, nucleus and large central vacuole.

Chloroplasts: 2, a parenchyma cell of green fruit of carden pepper {Capsicum annuiim)
showing cytoplasm, nucleus and chloroplasts; 2a, a chloroplast of a moss (Funaria) showing
green granules, assimilation starch grains and protein granules; 2b, a cell near the periphery
of the pseudo-bulb of the orchid {Phaius grandifolius) showing cytoplasm and three reserve
starch grains formed by leucoplasts, which latter under the influence of light have developed
into chloroplasts.

Chromoplasts: 3, a parenchyma cell of ripe fruit of Capsicum annuum showmg cyto-
plasm, nucleus and yellowish-red chromoplasts; 3a, isolated chromoplasts of carrot {Dauciis
Carota).

4. transverse section of petal of wild pansy {Viola tricolor) showmg colored cell-sap in
epidermal cells.



APPLIED AND ECONOMIC

BOTANY

FOR STUDENTS IN

TECHNICAL AND AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS, PHARMA-
CEUTICAL AND MEDICAL COLLEGES, FOR CHEMISTS,
FOOD ANALYSTS AND FOR THOSE ENGAGED IN THE
MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PLANTS

BY

HENRY KRAEMER

Ph.B. (in Chemistry), Ph.M. (in Pharmacy),
Ph.D. (in Botany)

HONORARY MEMBER BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL CONFERENCE; HONORARY MEMBER
CONGRES INTERNATIONAL DE PHARMACIE, BRUXELLES, 191 o; CORRE-
SPONDING MEMBER SOCIETE DE PHARMACIE DE PARIS; PAST PRESIDENT
AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL FACULTIES; MEMBER
OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF REVISION OF THE PHARMA-
COPCEIA OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ETC.

ILLUSTRATED
With 424 plates, comprising about 2000 figures



SECOND EDITION



NEW YORK

JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc.
London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited



7/20



Copyright, 19 1 4

BY

HENRY KRAEMER

Cop3-right, 19 1 6

BY

HENRY KRAEMER



All Rights Reserved



PRESS OF

BRAUNWORTH & CO.

BOOK MANUFACTUBEBe

BROOKLYN, N. Y.



LIBRARY

N. C. State College

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.

That this work on Applied and Economic Botany has been appre-
ciated is shown by the necessity of a new edition in less than two years.
It is now fourteen years since the author first undertook to write a
book on Botany, and since then he has endeavored to improve each
succeeding work to conform to the suggestions and criticisms which
were submitted. The reviews of this new work have been uniformly
favorable, and apparently the book has given great satisfaction to teachers,
students, and those interested in botany. The only criticism that has
been offered is that it is perhaps too comprehensive for the average
student. This criticism is really the best recommendation of the value
of the book and the service it is rendering those engaged in applied
science. The training of the analyst and pharmacist can hardly be too
complete, as their work touches the very depths of science, and unless
their training has been very broad and thorough, they cannot hope to
solve the problems that are presented to them. This book, however,
was written not only for use as a text-book, but it was intended to be
a hand-book or laboratory manual for the graduate after he has entered
practical fields. That this has also been realized to some extent is shown
by the attestations of many graduates who have found in it just the
information which they needed.

In the present second edition, the author has carefully revised the text,
making such corrections as were necessary and bringing the work up to date.
Among the new matter added is a much needed glossary, and a concise
statement concerning the nature and properties of the Vitamines, an
important group of recently discovered nitrogenous substances. A word
might be said in regard to the glossary, which is replete and will be found
to supplement the subject matter. It was not until the preparation of this
part of the work was fairly under way that it was found that the defini-
tions as given in the average glossary and in some of the best dictionaries
were frequently inadequate and vague. It is believed that the inclusion
of the glossary in this volume enhances its value, and will be appreciated
by teachers, students and analysts generally.

It may not be amiss to state here that since the appearance of the
first edition of this work, the author has published a supplementary volume
entitled "Scientific and Applied Pharmacognosy." In this latter work, de-
voted to the consideration of drug, food and economic products, the class-
ification has been according to their natural relationship. The character-
istics of the families comprising them are considered from an anatomical
view point, so that the information given supplements that in the Applied
and Economic Botany, where the treatment is essentially that based
upon their organography or outer morphology. In fact the volume on
Pharmacognosy, in addition to its value to pharmacists and analysts, will
be of very great interest to botanists as it is in a large measure a
treatise on the comparative anatom;^ of plants.

September, 1916, H, K.



It



., O



PREFACE.

There are quite a number of books on botany, many of which serve
a very excellent purpose. For the most part, however, they are not adapted
for the use of students in the applied sciences where the knowledge of
botany is to be utilized later in practical work. It is now more than sixty
years since Schleiden showed the value of the microscope in the examina-
tion of drugs and Schacht demonstrated its usefulness in the study of
textile fibers. Since that time quite a number of works have been pub-
lished dealing with the microscopy of special technical products, as drugs,
foods, fibers, woods, etc., but there have been no text-books which could
be employed in the courses on applied and economic botany that would
satisfy either the desires of the student or fit the graduate for practical work
in commercial life. It is not generally appreciated that there is a depart-
ment of applied botany which is distinct from every other phase of botani-
cal study ; the point of view and the technique being peculiarly its own and
the problems so intricate and important that they should ever be held be-
fore the student and command his constant attention. It is almost self-
evident that courses in botany which are intended for intellectual culture
or scientific discipline are not adapted for technical courses of instruction.
In the latter the student has a right to ask for the application of the in-
struction which he is receiving and to show an interest in proportion as the
instructor is able to demonstrate its value. There are some who consider
that a more or less superficial knowledge of botanical principles and micro-
scopic technique is sufficient for the student in applied or economic botany.
On the contrary, we find that a rather extended knowledge of botany and
a very thorough preparation in certain phases of botanical work are
absolutely required in order to prepare him to meet and solve the many
problems that arise in the commercial world. Many of the commercial
problems that are held to be chemical and which are handed to the chem-
ist for solution are, as a matter of fact, of a botanical character and can
be solved with less expense and less time by the trained botanist. What
is really needed is the trained analyst, who, while proficient with chemical
methods, is also thoroughly versed in microscopic technique. We have
come to a time, if real progress is to be made both in the manufacture of
plant materials and in the examination of commercial substances, that it
is necessary to bring both chemical and botanical training and knowledge
to bear upon the problems involved.

Nearly all of the problems upon which one is liable to be consulted in
active practice, whether they involve new processes of manufacture or
the examination of the finished market material, show at the outset that
the analyst must have a very thorough knowledge of the cell constituents
and the tissues composing the raw material. It is for this reason that
almost one-half of the material of this volume is devoted to the study of

V



vi PREFACE.

cell-contents, forms of cells, and the outer and inner morphology' of higher
plants. The facts and illustrations here presented cover not only the latest
researches on their morphology, origin, and distribution, but also the
most recent advances in regard to their chemical nature. A fair amount
of this work is original, and the presentation in one volume, it is hoped,
will be appreciated in addition also by students of the plant cell as well
as the phyto-chemist.

In the practical examination of the crude materials of the market we
find more or less contamination with fungi, lichens, and other lower plants,
and for this reason, as well as for the understanding of the morphology of
the higher plants, a more or less succinct treatment of the Principal Groups
of Plants is given in Qiapter I. Another reason which has prompted the
author to lay considerable stress on the knowledge contained in this chap-
ter is that if the student will master the technique and will apply himself
to this part of the work, he will be better prepared to take up the study
of the structures of higher plants.

The chapter on Classification of Higher Plants is quite extended and
illustrated with a large number of photographs, showing not only many
of our interesting wild plants but the principal economic plants that are
used as foods, drugs, and for other economic purposes, with considerable
valuable technical information concerning them. The chapter on Nomen
clature has been included in order that the derivations of botanical names
might be better understood and their correct spelling facilitated. The
chapter on Cultivation of jMedicinal Plants, while especially prepared for
those interested in the subject, will be found useful to those interested in
other industries where the extermination of native plants is calling attention
to practical means for their replenishment. The chapter on Microscopic
Technique contains methods for the preparation of commercial materials
and much information that doubtless will facilitate practical work. The
index contains some 6,000 titles, making the information contained in this
volume readily accessible.

The work is illustrated throughout, and the legends accompanying the
illustrations will be found interesting and instructive and in most instances
supplement the information given in the text. All of the illustrations which
are not reproductions of photographs and drawings made by the author
are duly credited. The author acknowledges the valuable services rendered
by his associates in the preparation of the text, reading of proof, and prep-
aration of the index; to Professor Wallace Truesdell for assistance in
the chapter on Botanical Nomenclature and to Mr. Stewardson Brown for
the use of a number of photographs. When larger monographs and
authoritative works have been consulted, due credit has been given in the
text, so that the present work is a foundation not only of a text-book for
students of applied and economic botany but as a reference book for manu-
facturers and analysts.

November, 1914. H. K.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.— PRINCIPAL GROUPS OF PLANTS.

PAGE

Introductory , i

Thallophytes 6

Schizophy tes 7

Schizophyceae (Fission Algae) 8

Schizomycetes (Bacteria) 12

Algae 16

Chlorophyceas (Green Algae) 20

Phasophyceae (Brown Algae) 28

Rhodophycese (Red Algae) 31

Diatoms 35

Fungi 40

Phycomycetes (Alga-like Fungi) 42

Ascomycetes (Including Yeasts) 47

Basidiomycetes 56

Fungi Imperfecti 70

Lichens 71

Archegoniates 75

Bryophytes 76

Hepaticae (Liverworts) 80

Musci (Mosses) 84

Pteridophy tes 86

Filicales (Ferns) 87

Equisetales (Horsetails) " 96

Lycopodiales (Club Mosses) 97

Spermophytes (Seed Plants) 100

Gymnosperms ' loi

Angiosperms = 1 19

Organic Evolution 128

CHAPTER IL— CELL-CONTENTS AND FORMS OF CELLS.

Protoplasmic Cell-Contents i34

Non-Protoplasmic Cell-Contents 140

Factors Influencing Growth, Including Food of Plants 246

Forms of Cells 262

Parenchyma ^^^

Mechanical Tissue 264

Conducting or Mestome Cells 272

Protecting Cells '^^^

vii



viii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.— OUTER AND INNER MORPHOLOGY OF THE

HIGHER PLANTS.

Introductory = 298

I. Outer Morphology of the Root 299

Inner Structure of the Root 309

II. Outer Morphology of the Stem 320

Inner Structure of the Stem 338

III. Outer Morphology of the Leaf 348

Inner Structure of the Leaf 365

IV. Outer Morphology of the Flower 374

Inner Structure (Histology) of the Flower 402

V. Outer Morphology of the Fruit 408

Inner Structure of the Fruit 42 1

VI. Outer Morphology of the Seed 423

Inner Structure of the Seed 427

CHAPTER IV.— BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. . . , 430

CHAPTER v.— CLASSIFICATION OF ANGIOSPERMS YIELDING
ECONOMIC PRODUCTS.

Introductory 463

Monocotyledons 463

Dicotyledons 501

Archichlamydeae or Choripetalae 504

Metachlamydeae or Sympetalae 643

CHAPTER VI.— CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS

Plants Grown from Seeds 728

Propagation by Cutting 733

Collecting and Drying of Drugs 737

Relative Value of Drugs from Cultivated and Wild Plants. . . . 739
Progress in the United States 744

CHAPTER VII.— MICROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE AND REAGENTS.

Making of Sections 749

Practical Suggestions 751

Micrometry or Microscopic Measurement 754

Reagents 755

Effects of Important Micro-Chemical Reagents 759

The Micro-Polariscope 764

The Spectroscope in Microscopic Analytical Work 764

Dark Field Illumination and the Ultra-Microscope 765

Micro-Analysis 766



BOTANY

CHAPTER I

PRINCIPAL GROUPS OF PLANTS

INTRODUCTORY

There are four main lines of botanical work now recognized,
— namely, Morphology, Histology, Physiology, and Ecology.
Morphology treats of the form and structure of plants and the
subject is sometimes divided into (i) external morphology or
organography and (2) internal morphology or anatomy (histol-
ogy). The former deals with external characters of plant parts and
the latter with their minute inner structure. Physiology may be
defined as the study which considers life processes and the condi-
tions which influence these. Ecology is the study of the adapta-
tion of plants and their parts to external conditions. It is impor-
tant to bear in mind, however, that these several departments
are more or less interdependent, and that one of them caimot be
intelligently studied without a consideration of the problems of
the others. Eor instance, as Goebel states, we cannot under-
stand the relation of the external forms of organs without refer-
ence to their functions. In other words, form and function have
a direct relation ; one influences the other. So, too, in the study
of ecology we study the influence of external conditions on
plants and these, as indicated above, have a direct influence on
physiological processes, and thus the study of ecology merges
into the study of physiology on the one hand and into morphology
on the other.

While this book will deal chiefly with the structure of plants
and their parts, still it will be necessary occasionally to refer to
some of the characters of plants which properly belong to other
departments of botanical study.

Basis of Plant Structure.— In order to understand the sig-
nificance and relation of the various parts of plants it is necessary



2 A TEXT-BOOK OF BOTANY.

to know something of their functions and habits of life as well
as of their internal structure. It is desirable at this point to give a
brief consideration to the cell, as it is the unit of plant structure.

If we make a section of a plant and examine it by means of
the microscope, the cut surface presents the appearance of a
network, indicating that the tissue is made up of small compart-
ments or chambers. One of these compartments together with
its contents constitutes the structure known as the cell (see
Frontispiece).

The cell-contents vary greatly in appearance and composi-
tion, but in all active or living cells there is always present the
substance known as protoplasm. The protoplasm is the basis
of all plant structures whether they belong to the lowest or high-
est forms ; for by its aid or from it all parts of the plant are
developed. Even the cell-wall is a product of protoplasmic activity.
The protoplasmic content of the cell consists of several intimately
related but more or less distinct portions, — namely, a somewhat
thin, semi-liquid, granular portion known as the cytoplasm ;
a more or less spherical body embedded in the cytoplasm called
the NUCLEUS ; and frequently, but not always, certain small
bodies which are more or less variable in shape called plastids,
these being also embedded in the cytoplasm (see Frontispiece).
The cytoplasm and nucleus are sometimes considered together
as a unit, which is known as the protoplast. A fuller discussion
of the differentiated portions of the protoplasm will be found in
Chapter 11.

The lowest organisms, as the slime molds, do not have an
enclosing membrane, but consist of a naked mass of protoplasm.
With this exception plants have an outer wall or membrane.
They may consist of a single cell, as in the Bacteria, or a chain
of cells, as in the filamentous Algae, or a mass of cells, as in the
majority of plants, and are accordingly designated as unicellular
or multicellular. The cell-wall is composed for the most part
of cellulose, but may be modified in various ways.

Nomenclature. — The names for describing plants have been
derived for the most part from studies of the higher plants, they
having exclusively attracted the attention of botanists at first.
But with the light which has been thrown on the relationship



PRINCIPAL GROUPS OF PLANTS. 3

of the higher and lower groups of plants by the more recent
study of the lower forms the older terminology has been somewhat
modified. Thus, for example, we speak of the root and shoot,
with its leaves, as the vegetative organs of the higher plants,
and in describing the corresponding organs (where they exist) in
the lower plants, we either apply these terms directly, or indi-
rectly by saying that the latter are root-like, stem-like, etc. On
the other hand, we now speak of the sexual organs of the higher
plants as antheridia and oogonia (or archegonia) instead of
classifying them roughly as stamens and pistils, the latter names
being retained but with a different signification.

Plant Organs. — Depending upon the fact that the plant re-
quires nourishment for its growth and development and that it
has also to carry on the work of reproduction or propagation,
— i.e., the production of new plants, — we distinguish between
vegetative or nutritive organs and propagative or reproductive
organs. The vegetative organs, such as the root, stem and leaves
in higher plants, manufacture the food necessary for the life of
the plant, while certain other more or less specialized organs or
cells carry on the work of reproduction.

In the lower plants, however, the whole structure is much
simpler, and in some instances a cell which performs the work
of a nutritive cell at one stage may become a reproductive cell
at another, or, as in the case of the unicellular Algae, all the
various functions of the plant may be carried on by a single cell.

Generally speaking, there are two principal ways in which
plants are multiplied or reproduced: (i) By cell division or cell
fission, and (2) by the formation of special cells known as
SPORES. In cell division (Fig. 85) the nucleus and cytoplasm of
a cell divide to form two new cells or protoplasts, which become
distinct by the formation of a wall or cell-plate between the two
halves. All growth in plants is dependent upon this method,
and in growing parts the cells are said to be in a state of division.
Owing to the plasticity of the plant organism, detached portions
will often grow and give rise to new plants, as in the case of cut-
tings. Growth here as in the parent plant is accompanied by cell
division. In some of the lower Algae (Fig. 10) cell division is the
only method of propagation, and as only the ordinary vegetative or



4 A TEXT-BOOK OF BOTANY.

nutritive cells of the plant are involved in the process it is some-
times spoken of as vegetative multiplication.

In both lower and higher plants, with the exceptions just
noted, reproduction is also earned on by means of spores.




Fig. s. Ulothrix zonata. A, young filament with rhizoid cell (r); B, piece of filament
showing escape of swarm spores; C, a swarm spore or zoospore with 4 cilia; D, biciliate
gametes escaping from a filament; E, F, G, showing difi'erent stages of union of two gametes;
H, young zygote or zygospore in which the cilia have been absorbed; J, i -celled plant
developed from zygote; K, young plant organizing zoospores. — After Dodel-Port.

Depending upon their origin two classes of spores are distin-
guished, namely, (a) asexual spores, and (b) sexual spores. In
the production of asexual spores the contents of a certain cell
called a mother cell or sporangium break up into a number of
new cells sometimes called daughter cells, which escape through
the cell-wall. In the lower plants, particularly those growing



PRINCIPAL GROUPS OF PLANTS. 5

in water or In moist places, these cells are provided with short
thread-like appendages known as cilia, which enable them to
move about in the water. They are known as zoospores or swarm
spores (Fig. 5, B, C), and each individual zoospore is able to
produce a new plant.

The number of zoospores formed in a sporangium is usually
2 to 8, as in Ulothrix, but the number may be larger. The method
of cell formation which gives rise to zoospores is sometimes
spoken of as internal division from the fact that they arise
within the old cell and retain no relation to the old wall as is the
case in cell fission. The zoospores are at first naked protoplasts,
but later, on coming to rest, may form a wall. Sexual spores, on
the other hand, are formed by the union of two cells known as
gametes. When the gametes are similar the resulting spore is
known as a zygospore or zygote (Fig. 5, E, F, G). When the
gametes are unlike, the spore produced by their union is known
as an oospore. In the latter case one of the gametes is larger
than the other, is less active, and is spoken of as the female
gamete, oosphere, or tgg (Figs. 12, 21). The other more active
cell is known as the male gamete, antherozoid or sperm (Fig.
51, ///). The cell giving rise to the oosphere is known as the
oogonium (Figs. 12, 21), while the one in which the anthero-
zoid or sperm originates is called the antheridium (Figs. 12, 21,
22, 51).

PLANT GROUPS.

Until a comparatively recent time, botanists divided the plant
kingdom into two large groups, as follows:

The flowering plants, or Phanerogams, meaning '' reproductive
process evident," so applied because the reproduction of the plant
was readily seen to develop In the flower through the agency of
the pistil and stamens.

The non-flowering plants, or Cryptogams, rneaning *' repro-
ductive process concealed," so applied to the lower plants like
the ferns, mosses, sea-weeds, etc., because in these plants the
method of reproduction was not known.

Now, however, after a considerable amount of study, It has
been learned that a great many of the lower plants have repro-



6 A TEXT-BOOK OF BOTANY.

ductive organs which are analogous, even if they are not exactly
similar, to those of the flowering plants. Consequently the former
classification is no longer applicable, and the following arrange-
ment is now generally adopted :

Thallophytes j^^^^

[ Fungi

Archegoniates [ Bryophytes

( Pteridophytes.

Spermophytes | Gymnosperms

I Angiosperms

In our study of these groups we shall see that in passing
from the Thallophytes through the various groups to the Angio-
sperms we pass from very simple forms to those which are quite
complex.

THALLOPHYTES.

General Characteristics. — This group comprises those plants
which are simplest in form and structure. They are supposed
also to represent more or less primitive types. In these the plant
body does not show a dififerentiation into root, stem, and leaf,
as in the higher plants, and is termed a thallus, the word thallus
meaning a " mass " of cells. The cells making up a thallus are



Online LibraryHenry KraemerApplied and economic botany for students in technical and agricultural schools, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, for chemists, food analysts and for those engaged in the morphological and physiological study of plants → online text (page 1 of 58)