Henry Lewis Taylor.

Professional education in the United States online

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Men


■Women


Botli


Total




101
22
69
12
4
14




7





64
64
80
44
48
3


165




86




156


Dentistry .-..,


56


Pharmacv . ...... .... .. ...... ......


52


Yeterinary medicine.....


17



Power to confer degrees

Low standards in many professional schools are due to a fail-
ure to subject the degree-conferring power to strict state super-
vision. In New York and Pennsylvania the laws now prevent
an abuse of the power to confer degrees." In Massachusetts and
Vermont bodies formed under the general corporation acts are
prohibited from conferring degrees. In Ohio and Nebraska the
statutes require only the nominal endowment of $5000 for a
degree-conferring institution. In other states and territories as
a rule any body of men may form an educational corporation
with power to confer degrees " without any guaranty whatever
that the privilege will not be abused."*

This matter has been under discussion recently in various
educational bodies and there is a strong sentiment in favor of
a strict supervision by the state of the degree-conferring power."

Jambs Eussell Parsons jr

Director of College department

a A similar bill, strongly advocated by educators, was defeated at the
last session of the Illinois legislature through the efforts of politicians and
others in favor of low standards.

?' Edward Avery Harrlman, Educational franchises. (E. Am. bar. ass.,
1898.)

c In 1897 the section of legal education of the American bar association
resolved that the degree-conferring power should be " subject to strict
state supervision to be exercised in a manner somewhat similar to that
which is exercised by the regents of the University of the State of New
York." In an address before the National educational association in 1897,
Pres. Henry Wade Rogers said: " There should be established in each
state a council of education, which should be intrusted with powers similar
to those vested in the regents of the University of the State of New York,
and it should be composed of the most eminent men in the state without
any reference to political considerations. No degree-conferring institution
should be incorporated without the approval of the council of education."



24 UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK

PRELIMINARY REQUIREMENTS

First in importance and earliest in time the requirements of a
preliminary general education for admission to professional
study are latest in development and least in legal recognition.
Inasmuch as this must be the most important line of future
development and in recognition of the advanced position taken
by certain states a study is made of institutions whose re-
quirements and examinations have stability enough to warrant
an attempt to register them on a uniform basis.

The study gives as completely as possible
Institution, location, executive ofiScer, year, number schools,
Registration on a uniform basis.
Unit of measure. Admission to a high school presupposes at
least eight years of common school or preacademic work
and the completion of arithmetic, geography, grammar,
reading, spelling and writing on examination. The minimum
requirements for each high school year are three prepared
and one unprepared academic subject 45 minutes daily, five
days a week, 40 weeks a year; the maximum four prepared
and one unprepared academic subject as above; less than
the minimum can not be recognized, more than the maximum
can not be accomplished; prepared subjects require prepa-
ration outside of recitation periods, unprepared during
the period.
Order of registration. Institution, location, executive officer.
Admission requirements meeting eight preacademic years;
high school and college courses recognized as equivalent to
one or more years of high school (academic) or college work,
degrees registered as requiring a full college course and
therefore entitling to " course certificates."
For convenience of reference the rule governing the recogni-
tion of a college course is appended.

The court of appeals and the regents of the University of the
State of New York both refuse to recognize as a college or
university an institution which, though taking the name, in
reality does work of a lower grade. Colleges of medicine, phar-



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES 25

macy, dentistry, business colleges and all similar professional
and technical schools are not registered as colleges. By college
is understood an institution which requires for admission four
years of academic or high school preparation in addition to the
preacademic or grammar school studies, and which gives four
full years of college instruction as a condition of graduation.
Institutions with courses equivalent to three years of college
work are sometimes registered when they require four full
years of academic preparation, as are other institutions that
admit after three years of preparation but that require a
minimum of four years of college work. In all cases the total
of high school and college work must not be less than seven
years in advance of grammar school studies or the institution
can not be registered as giving a full college course.

The court also refuses to recognize as " study in a college "
work in an academic or lower department conducted and super-
vised by a college. To be accepted as an equivalent by the
regents the work must be of college grade.

Besides the institutions of higher education in the state of
New York, inspected by the regents, institutions in other states
and countries are registered on reliable information that the
minimum standard is fully met.

Institutions

University of Alabama, University, Tuscaloosa county,
Pres. James K. Powers, LL. D.

1897-98. A member of the Association of colleges and pre-
paratory schools of the southern states. 29 university auxiliary
schools.

Registration

Eight years preacademic met by arithmetic, geography and

grammar
One year academic met by admission to scientific course
Two years academic met by admission to classical course
Four years academic met by the successful completion of the
junior year, scientific (B. S.) course without Latin; sopho-
more year, scientific (B. S.) course with Latin, clasfsical
(B. A.) course
Not registered for course certificate.



26 UNIVBESITT OF THE STATE OF NEW XOEK

Arkansas industrial university," Fayetteville, Pres. J. L.
Buchanan.
1897-98. 27 accredited schools.

Eegistration
Eight years preacademic met by first year preparatory school
One year academic met by second year of the course
Four years academic met by the successful completion of the
junior year undergraduate work in arts (B. A.), science
•{B. S.), engineering (B. C. E., B. M. E., B. E. E.), agriculture
(B. S. A.) courses
Not registered for course certificate.

University of California, Berkeley, Pres. Benjamin I.
Wheeler, LL.D.

1897-98. 76 accredited schools, 1896-97.

Unit, five recitations a week for one school year, in effect
August 1899. The valuation of the subjects expressed in units:
1 English (2), 3 algebra (1^), 4 plane geometry (1), 5 U. S. his-
tory and civics (1), 6 Latin (2), 7 Latin (2), 8 Greek (2), 9 Greek
(1), 10 ancient history (1), 11 physics (1), 12a advanced mathe-
matics (1), 12b chemistry (1), 12c botany (1), 12d zoology (1), 13
medieval and modern history (1), 14 English (2), 15a French (2),
15b German (2), 16 drawing (1)

Eegistration
Four years academic met by

Admission to the College of letters, subjects 1 to 11 inclusive
Admission to the Colleges of sciences, 1 to 7 inclusive, 8 or 14

or 15, 10 and 13 or two 12's, other alternatives given
Three years academic met by
Admission to the Colleges of agriculture, chemistry, mechanics,

engineering, subjects 1 to 5 inclusive, 6 or 8 or 14 or 15, 11,

12b and another 12, other alternatives
Four years of academic work met by the successful completion

of the freshman year in the eight colleges, letters (B. A.),

social science (B. L.), natural science (B. S.), applied sciences

(B. S.)
Eegistered for course certificate,
a Became Arkansas university by act of legislature in 1899.



PEOFBSSIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES 27

University of Colorado, Boulder, Pres. J. H. Baker, LL.D.
1897-98. 14 accredited schools.

Registration
Four years academic met by admission to the classical (B. A.)

philosophic (Ph. B.) and scientific (B. S.) courses
Registered for course certificate.

Yale university, New Haven, Ct., Pres. Arthur T. Hadley, M. A.

1897-98. Entrance on examinations only.
Registration

Four years academic met by admission to college; by the suc-
cessful completion of the freshman year Sheffield scientific
courses (Ph. B.)

B. A. registered for course certificate.

University of Illinois, Urbana, Pres. Andrew S. Draper,
LL.D.

1897-98. 138 accredited schools".
Registration

Eight years preacademic met by the completion of eight gram-
mar grades

Three years academic met by List C three-year courses; by List
B four-year courses

Pour years academic met by List A four-year courses; by the
successful completion of the sophomore year of the college
of engineering (B. S. in E.), of science (B. S. in S.), of agri-
culture (B. S. in A.) not registered for course certificate;
freshman year, college of literature and arts (B. A.)

B. A. registered for course certificate.

Indiana university, Bloomington, Pres. Joseph Swain, LL.D.

1897-98. 143 commissioned high schools.
Registration

Eight years preacademic met by the successful completion of
the common branches

Four years academic met by the successful completion of the
high school course; by the successful completion of 45 term-
hours that include the required subjects

o After September 1899 four full years of high school work required.



28 UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK

A year's work of daily recitations in a subject is the unit, four
units a year's work, 16 units a high school course

A 11 units required — English 3, mathematics 3, foreign

language 3, history 1, science 1; B 5 units elective; total 16

units
B. A. registered for course certificate.

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Pres. Charles A. Schaeffer,

I.L.D.

1897-98. 167 accredited schools.

Registration
Eight years preacademic met by the grammar schools
Three years academic met by admission to the four courses
Four years academic met by the successful completion of the
freshman year, classical (B. A.), philosophical (Ph. B.), scien-
tific and engineering (B. S.) courses
Registered for course certificate.

University of Kansas, Lawrence, Pres. Francis H. Snow,
LL.D.

1897-98. 143 state high schools and academies.
Registration

Eight years preacademic met by the successful completion of
the grammar grades

Two years academic met by admission to the school of en-
gineering

Three years academic met by admission to the school of arts

Four years academic met by the successful completion of the
sophomore class, school of engineering (B. S.), freshman
class, school of arts (B. A.) courses

B. A. registered for course certificate.

Kentucky state college, Lexington, Pres. James K. Patter-
son, LL.D.

1897-98. 48 accredited schools. Admission requirements are
not definitely outlined.

Not registered for course certificate.

Tulane university, New Orleans, La., Pres. William P. John-
son, LL.D.
1897-98. 10 approved schools.



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES 29

Registration
Two years academic met by admission examinations to courses
Four years academic met by the successful completion of the
sophomore year, classical, literary and Latin-scientific (B. A.)
courses, scientific (B. S.) and engineering (B. E.) courses
Not registered for course certificate.

University of Maine, Orono, Pres. Abram W. Harris, Sc.D.
1897-98. 73 approved schools.

Registration

Eight years preacademic met by the successful completion of
the elementary subjects

One year academic met by admission to the short and technical
courses except two-year pharmacy

Two years academic met by the scientific and engineering
courses

Three years academic met by the Latin, scientific and classical
courses

Four years academic met by the successful completion of the
junior year of the technical courses (B. S.); sophomore year
of the scientific and engineering courses (B. S., B. C. E., B.
M. E.); freshman year of the classical (B. A.) and Latin-
scientific (Ph. B.) courses

B. A. and Ph. B. registered for course certificate.

Johns Hopkins university, Baltimore, Md., Pres. Daniel C.
Gilman, LL.D.

1897-98. Six schools approved by academic council.
Registration

Four years academic met by the studies requisite for matric-
ulation

B. A. in any one of seven groups registered for course cer-
tificate.

Harvard university, Cambridge, Mass., Pres. Charles W.
Eliot, LL.D.
1897-98. Entrance on examination only.



30 UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YOEK

Registration
Subjects of elementary examination English 8, Greek 8, Latin

12, German 4, French A, history 4, mathematics 8, science 4,

total 52
Subjects of advanced examinations Greek 4, Latin 4, Greek

and Latin composition 4, German 4, French 4, mathematics

(6) 4, mathematics (7) 4, physics 4, chemistry 4, total 36
Four plans of admission, all the elementary studies
a) and at least two advanced
6) except French or German and at least three advanced

c) except either Greek or Latin, and at least four advanced,
including mathematics and either mathematics or physics or
chemistry;

d) except either Greek or Latin and either French or German,
and at least five advanced including mathematics and either
mathematics or physics or science, total 60 counts, or 5 years
high school work

B. A. registered for course certificate.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Pres. James B. Angell,

I:L.D.

1897-98. 164 approved schools.
Registration
Eight years preacademic met by "adequate preparation "
Four years academic met by admission to four groups
B. A., Ph. B., B. S. and B. L. registered for course certificate.

Minnesota high school board, Minneapolis, Inspector George
B. Alton.

1897-98. 99 high schools under supervision.
Registration

Eight years preacademic met by the work of the grammar
grades

Pour years academic met by high school requirements; by ad-
mission to the freshman class, science (B. S.), literature
(B. L.) and arts (B. A.) courses, of the University of Minne-
sota, Minneapolis, Pres. Cyrus Northrop, LL.D.

B. A., B. L., Ph. B. registered for course certificate.



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES 31

University of Missouri, Columbia, Pres. Richard H. Jesse,
LL.D.

1898-99. 216 approved schools.

Registration

Eight years preacademic met by completion common schools,

eight years
Two years academic met by admission to school of mines
Three years academic met by admission requirements of the

B. A., B. L. and B. S. courses and of the school of engineers
Four years academic met by the successful completion of the

sophomore year, school of mines ; freshman year, engineering

and academic departments
B. A., B. L., B. S., B. S. in C. E., E. E., M. E., S. E., registered

for course certificate.

State college, Bozeman, Montana, Pres. James Reid, B. A.
1897-98. Nine accredited schools.
Registration
Eight years preacademic met by successful completion first

preparatory year
Two years academic met by successful completion preparatory

course
Four years academic met by science and engineering courses
Not registered for course certificate.

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Pres. George E. MacLean,
LL.D.

1897-98. 70 accredited schools.

Registration

Eight years preacademic met by successful completion gram-
mar grades

Three years academic met by admission to classical and liter-
ary groups

Pour years academic met by the successful completion of the
freshman year in any one of 18 groups (B. A.)

B. A. registered for course certificate.



32 UNIVERSITY OP THE STATE OF NEW TOKK

State university of Nevada, Keno, Pres. Joseph E. Stubbs,
D.D.
1897-98.

Registration

One year academic met by admission requirements

Four years academic met by the successful completion of the
junior year of the arts (B. A.) and science (B. S.) courses

Not registered for course certificate.

Princeton university, Princeton, N. J., Pres. Francis L. Patton,
LL.D.

1897-98. Admission to undergraduate department on examin-
ation only.
Registration

Eight years preacademic met by preliminary subjects

Four years academic met by admission to B. A. course

B. A. registered for course certificate.

University of the State of New York. For admission to the
study of medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine the laws
require the completion of satisfactory work in a registered high
school or its equivalent.

In medicine four years of high school work are now required; in
dentistry three years and in veterinary medicine two years for
matriculates before Jan. 1, 1901. The court of appeals requires
three years of high school work as the normal equivalent in law.
The medical standard is given here. Standards for the other
professions are on a similar basis except that partial equivalents
can not be accepted for law student certificates.

Matriculation. For matriculates prior to Jan. 1, 1897, med-
ical schools are not required to furnish notice of conditional
matriculation, and such students may make up the full require-
ment at any time before beginning the second annual course
counted toward the degree, or two years before the date of the
degree.

All matriculates after Jan. 1, 1897, must secure 48 academic
counts or their full equivalent, before beginning the first annual



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES 33

course counted toward the degree unless admitted conditionally,
in which case the deficiency is not to exceed 12 academic counts
and must be made up before the student begins the second
annual course counted toward the degree.

Equivalmts. The medical student certificate requires four
years of satisfactory high school work or its equivalent. The
regents will accept as fully equivalent any one of the following:
a) a certificate of having successfully completed at least one full
year's course of study in the collegiate department of any
college or university, registered by the regents as maintaining a
satisfactory standard ; V) a certificate of having passed in a regis-
tered institution examinations equivalent to the full collegiate
course of the freshman year or to a completed academic course;
three full academic years of satisfactory work were accepted as
a high school course up to Aug. 1, 1896, since which date four full
academic years have been required; c) regents passcards for any
48 academic counts or any regents diploma; d) a certificate of
graduation from any registered gymnasium in Germany, Austria
or Russia; e) a certificate of the successful completion of a course
of five years in a registered Italian gvnnasio and three years in a
Uceo; f) the bachelor's degree in arts or science, or substantial
equivalents from any registered institution in France or Spain;
g) any credential from a registered institution or from the govern-
ment in any state or country which represents the completion of a
course of study equivalent to graduation from a registered New
York high school or academy or from a registered Prussian
gymnasium.

Partial equivalents. Candidates for certificates either with-
out examination or by partial examinations should submit an
application to the high school department, which will send either
the proper certificate or a statement of credit given for all work
done. •

Basis of registration. Admission to a high school presupposes
at least eight years of common school or preacademic work.
The minimum requirement for each high school year is three
academic subjects taken five times a week throughout the year.
The regents count 40 weeks as a full academic year, but if the



34 UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK

candidate has passed successfully in a registered institution all
the examinations for a full year's work, the question of actual
attendance is not raised. Institutions throughout the world
are registered if they offer academic work equivalent to one or
more years in a registered high school. Courses in about 6000
high schools, embracing institutions in almost every civilized
country in the world, are registered as meeting wholly or in part
the statutory requirements for admission to professional schools,
while courses of the 750 institutions in the University are regis-
tered on a similar basis.

Requirements for certificates. Partial equivalents may be ac-
cepted for a medical student certificate, i. e. evidence of comple-
tion in a registered school of one or more full years of high
school work and regents examinations in additional subjects
representing the balance of the required 48 counts; regents
examinations in the second or third year of any language course
will be accepted as including the preceding years in those
courses; candidates unable to offer certificates of the required
academic work in a registered institution may present evidence
to the regents that they had the required preliminary education,
and may on passing regents examinations receive their certifi-
cates as of the date when the preliminary work was completed.

Applications. Address all communications regarding certifi-
cates to the Director High School Department, University of
the State of New York, Albany, N. Y.

On examination. Candidates for certificates not attending
schools in which regents examinations are held should send
notice at least 10 days in advance, stating at what time
and in what studies they wish to be examined, that required
desk room may be provided at the most convenient place;
necessary for matriculants prior to May 9, 1893, any 20
counts, allowing 10 for the preliminaries, not including reading
and writing; prior to May 13, 1895, arithmetic, elementary Eng-
lish, geography, spelling. United States history, English com-
position and physics, or any 50 counts, allowing 14 for the pre-
liminaries; prior to Jan. 1, 1896, for any 12 academic counts;



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES



35



prior to Jan. 1, 1897, for any 24 academic counts; but all matri-
culants, after Jan. 1, 1897, must secure 48 academic counts.

Academic studies. The table assumes that each student takes three
studies each day for five days each week. The term "count" represents
10 weeks' work in one of these studies. The figure prefixed to each subject
shows how many counts are allowed that subject. Subjects in italics are
those in which examinations are held in June only.

1st, 2d and 3d year English are offered as a substitute for all other
English branches except the special reading courses. No extra counts will
be given to those who pass both in 1st and 2d year English, and in
advanced English, English composition, rhetoric and English reading.

Those who pass successfully in any of the following five parallel courses
will receive half credit for the second part:

1 3d year English or English literature and American literature

2 2d year Latin or Caesar

3 3d year Latin or Virgil's Aeneid

4 2d year Greek or Anabasis

5 3d year Greek or Homer's Iliad and 20 weeks of equal grade.



GROUP I


2 Sallust's Catiline


Language and literature


2 Cicero's Orations


English


1 Ovid's Metamorphoses


4 English, 1st year


4 Virgil's Aeneid


4 English, 2d year


1 Virgil's Eclogues


4 English, 3d year


1 Latin composition


2 Advanced English


4 Greek, 1st year


2 English composition


4 Greek, 2d year


2 Rhetoric


4 Xenophon's Anabasis


2 English literature


2 Homer's Iliad


2 American literature


4 Greelc, 3d year


2 English reading


1 Greek comiposltion


2 English selections




2 English prose


GROUP 2


2 English poetry


Mathematici


2 American selections






2 Advanced arithmetic


Modern foreign


4 Algebra


4 German, 1st year


2 Advanced algebra


4 German, 2d year


4 Plane geometry


4 German, 3d year


2 Solid geometry


4 French, 1st year


1 Plane trigonometry


4 French, 2d year


1 Spheric trigonometry


4 French, 3d year






GROUP 3


Ancient


Science


4 Latin, 1st year


Physical


4 Latin, 2d year


2 Astronomy


4 Caesar's Commentaries


2 Physics, part 1


4 Latin, S4 pear


2 Physics, part 2



36



UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK



2 Chemistry, part 1
2 Chemistry, part 2

Geologic

2 Physical geography
2 Geology

Biologic

2 Botany
2 Zoology
2 Physiology and hygiene



Online LibraryHenry Lewis TaylorProfessional education in the United States → online text (page 3 of 84)