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the other in .Scotland ; steadfast enemies, but no steadfast friends." — <S. P. Dvm.
Address to Council.

» Zurich Letters, Eliz. 11.



90 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

as Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer, and witli the great fathers of
the Swiss and German reformation.

But this company was not always agreed, excepting in their
general hostility to Home. Some, like John Foxe, Laureiice
Hmu])hrey and Thomas Sampson, hardly would admit that aiiv
opinion other than theirs couhl be honestly Protestant. To
them even every remnant of the vestments of Rome was " a de-
filed robe of . Antichrist." Others, like James Pilking-ton and
Robert Home, regarded such matters, as Martyr and BuUiuger
had advised, as non-essentials, to be tolerated temporarily.
Thomas Young, John Scory and otliers, who had been sheltereil
in AVesel — and those wei'e said to number one hundred — were
content with Edward's Prayer-Book, having used no other.^ No
doubt, however, all these exiles brouglit home an ineradicalde
repugnance towards the attire and the eerenionies which had
been used by their persecutors, and yearned for the simplicity
of their Continental friends.

On the Sunday after the queen's accession Dr. AVilliam V>\\],
afterwards Dean of Westminster, jnvaelied at Paul's Cross a
quieting sermon. But he was followed there, a weeic later, by
Christopherson, Bishop of Chichester, a " notorious Papist," who
had been active in the burning of the bodies of Bucer and
Fagius, and who exhorted the pc()i)le vehemently against the
"new doctrine;" for which the queen imprisoned him. A rusli
was made for the many empty pul})its by tlie few who could preacli.
which tln-eatened confusion. In London a mob tore down tlie
crosses and threw the priests into the kennels. After four Sun-
days more, on December 27, 1558. the queen by proclamation -
forbade all preaching or teaching ''other than to the Gos[)('lls
and E])istles, commonly called tlie Gospel and Epistle of the
dav, and to the Ten Commaundments in the vulgar tongue,
without exposition or addition," in order to prevent " unfruteful
dispute " and " occasion to break connnon quiet " — this *' until
consultation may be had by parlament, by her majesty, and her
three estates of this realme."

Parliament met, on January 23-February 2, 1558-59, the

1 Strype, Errles. M>'ms. iii (1) : 233. Soames, Eli:. Rclifj. Hist. 20.
' Cardwell, Doc. An. i : 208.



THE ISSUES AND HOW THP:Y WERE MET 91

queen having been cvownod eight days before. ^Icanwhile, a
select body of divines — Barker, pjill and May, who had
remained in England during Mary's reign, and who had not
become familiar, like those who had lived on the Continent,
with the idea of church reconstruction through reversion to the
Scriptures alone ; Cox and \\'hitehead, who had been at Frank-
fort ; with Grindal. who had been there and at Strasburg, aud
Pilkington, who had stayed at IkiscI — had been holding sessions
with Sir Thomas Smith, in Canon Row, AVestminster, to revise
the second Prayer-liook of Edward \'I. for jjarliamentary action.^
In the House of Lords the Komish party had great advantage
because, as no new Protestant bishop could be consecrated until
Parliament had modified the oaths recognizing the Pope, the
Komish prelates had their own way, and the more that there
happened to be no lay peer capable of arguing with them.^

Convocation was sitting beside Parliament, having been opened
with High Mass. Yet by April, thi'ough act of Parliament after
a oreat debate, Enuland once more was severed from Rome.
The Crown again was made supreme " in all causes Ecelesiasticid
as well as civil," although the title, Supreme Head, for the
sovereioii was waived.^ The statutes of Henry IV. and Henry V.
against heresy, witli Mary's act reviving them, were abolished
aud the monasteries were again dissolved.

On Ai)ril 18, the revised Prayer-Book was proposed in the
House of Conuuons for restoration. Those who had adopted
the Genevan ideas protested that it exalted •' fooleries "' to con-
sequence and sacrificed truth to expediency, and tlie Romanists
of course fought against it. But the Act of Uniformity, with a
fine of a shilling for every Sunday's absence, passed its three
readings in throe successive days, and, substantially, the liturgy
which Cranmer chiefly had framed came again into force. The
principal changes made heightened the ceremonial by prescrdi-
ing that the ornaments of the churches and ministers should be
as in the second year of Edward VI. ; * modllied the conunun-

1 Strvpe, Life Sir Tlios. Smith, iJG.

2 Zur. Ltls.Eiz. IV.

» Sandys to Parker : " -Mr. Lever wisely put such a scruple in tlie Qnren's liead
that, she would not take the title of supreme head." — Corresp. of I'arlcer, xlix.
* Stats. I Eliz. i. cap. J : sect. xxv.



92 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

ion ofFices so that it might he pos.sil)le for Kouiani-st, Lutht-ran,
Calvinist ami Zwinglian each to insist tliat the sense \vas his ;
and omitted that dechiration on kneeliiii; which had heen adilcd
in 1552.

Before tlie year was out this policy of compromise had been
pursued by the elevation to the Primacy of Matthew Parker, a
mild conservative, whose opposition to Rome was larj^ely because
the Pajnicy had departed from primitive Christianitv as ox-
pounded l)y the Fathers. The result, as it seemed to one of the
godly ministers of Zurich, was tluit : ' —

Perceivlni,' that popery can neitlier honestly be dofeiuled nor en-
tirely retained [they] adopt those artifices by which they invent a
form of religion of a mixed, uncertain, and doubtful character, and
obtrude the same upon the cliurches under the pretext of evan<,'elical
reformation, ironi wliich tlic return to papistical superstition and idol-
madness is afterwards most easy. . . . We have now exjjurienf.'cd in
Germany for some years, to the great detriment of tiie cluu'ches. the
extent of inlluence possessed by men of this character ; forasmuch as
their counsels appear to the carnal judgment to be full of moderation,
and especially adapted to the promotion of concord : and it is likely
that the common enemy of our salvation will also find suitable instru-
ments among yourselves, by the aid of wliich he will endeavor to re-
tain the seeds of popery ; which nmst be firndy resisted.

The very mild form of the l-Jeformation in England at this
time may be indicated. Upon Elizabeth's accession almost the
whole clergy was Komanist, but out of 9400 priests api)arently
less than 200 resigiied,- although, of course, the extreme Ro-
manists now took their turn abroad.''^ The inevitable inference
is that several thousand ministers outwardly accepted the situa-
tion, evading the oath of supremacy when possible, absenting
them.selves, shutting up their churches, and perpetually labor-
ing:, at least in secret, against the cause which their vows bound
them to uphold.

Like ])riest, like people. Comparatively few of the laity.
however bigoted Komanists, felt obliged, during the first five

1 Gu.iUfT to Masters. Zur. Dls. E'liz. V.
» Marsden, Early Puritans, 100.

' Doilil, ii : 8. liishton in his continnation of S.nnder's Anqliran Srhi\m (2G)
•ays that some '•jOO of all conditions went abroad at once, largely to Belgium.



THE ISSUES AND HOW THEY WERE MET 93

years of Elizuhftlfs i-ei>,ni, to al)sont tht'iusolvos from the c-luurhes
with tlieii- moditieil service. lint for the bishops neutrality was
impossibh'. They began with ilefianee of tlie queen, vaujuely
hoping to be sustained somehow, l)y Romanist intiuenee from
without or by a revohition.' But when contVontetl with tlie dis-
tinct alternative of taking tlie oath or losing tlieir sees, only one
yielded, Kitehin, of Llandatf — the same who four years before
had sent poor Rawlins White, the fisherman of Carditf. to the
stake for heresy.- The bishoprics previously empty, or vacated
thus, were filled by (irindal, Pilkington, Home. Da vies, Meriek,
Berkeley, Cheney. Barlow, Cox, Alley, Seory, Beutham. liel-
lingham, Pavklnust, Seambler, Guest, Jewel, Sandys, Best,
Downham, and Young ; of which twenty-one, thirteen had
passed most of Mary's reign in Germany or Switzerland, and
ei"-ht had contrived to stay in England. Downham had been
Elizabeth's chaplain. Cheney, then a rector, had conformeil.
Bentham and Seambler had managed sotnehow to preach to
Protestants in London. The Pope did not neglect some counter-
action. But his nuncio could ai)proacli no nearer than Calais.

Soon after Parker's nomination to the Primacy, on July 19,
the queen, as spiritual head of tlie Church, issued a warrant ^
creating Parker and Grindal, with seventeen associates, a High
Commission, six of whom were to be a quorum, to enforce the
Act of Uniformity. This was the first warrant for such a court,
and th«' beginning of an instrument of oppression * which always
could be used against even the most mild-mannered Dissenter.

Doctrinally, further than as involved in the changes referred
to already in the Prayer-Book, it was purposed to wait for a
more convenient season. While the Eorty-two Articles of Ed-
ward were held in abeyance, recourse was had to a brief inde-
pendent fornuda of eleven clauses, approved by the archbishops
and bishops. It acknowledges for the priest, and requires from

1 Fronde, vii : OO-Oo. '^ Foxe, Acts and }funs. iii : ISO.

« Qufen's Warrant for Court of High Commission in Causes Ecclesiastical, sects.
V, ii. Cardwell, I)<jr. A<i. i : •_>.')5-2<;:;.

* Lingard, the Roni.iiiist historian of Encrl.nnd, says : '' ^^'lloeve^ will compare
the powers given to this tribunal with those of the Inquisition which I'liilip ihe
Second endeavored to establish in the Low Countries, will find that the thief dif-
ference between the t*o courts cousiated in their names." — Ed. 15-7, viii : 00, n.



04 THE PROTESTAXTISM OF OUR FATHERS

the people, belief in the Trinity, the sufiicieucy of Scripture
and the three Creeds. It declares that the true teaching- of the
"Word authenticates the Church, and that a church so authenti-
cated can institute, change or abolish cereniotiics ; tliat only a
ministry lawfully called is valid : that the (pieon is supreme in
Church as iji State ; and that the Pope's power has been law-
fully repudiated. It asserts that the Prayer-Book is agreeable
to the Scriptures ; that exorcism, oil, salt, spittle and holy
water have l)eeu disused reasonably ; that j)i'ivate masses and
the notion that tlu-y release from Purgatory are most ungodly ;
that the faithful have right to communion in both kinds ; and
that images, relics, feigned miracles, pilgrimages, candles, beads,
etc., lie under malediction of Scripture.

When, in 15G2-G3, the Forty-two Articles of Edward came to
revision and readoption in Convocation, four were added, seven
subtracted and seventeen modified, leaving thirty-nine.^ All
these changes appear to have been dictated by the desire to dis-
card such as were becoming obsolete, to insert references to
newer spiritual vagaries, and to clear up misrepivsentations. steer
a middle course between extremists, and maintain in essentials
that general policy which the government was pursuing in other
respects.- No immediate action of Parliament endorsed and
legalized these Articles in their new form, so that for several
years they remained merely in moral force.

Late in 15G4, at the queen's connnand. Archbishop Parker
with the Pishops of London, Ely. Rochester, "Winchester and
Lincoln, sent out certain Advertisements,^ which contained four
classes of articles to promote unity in doctrine and practice.
These were remarkable chieHy In that tlxy annull'Ml nil existing
licenses to preach, forbade unlicensed preachiug, reipiired the
minister to wear " a comely surples with sleeves,*' every celebrant
of the couimunion a cope, and all connnunicants to receive kneel-
ing"; and ordained that all " ecclesiasticall persons " wear long

1 The lOth, 10th. 10th, "0th, 4r>th. 41st and 42d .irticlos were omitted. Tho .")th.
12th. 20th and "0th wen- .iddcd.

2 Hardwiok notes the odd f.ict th.-it no sm.ill part of the fresh ni.itter insrrted
was borrowed from the Confession of Wiirtemberg, " a Lutlieran Document, itself in
turn an echo of the Aupsbnrc: Confession,'' 125-147.

« Cardwell, Doc. An. i: ;J21-3:U.



THE ISSUES AND HOW THEY WERE MET tK3

gowns and ca])S ori.linarily and •' liattes but in their journeingo ; "
winding up with a list of eight pledges of obedience required
of all ecclesiastics. This deliverance revealed the (jueeu's pur-
pose to crush Nonconformity by the mere exercise of royal pre-
rogative, and to compel scruplers as to " rags of Kome '" to wear
them or l)eir>nie mere laymen. She proj)used tliis of her own
authority, yet she meant to make the bishops bear the respon-
sibility.^

Very earnest were the appeals for advice sent by some tender-
conscieneed ones to their Continental friends. Not more tlian
two to five years earlier some of these very bishops had had
scruples upon some of these very points. Even now the\- insisted
that they conformed simply to keep the high places of the Church
from the Romanists.^ That such men so soon should turn so
sharp a corner was discoui-aging. The difficulty scarcely was
relieved by the advice which came back from Switzerland and
Germany, advice not always self-consistent. ]\Iart}T at first said,
on July 15, 1559 : —

Truly, if we hated superstitions from the heart, we should endeavor
by all means tliat their very vestiges should be rooted out.

Later, on November 4, he declared : —

Though I have always been opposed to the use of ornaments of lliis
kind, yet as I perceived the present danger of your being deprived of
the othce of preaching, and that ... as altars and images have been re-
moved, so this resemblance of the mass may also be taken away, pru-
vidfd you and others who may obtain bishopricks will direct all your
endeavours to that object (whicli would make less ])rogress. should
anotlier succeed in vour ])lace, wlio not only niii^htbe inditVerent al)out
putting away those relics, l)ut would rather defend, cherisli and main-
tain them ;) therefore was I the slower in advising you i athci- to refuse
a bishoprick, than to consent to the use of the garments.

^ Mitchell (17 and n.) says: "The perenipton.- mandate reqiiirintr them to trive
this subscription issueil from the sovereitrn hci-sclf ; hut it was cariii'd out. if with
reluctancf' vet with suhniission, Ijy several of the prelates, and esj>ecially by Parker.
Archbishop of Canterbury. I have no doubt . . . th.it the queen wisiied and urj;ed
him to proceed, jiist .as slie eiicoiira^^ed Aylmer's action ar^ainst Cartwrijjht, but
that (as in that case) she wished liini to take the onus on iiiniself."

^ riorne to Gualter : '' We complied with this injunction, lest our enemies should
take po?ses'^ion of the places deserted by ourselves." — Zur. Lets. LXIV.



96 THE I'ROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

And on Fchruaiy 1-11, 15G0, he wrote :^ —

You may theri'foio use these habits oiiluT in i.iLachin^'. or in the
administration of the Lord's Supper, proviih'il however you persist in
s])eakiiig and teaching against the use of them.

BuUinger wrote to a eonfoniiist : —

I approve of the zeal of those ])ersons who would have the church
purged from all tlie dregs of popery ... On the otlier liand. I aho
commend your prudence, who do not think that churches are to he for-
saken because of the vestments [of the clergy].

The new departure was foHowed up resohitely. On Maroli
26, the London eh^rgy were suininoned to Lambeth, and in pre-
sence of Archliishop Parker. Grindal. Ih'shop of London, and
others of the Eecksiastical Connnission, the bisliop's chancellor
pointed to Robert Cole, of St. Mary-le-Bow, who was habited
in a square cap, a scholar's go\na, and tippet, and said : - —

The Council's pleasure is, that strictly ye keep tlie unity of apjiarel
like to tliis man. ... as you see him . . . and in the church a linen sur-
plice : and inviolably observe the rubric of the Book of Conuuon
Prayer, and tla- Queen's ^Majesty's Injunctions : and the Book of Con-
vocation [i- e. the Thirty-nine Articles].

Ye that will presently subscribe, write volo ; ye that will not sub-
scribe write nolo.

Be brief: make no words!

The roll of churches then was called, and of the ninetv-eiij-ht
clergy present sixty-one submitted. Thirty-seven refused, among
whom " were the best." ^ Those refusing were suspended and
notified that, unless they yielded within three months, they would
be dcju'ived. A few conformed, some entered secular callings
and some landed in prison. When Parliament niet. the Com-
mons, December 5, 15GG, sent uj) to the Loids a bill making
subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles the condition of hold-
ing a benefice in the Church. De Feria. the Spanish and)as.sador
and really the rei)resentative of the Pope, besought the (pieen

1 Zur. Lets. XLHI, XII, XIV, XVII. I : App. II.

' Strype, Grindal. \U.

' So I'rrker s-iid. Yet he added : " Aa for tlie most part of tlu-se recusants. I
would V ish thein out of the ministry, as mere ijnorant and v.iin heads." — Cornsp.
ccvii, ccix.



THE ISSUES AND HOW THEY WERE MET 97

to defeat the measure; and she consented, nor was It until 1571
tliat these Artirles really Leeanio law.^

No wonder that this royal aetion. added to the j^alling yoke
of the Advertisena-nts, hastened a erisis. Hope deferred died
altogether out of many breasts. Elizabeth had been queen more
than eight years and had had time to show what she really
was.2 At the beginning of her reign those whose views had sent
theui into voluntary exile during Mary's time had believed her
piety genuine. According to Holinshed ^ she certainly offered
a good prayer before she started for her coronation. Sandvs,
on the eve of leaving Strasburg for London, wrote to Bui lin-
ger:—

The queen has changed almost all her counsellors, and has taken
good Christians into her service in the room of papists : ami there is
great hope of her j)roiiu)ting the gospel, and advancing the kingdom of
Christ to the utmost of litT power.

On her coronation day (Jualter, in a letter frou) Zurich, ex-
pressed the strongest eunfulence in her piety and her purpose to
purify the Chureh. lie also wrote to Lord Kussell that her
" piety had been already proelanned through the whole world ; "
and to Kii-hard ^Masters, her physician, eulogizing her as a
" most godly Queen." In February following, Sir Anthony Cooke
wrote to Martyr, "■ the zeal of the queeu is very great."

By March '20-30, however, John Jewel, .soon to be Bishop of
Salisbury, wrote to Martyr : —

Tliougli slie openly favors our cause, yet is M'onderfully afraid of
allowing any innovations : this is owing partly to her own friends, by
wliijsc advice everything is carried on. and jjartly to the iuHueuce of
Count Feria. a Sjianiard, and rhilii)'s aniliassuilor.

Less than a month later he complained to the same friend: —
If the rpieen herself would hut banish it [the mass] from lier private
chapel, the wholr tliini,^ might easily be got rid of. . . . Slie has, how-
ever, so regulated this mass of liers fwhiclr slie lias hitherto retained
only from the circumstances of the times) that althougii many things

' Froude, viii: .>"',iUUl ; x: 10-J.

' Dodd (ii : On) jjives fairly the Roni.inist iden of her. They thoupht her Catliolic
le.nniiifrs were '" in a strain altotjethcr hiiiiian and iiiievangelical."'
3 Chrons. 11^0.



93 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATUERS

are done theioin, which are scarcely to be euduietl, it may yet be heard
>vithout any great danger.

By the luiclclle of Noveiubor he wrote agaiu to the suine : i —

That little silver cross, of ill-omened origin, still maintains its place

in the queen's chapel. Wretched me ! this thing will soon be drawn

into a precedent. There was at one time some hope of its being

removed ; . • • But as far as I can perceive, it is now a hopeless case.

These hints suggest tlie truth. In the hegiuiung Elizabeth luul
very little, if any? deep sympathy with godliness, wliile everyday
evolved some opposing influence. Great cares of State pressed
heavily. For a long period it seemed to be her civil strength to
sit still in all matters of religion. Not witliout some reason did
she appareutlv suppose that a conformity, which at first might
have to be compulsory, graduaUy would become a matter of
course, and finally would be accepted as natural and proper. She
also undertook negotiations with Spain and France, which she was
unwilling to imperil for religion. Moreover, her statesmen and
her Parliament constantly begged her to marry, and her suitors,
— Philip of Spain, the Duke of Holstein, the Arcluluke of
Austria, the King of Sweden, a Saxon i)Tince, the Karl of Leices-
ter, the Earl of Arundel, the Duke of Anjou, Sir William Pick-
erin- and the Earl of Arran — woul.l be on an.l off alm..st at
the Tame time, all of which <liverted her attention. Furthermore,
her nature seems to have repelled her from syn.pathy with spir-
itual reli.non. Waiving all quc'stions as to her relations with
her favorites, she plainlv was self-willed, haughty and sometimes
insolent, often profane, liable t.. ungovernable rage, i)arsimonious,
and not seldom cruel, unjust and hypocritical ; while her conceit,
vanity and love of show were sometimes preposterous. These
are m.t " the fruits of the Spirit," and no character which
steadily grows in the direction which they indicate <-an have
much sympathv with the temprror aims of such m-u as Sampson
Humphrey tnul tlu- othvrs, who were striving to bring England
back to "the siinidicitie that is in Christ."

Add to all this lu-r urgent i.reference for the showiness of
the old way, which restored crueilix, candles, etc., to her chapel,^

1 Zur. Uts. I, ii ; II, iii. iv, V, vi ; I. iv, y\, xxiv. ^ Ibid. I, l.ii, Ivii.



THE ISSUES AND HOW TIIEY WERE MET 99

ami it is not strange that the reformers shouhl have conohuled
tluit, if she were not in heart a Komanist, she was at least so lios-
tile to Protestantism that she could be expected to do nothing in
its aid, but ratlier to oppose it. As if on purpose to annoy the
Protestants, she had revived the fooleries of the carnival. And
surely, occurrences^ like one almost contemporaneous witli tlie
issue of the Advertisements, must have confirmed their belief.
On Ash AVednesday, she took De Silva, then Spanish ambas-
sador, to St. Paul's to hear Dean Nowell. The Dean's subject soon
led to some reference to images, which "■ he handled roughly."
'' Leave that alone I " commanded Elizabeth from her seat of
state. But the Dean, not understanding her, went on. AV here-
upon slie screamed, "■ To your text! Mr. Deane ; to your text;
leave that : we have heard enough of that ; to your subject I "
The amazed and insulted speaker reddened, stammered and sat
down, while the (]ueen sailed away with her Papal friend.

Of course some then, like many since, belittled the conscien-
tiousness of those who were aggrieved by these tendencies, and
minimized their scruples as if worthless. The Primate contemp-
tuously called them "silly recusants." - Bishop Jewel WTote :
" That matter [of the surplice and ceremonies] still somewhat
disturbs weak minds." Bishop Sandys remarked to Bnllinger :
" There is some little dispute al)Out using or not using the pojiish
habits;" and liishop GrimUd wrote : "^ " It is scarcely credible
how nmch this controversy about things of no importance has (Hs-
turbed our churches, and still, in great measure, continues to do.
Many of the more learned clergy seemed to be on the point of
for>akiii - tlidr miiiistrv."

Later Ijigli.-,h ehuivh writers also have failed to do justice
to till M' nun. Fuller* stigmatizes them as "fierce (not to say
furiou^; sticklers again-^t church-discipline." Collier ^ calls their
opinions •• ill-supported scruples " and •' misap))lication of zeal "
and tlu- " iudi^mtions of zealots." Heylyn '' uses such terms as
" ])eevish frowardiiess." •' unlawful and disonlerlv conventicles "
and '• zealous and conceited of their own dear Sanctity." Hook"

» IX- Mlv.i I.. I'liil. Suwinras M^.'i. March ll' ; citH.l by Froml.-. viii : l.'W.

* P.Trkcr, f'/rr. </). crix. * Zur. Ltls. I, Ixvii, Ixvi, Ixxiii.

♦ Ch. Hist, r.ntiiiu, iv: :;:;U. * Ecrlfs. Hist. Crfat Jiritnin^y'i : 304-G9j.
« II I St. I'reibs. I'.'V.', :.'(i4. " Ltues Ahps. Cunt, vi : lo2.



100 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

styles them '• men of theory."' Lathbuiy ^ insists that the differ-



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