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6ENEALOGY COLLECTION



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THE EXGLAXD AND HOLLAND OF
THE PILGRIMS



THE ENGLAND AND HOLLAND
OF THE riLGlt LMS '

* BY THE L.\TE

HENRY ^LVRTYN DEXTEg, D. D., LL. D.

AND HIS SON

MORTON DEXTER










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COPYRIGHT 1905 BY MORTON DEXTER
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



PitblisbeJ October tqos






/



/ THE

England and Holland
of the pilgrims

BY TOE LATE

HENRY MARTIN DEXTER, D.D., LL.D.

AND HIS SON

MORTON DEXTER



"The final and authoritative account of the Pilgrims
in their earlier homes." — New York Evening Post.

" Should he read by every man and woman with May-
flower blood in his veins." — The Mayflower Descendant.



HOUGHTON, OTFFLIN & COMFANY

4 Park St., Boston : So Fi]ih Ave, New York



THE ENGLAND AND HOLLAND

or THE riLGiuMs




HE late Dr. Henry M. Dexter collected
materials for a history of the origin and de-
velujjment of the Pilgrim inovenieiit whicii
resulted in the establishment of the Ply-
niouth Colony in 1()'J0. At his death in
1890. he had nearly tinished the first roii^h
draft of the proposed work. This was com-
pleted i;;iu!-'.!iuiely by Pn^f. Fianklln B. Dexter, Litt.D., of
Yale l;niversitv.a"!i'l sinci: th'^t it has been edited and v.boily
rewritten by the anthor's son, Morton Dexter, who also has
added considerable material gathered in his own researches. The
resniting volume describes the upspringing of Puritanism in
England ; the development, among the Puritans themselves,
of the desire f(jr a freer church government and a purer reli-
gious life ; the conflict between Episcojiaey, Presbyterianism, and
nascent Conoreo-ationalism ; the severities to which Dissenters
■were subjected, and the final flight of the Pilgrims and others
to Holland ; as well as the eccdesiastical conditions of that
country and the per{>lexities and trials of these English exiles
there. It includes many careful studies of the histories and
characters of the leaders of the movement, especially among the
Piljrrims, and a larcfe amount of information has been drawn
from the archives of Amsterdam and Leyden, most of which
never has been made ])ublic. The earlier ( hapters portray care-
fully the life of the En«jli'b mT 'b;,t 1 :y, and an npjH'ndix con-
tains every recoitled fact; about each mendter of the Pilgrim
companv during the eleven years of their residence in Leyden.
Among the illustrations is a re[)ro(luction from statements in
leases, deeds, etc., of the })lan of the famous Scrooby " Manor-
house," or palace.

"With illustrations and plans. 8vo, ^S.SO net. Postage 23 cents.



FROM THE REVIEWS

"The purpose of this work was ' to give to the work! a more complete record
than any which hail been written of the reh^nous and t'cck'siastical movement
in England tiiat made the Pilgrims what they were and of their emigration to
Holland and their life there before they came to America.' . . . The skill with
which all this information has been marshaled into an orderly narrative, the
excellent temj>er that has been displayed in the treatment of llie many th-baies
and controversies, and the vividness with which the life of each meml)er uf the
Sej)aratist order in Leyden has been depicted, as far as it is known, are worthy
of the highest praise. ... It is safe to say tliat for ye.ars to come no work will
stand higher in the esteem of their descendants than will this admirable ac-
count of their c.ireers as Pilgrims in the Ohl Vi'orhl."

\CrW Yo'i'k K-»'. P'l'.t,

" It is by far the most comprehensive work on Pilgiim history wliich has
yet been publisheil, and so exhaii-^tive has been the search for material on the
part of the autliors that it seems difllcult to believe that anything more can be
added to the subject." — Boston Traiiscri^t.

"A more illuminating chapter in the history of the seventeenth century it
would be liard to find. . . . The almost lover-like antiquarian zest of the joint
authors is, as the reader will soon find, irresistible in its fascination. ... It is all
set forth witli marvelous carefulness and the superb charm of a broad-minded
intelligence and a quiet ardor of loving sympathy. Altogether tliis noble vol-
ume is a contribution to modern history of original and prime value."

Chicago Eve. Post.

"No stone is left unturned, no pains or expense is spared, to bring to light
every reference to the Pilgrim company in England and Hollaiul. . . . 'Ilie bouk
is a mine in whicli to dig, a treasury from which to draw. . . . It is the altogether
unique and complete first-rank treatment of the sources."

The Congrerjnfinn'^tist.

•• Prof.Aiii.llv serious and excejiiionally valuable, . . . this scholarly work it a
credit to American literature. It is lo the last degree trustworthy."

The I?idej>cnde>it.

" Every chapter abounds with proofs of exhaustive research. . . . The volume
contains a large amount of information which has been digested with allVclioi:-
ate and conscientious care." — The Nation.



"As a clear, scholarly and Jetailed account of the Pilgrims in Ent^laiul and
Holland and of the devL'loi)nient of their cliurch movement, this book is wiiiiout
a rival and is an important historical contribution."

Springfield Republicav, Mass.

" It is a volume which at once takes its place in the front rank of definite,
authoritative, standard Pilgrim historical literature. History is richer, liter-
ature is richer, man is richer for this work." — The Mayfiower Descendant.

"American historians, who are acquainted with the works of Dr. Dexter, will
not need to be urged to procure tliis volume. Those who are interested in tlie
study of Church history in this country cannot do without it. It ought to have
a place in every library. It should be studied by the Ministers of all churches
and by the intelligent laymen. It is one of the few works that will stand the
test of time and will be consuUed many years after its i.-ublication."

Reformed Church Review.

" A very minute and learned study of the early founders of Congregation-
alism." — The Athenaeum, London.

"The chaptei's on The England of Our Fathers, picturing its backward
social conditions, cannot fail to interest any reader. Of special value to all
students is the impartial rec(jrd of the literary contests of the reformers, tlie
battles of pamphlets and boolcs l)etween the progressives and conservatives.
. . . The history here stands in a completeness to which it is likely that little
can be added." — TJie Outlook.

" A thorough and honest historical work. . . . One may depend on the data.
the verified references, the tabulated genealogical lists, bound to gladden and
ease many a toiler and inquirer. . . . The old story is told with freshness
and with eloquence." — The Dial.

"It is as much a contribution to the rural history of England as to the
biographical history of the early settlers in New I^nghind, and done with a
fullness and exactitude which entitles it to a permanent place in historical
libraries." — Broukb/n J-Jarjle.

" The volume embodies the best and latest information obtainable; it is
perhaps the most authoritative story of the Pilgrim movement in print."

Boston Advertiser.

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & COMPANY

BOSTOX AND NEW YORK



PREFACE

Most of the contents of this work wore collected by my father,
the late Dr. Henry M. Dexter. To this task he devoted much of
his time for many years. Of Pilgrim descent and Lorn ahnost
within sight of Plymouth Rock, he desired to give to the world
a more complete record tlian any which had been written of
the religious antl ecclesiastical movement in England that made
the Pilgrims what they were, and of their emigration to Holland
and their life there before they came to America. But he died
in 1890, lea\'ing his chosen task unaccomplished.

In his first rongh draft he had written five long chai)ters —
which appear in these pages as the first five books — and a part
of the sixth. But they were hardly more than rudely shaped
masses of crude material, as he had not readied that work of
revision which no one else was more competent than he to per-
form. By his will the manuscript passed at his death into the
hands of Prof. Franldin B. Dexter, Litt. D., of Yale University,
and myself. Professor Dexter completed the author's last chap-
ter, or book, and I have rewritten and edited the whole, adding
considerable material obtained by my own researches.

Had Dr. Dexter lived to finish it, the work undoubtedly would
have been published some years ago. But, much although I
have desired to hasten its appearance, I have felt that he would
have preferred delay on my part to any neglect of careful study.
Until 1901 the duties of an exacting profession forl)ade me to
give it more than my spiire time. Since then it has absorbed
my attention. Tn addition to the use of his o\\'n uniipie collec-
tion of the special literature of the subject, now in the Yale
University Library, and besides exhausting tlie resources of
American libraries. Dr. Dexter made several ^^sits to Europe
in order to considt original sources of information in England
and Holland, and I have pursued the same course.



▼i PREFACE

It is gratifying to loiow that. altliouQ;]! the completion of the
work has been dehued so long, the number of people who are
specially interested in the Pilgi-iius has been increasing rai>idly, -
so that such a study may expect a vnder welcome than it could
have received earlier. That it could not have, u]) to its actual
issue, the advantage of Dr. Dexter's probably unrivalled know-
ledge of the subject is greatly to be regretted. But so far as
concerns his conscientious etl'ort to perform his undertaking
thoroughly, I have endeavored to supply his place. Tliat no
errors have escaped correction is too much to be hoped, but I
trust that they may not prove numerous or grave.

Some of these pages necessarily discuss matters dealt with
more or less fully by Dr. Dexter in his earlier work, •' The Con-
gregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years, as Seen in
its Literature ; " e. g., the careers of Robert Browne and John
Kobinson and the history of the Ancient Church in Amsti-rdatu.
But they are treated here independently, although with feu-
essential changes of opinion.

In citing from ancient publications I generally have retained
the ancient spelling, partly l)ecause of its quaintness, and partly
because I believe that Dr. Dexter would have used it. But in
some instances, although earlier editions have l>een consulted.
I have had to depend at last upon modernized editions of the
works cited, and in these cases I have followed their spelling
for the sake of quoting exactly. In a few instances quotations
from different editions of the same work have seemed neces-
sary, and now and then the same name is spelled differently.
In one instance (p. 381) an extended abstract is set in smaller
type, in order to save space, but all the other extracts are
intended to be exact. For the same reason, also, the notes often
have been grouped. Dates are set down in the Old St\le when
they relate to England, — which retained its use until li.>2.
— and in the New Style when they relate to Ilolhind, — whieli
abandoned the Old Stvle in 1583. But whenever clearness has



PREFACE vii

seemed to require it, especially in connection with tlio months
of January, February and March, a date has been stated in botli
the Old and the New Styles.

It only remains to acknowledge gratefidly the assistance
which has been rendered me. First, and chiefly, my thanks are
due to Professor Dexter, who not only, at considerable cost of
time and labor, completed the original narrative from the point
at which Dr. Dexter unexpectedly laid down his pen, but also
has read portions of my own manuscript and has aided me
throughout from time to time in various ways. Mr. George
Ernest Bowman, editor of '■ The Mayflower Descendant."' Kov.
W. H. Cobb, D. D., the Librarian of the Congregational Li-
brary in Boston, and Miss ]\L E. Stone and !Miss E. E. "White,
his assistants, and Mr. O. A. Bierstadt and others of the Bos-
ton Public Library, also have given me valuable help. '

The painstaking cooperation of ]Mr. G. F. Barwick, B. A., and
his subordinates in the Reading Room of the British Museum
Library, in London, and of the ofiicials of the Maiuisciipt Room
in the same institution, and of the Public Record Office, has
been appreciated heartily ; as well as the courtesy of S. AVayhuul
Kershaw, M. A., in charge of the Archbishop of Canterbury's
Library at Lambeth Palace. Canon John Watson. Librarian
at York ]\Iinster, and the officials of the Bodleian Library, at
Oxford, and of Trinity College Library, at Cambridge. I also am
indebted to the courtesy of the Syndics of the University Press,
Camlpridge, for permission to use the plan of Peterhouse (p. 2GG),
taken from "Willis and Clark's " Arch. Hist, of Cambridge."

To Dr. J. C. van Overvoorde, the learned Archivist of the
city of Levden. and to his assistants, Messrs. "^V. J. J. C. Byle-
veld and AV. C. van Rijn, as well as to Messrs. F. de Stoppelaer
and A. E. des Tombes, I also am much indebted. And to no
one else in Leyden do I owe more than to my friend, L. G. Le
Poole, Esq. Morton- De.xter.

Boston, Mass., Atigiist 20, 1903.



• CONTEXTS



BOOK I

The England of our Fathers

PAOB

Chap. I. The Country axd the People 3

Population, Classes, 3. Homes, 9. Roads, Travel, 11. Dress, 12.
Food, Drink, 14. Amusements, 13. Festivals, IG. Crops, Manu-
factures, 17, 18. Guilds, IS. Marine atfairs, I'J. Army, -1.

Chap. II. Educatiox .\.nd Literatuke 22

Illiteracy, 22. Schools, 21. General literature, 28. Separatist lit-
erature, 29.

Chap. III. The Shadows ix the Picture 31

Unhygienic conditions, 31. Remedies, 32. Epidemics, 33. Sur-
gery, 31. Superstitions, 35. Witchcraft, 36. Callousness, 42.
Coarseness, 47.

BOOK II

The Protestantism ofonr Fathers

Chap. I. The Beginxing of the English Reformation ... 53
Medircval Chnrcli, 53. Awakening, 54. Colet, 56. Hen. VIII. and
his break with Rome, 57.

Chap. II. Progress and Retrogression 69

Ed. VI. and reform, 69. England at Ed.'s death, 80. Mary's reign
and results, 83.

Chap. III. The Issues and how They were Met 88

Perplexities of Eliz., 88. Reaction against Popery, 90. Mild re-
form, 92. Advice from Continent, 95. Conformity, 96. Eliz.'s
attitude, 97. Comments on Reformers, 99. Bishops' side of case,
100. Reformers' side, 101. Pressure on Reformers, 105, 109.
Burning of .-Vnabapts., 107.

Chap. IV. The Liter.\ture of the Conflict 112

Separatists' difficulties in publishing, 112. Manifesto of Dissenters,
114. Suggestions from Continent, 118. Popular appeals, 119.
True aim of Reformers. 122. Prominent Reformers, 124. Ap-
peals to authorities, 126. Cartwriglit and Whitgift, 128. Civil
rulers and Church, 139. More severities, 110.



X CONTENTS

Chap. V. More Battles of the Books 141

Charges against State Church, 141. P'ccles. iridepeuJence not
sought, 143. Renewed popular appeals, 144. Renewed appeals to
authorities, 151. Details of new eecles. govt., 153. Discussion, 155.

Chap. VI. Some Special Features ok the Stuuggle .... 1G5
Extreme views, 165. Oath ex ojtcio, lO'J. Bancroft's criticisms,
170. Attack upon Hooker, 173. Family of Love, 177. ilarprdate
Controv., 179. Summary, 184.

Chap. VII. The Earliest Experiments in Practical CnuRcn

Reform 188

London and Norwich, ISS, 203. R. Browne, 189. Brownism, 19:5-
198, 202, 211. Fate of Church, 199. Barrowe and Greenwood, 199.
Summary, 210.

BOOK III

The Birthplace of the Pilgrim Church

Chap. I. Scrooky 215

Early hist., 215. Princess Marg.'s visit. 218. Wolsey's, 223.
Manor-house about 15.j8, 225. Ilcn. VIII. 's visit, 228. Partial dis-
mantling, 220. Brewster lease, 231. Eliz.'s attempt to buy, 233.
^Linor-house in 1582, 230. Ja«. I.'s attempt to buy, 233. Pilg.
churcli organized, IGOt), 239. Further disniautling, 240. Owner
and tenants, 241. Mod. house and estate, 240.

BOOK IV

The Pil'jrims themselves and how the ConjUct developed them

Chap. I. William Brewster and Engll^ii I'mversity Liit. . . 253
Family, 253. Petcrhouse, 250. Fellow-students, 259. The college,
204, 205. The university, 20-1, 271.

Chap. II. Glimises of Pci'.lic Service 282

Brew.'ster's stav at Cambridge. 2S3. Entry into Davison's service,
280. Position, 280. In Low Countries, 290.

Chap. III. The Fall of Brewster's Patron 299

Mary, Q. of Scots, 299. Davison's relation to her fate, 310. lli<
imprisonment, 313. Value to Brewbter of service under him, 318.

Chap. IV. Brewster at Scrooby .MANf>R 320

Postniaster and bailiff, 320. Family, 320. Progress towards Separa-
tism, 327.

Chap. V. More Controversy auout the True Church . . . 330
Activity of Papists, 330. Rural England, 332. Millenary Petition,
33-i. ilamp. Ct. Conf., 339.



CONTENTS xi

Chap. VI. The Controversy Continued 330

Discussion prolonged, :ir>-2. More severities, 3o4. Deprivation of
ministers, 337. t^umiay observance, oil. Revised Bible, 375.

Chap. VII. Other Pilgrims and the Exodus 377

Clyfton, 377. Smyth, 378. Departure to Amst., 386. Pilj^'. church,
386. Bradfonl, 387. Minor nieuibersi, 3',)1. Robinson, 393. Life at
Corpus Christi, 393. Becomes Separatist, 400. Persecutions, 401.
Attempts to escape, 403.

BOOK V

The Pilgrims in Amsterdam

Chap. I. Amsterdam as the Pilgrims found It 411

Hist, and characteristics, 411. Oppression by Chas. V., 416. By
Phil. II., 417. Revolt and reform, 41S. Rclig. toleration, 419.

Chap. II. Earlier English Separatists 421

F. Johnson and his cli., 421. Aiusworth, 423. Troubles of church,
425.

Chap. III. The Further History of the Ancient Church . . 431
Eng. exiles — statistics, 431. Confess, of Faith and cQorts for re-
cognition, 433. Other Fug. churches in Anist., 412. Prosperity
of Anc. Church, 445. Smyth's peculiarities, 446.

Chap. IV. The Pilgrims in the City 449

Robinson's eccles. labors, 451. Smyth's new views and se-baptism,
453. Disruption of his ch., 460. Armini.iii Controv., 461. Johnson's
drift towards I'resbyterianism, 464. Pilg- application for leave to
settle in Leyd., 467. Dutch-Spanish truce, 408.

BOOK VI

The Pihjrints in Leyden

Chap. I. The City and its History 473

Characteristics, 473. Govt., 476. Siege, 478. University, 482.
Armin. Controv., 484. Leicester insurrect., 485.

Chap. II. Leyden University and its Great Men 487

Homes and employments of Pilgs., 487. Notable features of city,
491. Univ. and faculty, 493.

Chap. III. Tjie Pa grims' First Year in Leyden — 1609 . . . 500
Farlv rosoarches. 5rK'). Public records, 502. Personal details, .505.
Form of marriage, 507. Citizen's oath, 509. Armin. Controv., 510.

Chap. IV. The Succeeding Years — 1610 514

Personal detail?, 51 L Robinson's literary characteristics, 517.



xii CONTENTS

Division among Eng. at Anist., o'JO. Armiii. Controv., 524. Utrecht
revolt, 5'2G. Jiilicli campaign, 52G.

Chap. y. The Succeeding Yk.\rs — 1G11-1G12 529

Pilg. headquarters secured, 529. Personal details, 533, 540. Con-
trov. over Vorstius, 535. More troubles at Anist., 53G. Order of
worship, 541.

Chap. VI. The Succeeding Ye.vrs — 1G13-1G1G 548

Personal details, 54S, 5-j2, 5."5o, 551'. Armin. Controv., 551. Robin-
son's progress toward liberalism, 553. Discussion with Ames, 557.
Debate with Episcopius, 5G0. Clvfton's death, 5G1.

Chap. VII. The Succeeding Years — 1G17-1G19 504

Personal details, 5G4, 571, 57G. Decision to leave Holland, 5GG.
Negotiations about emigration, 5GS, 573, 57!.'. Armin. Controv.,
570, 574. Synod of Dort, 575. Pilg. printers suppressed, 578.

Chap. VIII. The Year ok the Departure — 1620 583

Personal details, 583. Hudson scheme, 583. Agreement with
TVeston, 584. Hindrances in getting away, 5S5. Departure from
Holland, 586. From England, 589.

Chap. IX. Concluding Words 591

Robinson's remaining years, 591. His growth in liberalism, 592.

APPENDIX

The Pilgrim Company in Leyden 601

Other English People in Leyden 6-11

Citizenship List 6-18

English Sources of the Pilgrim Emigration 649

Plymouth Colonists from Leyden • 650

INDEXES

Index of Publications C55

General Index ^^



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

fAes
SCROOBY Man'ok-IIouse as it is to-day . Frontispiece

The Pilgrim Region 215

West Side of Maxor-House 24G

St. Helen's Church, Austerfield 388

The Se-Haptism ........ 45C

Pesyns-hof, on the site of Ropinson's IIoise . . . 532

Robinson Tablet on the Rietekskerk 592



BOOK I

TILE ENGLAND OF OUR FATHERS



I considered the dai/es of olde, and the yeeres of ancient time.
— Ps. Ixx^ai : 5.

The fact cannot he too often reasserted that human bcinr/s
are chief y what their forefathers have made them, and that
the difference between any one generation and the next preced-
ing is barely perceptible. It is only in the long course of ages
that the advance of civilization is marled, only a comparison
of one age ivith another ichich can tell us in what direction
we are progressing. — L. O. Pike, Crime in EnglauJ, ii : 81.

It is a commonplace, but one which cannot be too often re-
peated, that ice must interpret an ancient writer by himself
and by his own age, and not by modern notions. We must
not add on to him our mysteries and moralities, or translate
his confused inodcs of thought into our more distinct ones
(niore distinct at least to US'). Xeithcr ?nust v:e measure him
by our standards of right and wrong. His range of view may
he limited, but we cannot safely enlarge it. — B. Jowett, Iu-
trod. to Thucyd. xv.



THE EXGL.SJsn) A^sB llOLLA^^D
OF THE PILGKIMS

CHAPTER I

THE COUNTRY AND THE PEOPLE

It 13 impossible to do justice to the earlier colonists of New
England without gaining some conception of that Old England
out of which they came. Its traditions, habits and methods
became prime factors of their givat endeavor here, even while
reaction from intolerable oppression of the conscience was the
crowning cause of their self-exile hither. The New Plymouth
of 1G20 must find much of its best interpretation in that old
life which, sadly, yet with a gi'cat hope, the Maj-flower was
leaving behind the hazy hills of Cornwall as she drew away
from them westward on her eventfid voyage. And this the
more because the tendency of the present always is to judge
old times mistakenly by the standards and circumstances of
to-day. Some study of the condition of the mother country,
therefore, is imperative.

We may take, for convenience, an even jioviod for our start-
ing-point. On March 25, IGOl, which to the English nation
was the birthday of the seventeenth century. Queen Elizabtth,
then Hearing sixty-eight, was in the fifth month of the forty-third
year of her reign. At this date England appears to have con-
tained 4,000,000 1 of peoi)le, or a little more. Of thfse perhaps
225,000 livLil in London and "Westminster and their suburbs.
There were some twenty-five other cities, twelve or fifteen of
which, esj)ecially York, Bristol. Norwich, Lincoln antl Salisbury,
were of considerable size. In comparison witli the present dis-

1 Kni-lit. Ili.^t. Kng. iii ; 207. Sir Frd. E.lon. .^tate of Toor. i: y2. Pikt, UUt.
Crime in Eug. ii : L'03. Motley, Un. -Y'.Ms. iv: ll'J.



4 THE ENGLAND OF OUR FATHERS

tribution of population, the nortlicrn counties, especially Lanca-
shire and Cumberland, were thinly peopled ; and, in "-eneral,
those portions of the realm best adapted to husbandry were
settled most fnlly.

Many causes long had hindered the kingdom from any such
growth as has marked its later history. Chief among these were
the enormous death-rate, due to wretched sanitary conditions,
the terrible devastations of epidemics and the steady waste of
life in war. Moreover, statesmen then de])n'cated, and even
actively hindered, the growth of population.' Indeed, repeated
enactments had been aimed to cheek it.

The dissolution of monasteries in the sixteenth century, by



Online LibraryHenry Martyn DexterThe England and Holland of the Pilgrims → online text (page 1 of 65)