Henry Martyn Dexter.

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He repudiates Anaba])tisin and contem])t of magistracy, but
claims that, if law be offended by truth, the law shonhl be re-
formed and not the holders of the truth ]>unished. lie declares
it wicked to attribute to a prayer-book authority due to God's
book alone ; and that indictment and imprisonment for such a



THE LITERATURE OF THE COXFLICT 131

cause are "crueU persecution." lie insists that all in whidi
the Church of England differs from the Kcforined churches of the
Continent is in that it is not "directed by the course of the
Scriptures." So that, instead of being "singidar," those who
plead for further reform desire " to drawe by one line with tlie
primitiue church, and the churches best reformed at thvs dav."
Provision should be made for a i)reaching ministry, by drawin-
upon the funds of the bishops and the cathedndsi if necessar;)°
Each i)arish ought to have a pastor and teacher.

The bestowal of the titles of Bachelors and Doctors of
Divinity -by frendsldp, or corrupt bribery" is condemned.
The pomp and apparelling of the hierarchy, and its cruel treat-
ment of Nonconformists, are censured heaiily. And, with sharp
criticism of the existing way, the platform of a true church is
outlined, with its olKcers and their manner of election, its ser-
vice, its consistory and its powers of discipline. " TeU the
church " is " tel that consistorie of the lewes and the scrip-
tures that directe their gouernement." .Vllusion is made to the
then not clearly thought out Presbyterian idea of '• a more gen-
erall Syuode, and councell of the whole land ... to whose^de-
termination they shall stande, excei)te there be a more general
Synode of all [Reformed] churches." 1

Early, it seems, in 1573, Cartwright followed this pamphlet
with a black-letter quarto,- refuting Wliitgift's reply to the
*' Admonition," his authorsliip being avowed by the initials T. C.
He begins with a g-raeeful expression of regret that he must op-
pose those who as to so many things are friends. But there is no
good reason why a polity employe.l in the Ajwstles" times should
be stigmatize.l as -new,"' or condemned as -strange" when now
full-grown across the Channel. Least of aU should tliat be ac-
cused of disorder

whose whole worke is to provyde that nothinij be done out of place,
out of time, or otiierwise. tlien tlie oonilytiou of euery iiuuis calling
will Leave : which ])utteth the jjeuple in suhiection vnder their gouern"-
oures, tlie gouernoures in degree, and order one vnder an other, as the

* Second Admonition, li'mio. ]. "-"j. C, S, 9, 10, 12, 15, IC, 2.', .M, 44-.'>4
" A Jiq,l,ie to an Ausvv.re mad" of M. Doctor VVhityiftl, ugaynste the Admoni.
tton to the Parliament, by T. C. 4to, 1, 2, Gl.



132 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

Elder, vnderneatli the Pastor, and the Deacon, vnderneath the Elder,
wliych teacheth, that a Partieuler cluuoli, shall giue place vnto a Pro-
uinciall synudc, where many churches are, and the Prouincial to a
Kationall, and likewyse that, vnto the Generall, if any be, and all vnto
Chi'iste, and his worde.

Nor can such a system be condemned justly, as —

An enemy to magistrates, and the common wealth. ... It helped
and vpholded the common wealths, whych were gouerned bv tvrantes,
and can it hinder those, whych are gouerned by godly princes ? . . .
If it be asked of the obedience due vnto the prince, and vnto the
magistrate, it answearoth that all obedience in the Lord, is to be ren-
di-ed : and if it come to passe, that any other be asked, it so refuseth,
that it disobayeth not, in preferring obedience to the great God, before
that whych is to be giuen to mortaU man. It so resisteth, that it sub-
mittcth the body, and goodes of those that professe it, to abide that
whych God will haue them sntfer in that case. And if it be shewed,
that this is necessary for tlie church, it cannot be, but ])rotitable for
tlie common wealth. . . . And vndoubtedly, seeing that the church &
common wealth . . . behke vnto Hypocrates twinnes, whych were
sicke togither, and well togither, laughed togither, and weeped to-
gither, and ahvayes like afl'ected : it can not be, but that the breaches
of the common wealth haue proceeded from the hurtes of the church,
and the wants of the one, from the Inches of the other. Neyther is
it to be hoped for y' the common wealth shall flourishe. vutill the
church be reformed.

Two principles underlie this entire argument : the all-suffi-
ciency of Scripture in its revelations of the primitive Church to
furnish the model of all church government, and the absolute
inadmissibility of any Papal defilement of such a model. The
grasp and vigor of the reasoning are indicated by this ])assage :

Is it a like[ly] thyng that he whych did not only appointe the
temple and the tal)ernacle, but the ornamentes of them, woulde not
onely neglecte the ornamentes of the churche, but also that, wvthout
the whych (as we are borne in hand) it canne not long stande ? Shall
we thincke that he whych remembrcd the barres there, hath forgotten
the pilk-rs lieere? or he that there remcmbred the pinnes, did lieere
forgette the master-builders ? howe he should there remember the
besomes, and heere forget Archbishoppes, if anye had bene neede-
fuU?



THE LITERATURE OF THE CONFLICT 133

No wonder tliat to the hierarcliy sucli strong sense appeared
dangerous. Accordingly a i)roolaniation ^ was issued, on June 11,
1573, denouncing the "Admonitions" and the authors as di^^-
sive. All persons were strictly cliarged to keep the prescribed
order, and all who had any copies of the books to deliver them
up within twenty days or go to prison. On the day after the
expiry of these twenty days the Bishop of London WTote to Lord
Burghley : - —

Althoughe the date of the late proclamation for bringinge in of the
admonition to the parliament, ami other seJiciouse bokes is aketly ex-
pired, yet the whole Citie of London, where no doubt is greate plentie,
hath not brought one to my liande and I can hardely think vat your
Lordships of hir ^laiesties privey Counsell haue receyued many.

At our distance of more than 300 years, it is ditlficult to re-
cover and properly group even the main i)ublications which had
influence in this struggle, a difficulty innnensely increased by
the fact that those of the Puritans were so hunted by the offi-
cials that their surrejititious production only introduced them to
a most precarious life. This comes out graphically upon one
title-page, which, instead of an imprint at the bottom of the
page, bears these lines : —

Thp Prynter tn thr Header.
Thys worke is fvnislu'd. thnnkos bo to God,
And he only v il kfpp.^ vs from the st-arcliers rod.
And thoii<,'li inasttT l):iy and Toy ' watch &. warde,
We hope tlie liiiinf:^ God is o\ir saiiej;'ardo.
Let them seeke, loke. and doe now what they can,
It is but inuentions and pollicies of man.
But you wil nianitl wlicf it was fvnislied,
And you slial know (iit-rohance) wlion domes day is.
Imprinted we know where, and wlian,
ludgc you the place and [if] you can.

This book^ is a little black-letter of sixteen pages, whose object
is to answer objections to the "Admonition."

A volume^ of nearly 200 pages soon appeared, apparently

1 GrenviL'e Coll. of Prnrs. 150. - Lnnsd. MSS. xy\\ : .37.

* C'fticials bidden to Htippr-.'ss unlicensed printinir.

* Ortaiite Arti-les collftrd and tiikrn (as il is tliou'jht) by the liyshops out nf a litle
boke entitultd An Admonition to the parliament, iryth an Answere to the same, etc.,
1572, It'imo. 15.

' .1 rh/.n.<eo/the ErclfxiastiraU lleqiment in Englande dffaced by T. C in his
llrpiit oyaynst D. VVhityifle, 1574, I'.'mo, 11, 102. 122-132.



134 TPIE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

anonyiuous, which makes heroic endeavor to answer the criticisms
of the established order. It tries to show that the State Church
already is very nearly what it should be, and the book is weU
seasoned witli contempt for those whom it answers. In its eighth
section, on the Presbytery, it oifers perhaps its best contribution
as to the real merits of the question, some of its suggestions
being fair and weighty, e. g. : —

Now, if this be true that euery congregation had their seniors [el-
ders], it is not like[ly] tliat Antioch, where Christias first tooke their
name, was vnpruuided of so necessarie an office. But whereas men-
tion is made of Prophets and Doctours, Act. 13, tliere is not a worde
of Seniors : therefore it is not like that any such were there, and be-
sides the questions of religion whiche fell out at Antioclie, beeing de-
cided at Jerusalem, argueth no suche domesticall and neigliborly iui'is-
diction. S. Paule repeating al tlie offices and functions of tlie Churche.
Ephe. 4. speaketli not a worde of seniors, which maketh nie doubt of
their author it ie : for, otherwise I am sure tlie Ajjostle would haue
alowed them a bench, though one of the meanest & basest in the ciJ-
pany.

Whitgift took the field once more, late in 1574. in a great
black-letter folio.^ In the preface he insists that Cartwright's
whole argument rests upon two •' rotten pillers : " viz., that the
Church in Apostolic times must be our model, and that we may
not lawfidly retain an}-thing abused mider the Pope. These he
tries to knock away by proving that much is " left to the dis-
cretion and libertie of the Church." lie seeks to demonstrate
his own superior scholarship, by prefacing his plea with a list
of twenty-one " dangerous pointes of doctrine,'' ai)d another of
fifty-one " vntruthes. and falsified authorities,"' all of which, he
alleges, may be founel in Cartwright's " Keplyc " to his former
book. To his credit be it said, however, tliat he reprints that
" Replye " paragrajih by paragraph as ho answers it ; and, when
needfiU, he even cites the original ••• Admonition," and also his
own " Answere " to that which preceded the last " Keplye," with
which he now is dealing. But he is not always temperate in lan-
guage ; e. g., he declares that those who hold the new views not

* The Deftnce of the Aunswere to the Admonition, agninst the Beplie "/ T- C by
John Whitgifle, D. D. 1."m4, fol. iv, v, viii, ix, 2oi'>, 090, 007.



THE LITERATURE OF THE CONFLICT 135

only refuse to go to church but also '• spitte in our faces, reuile
vs in the streates and shewe such like villanie vnto vs, and thut
oncly bicause of our apparell."

As to one ])oiut, that in any event the civil magistrate should
enforce chnrch regulations, both parties were essentially at one.
Cartwright had said : ^ —

As for the making of tlie orders & cerimonyes of the church, they doe
(wliere there is a constituted and ordered church) pertayne vnto tlie
niynisters of the church, and to the ecclesiastycall gouernoures, and that
as they meddle not witli the making of cyvill lawes and lawes for the
common weaUh : so the cyvill magistrate hath not to ordayne cere-
monies pertayning to the churclie. Rut if those to whome that doth
ai)pcrtayne, make anv orders not mcete, the magistrate may and
ought to hvnder tliem, and dryue them to better, for so much as the
ciuill magi>trate hath thys cliarge to see that nothing be done agaynst
the glory of God in hys dominion.

"Whitgift did not fail to point out the weak spot in this, for
he replied : —

AVhat if they [the ecclesiastical governors] saye they [tlieir orders
which the secular magistrate says are '* not meets "] be meete, & wil
stand to it, as you do now in this fonde [foolish] platforme ? will they
not ciye out ^-])on the magistrate, & saye that he is a persecutour,
a mavnteiner of an vnhuvful authorltie. & of that which is against the
glory of God, if he willistande the ?

l^nt as to the main issue under this head, AVhitgift only finds
faidt with Cartwright for not going far enough, and for resting
in the same place wliieh tlie Papists occupy.

Certain Churcli of fZngland writers have represented that
Cartwright confessed Idinsidf worsted and undertook no furtlier
diseussion.2 On the contrary, during the next year he published
a thick quarto ^ in reply to Whitgift, followed within two years
by another. The t}i)c of the former suggests that probably
it came from the Zurich press, which at about the same time
was printing tlie " In-ieff discours oft" the troubles begonne at
Franckford in Germany, Anno Domini 1554.'" The reasons of

1 Eeplye to Ans. 102. ^ Fuller, iv : 383 ; Ileylyn. 27.') ; Collier, vi : 500.

' The second replie of Tlio'nas C'lrluriiiht : agntjnst yinister Doctor WhitgiflfS
second Answer, touching the Churche discipline. M.D.LXXV. 4to, XLxvi, xi, 095,
007, 0<38, C>00.



136 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

the delay in piepaiinj^ tlie volume are stated to have been his
poor health and his exile. Perhaps the weij^htiest considerations
which Cart\\Tight urges herein in reply to AVhitgift are as follows.
He gives this thrust at the reading ministers who lacked wit
to make sermons : —

Where sermons are ajij)lied to the present circimistance, wliiclie
by chaunge olf tniies. Inidding otf now vices, rising of errors, &c. van'
almost every day : this kinde of interpretation (as that which is
starckc and annunied [benumhed] can not ])oursue them, for wlien
the preacher with liis sermon, is able according to the manifold wind-
inges, and tm-ninges of sinne, to winde, and turne in with yt. to thend
[that] he may stricke it : the homilies are not able to turne, neither
ol¥ the right hand, nor otf the left, but to wli.at quarter soeuer the ene-
mies are retyred, yt must keepe the traine wherin it was set otf the
maker.

He insists upon these two axioms : " The Scripture is a per-
fect rule off all actions, wliich can fall into m.~is life ; " and ■• the
churche gouerneuient, is one off the three markes off the Church :
. . . yt is safely taken, from the Apostels times : and dauuer-
ously from the first 500. yeares after them." And his chief
point, he sets forth thus in closing : —

Thus we are (by the grace olf god) come, to an cnde off this trea-
tise, wherin let the reader iudge, whether yt bathe bene ])rouiil that
the offices off arcbbisbops and archdeacons be vnlnwfull, that thev
came not into the church 300. yeares after the ascension off our Sa.
Christe : that tliere names are likewise vnlawfull by the worde. for-
bidde by auncient councels, not to be founde in any auncient writin"-
before 400. yeares approched. Further whether that euerv congrecra-
tion, owght to haue a bishop : that one onely may haue two or moe ;
that they owglit all to haue like titles and autoritie. Sauinrr that in
their meetings for orders sake one In' consent of the rest gouerneth that
action, in suche sorte as is declared . . . Finallv. wliether that euen
the elder 15ishops when they were declined from the svnceritie off
god's ordinance, and the archblsho])s and archdeacons which he neuer
ordained : were much more toUerable then ours : as those wliose autor-
ity was witliout comjiarison les, and pompe none at all.

Two years later Cartwright,^ still in exile, put to press the

' It h.is been thoiifjht — ami .is to this Dr. Dixter learned tli.it he had heen
misled in his Bibliography of ]>>0 — that Cartwri^jlit was the autlior of a sn'.all



THE LITERATURE OF THE CONFLICT 137

remaiiuler ^ of his sei-ond reply to Wliitgift. In the former part
he had critically followed Whityift's volume down to its discus-
sion of civil offices in ecclesiastical persons. In this second j)art
he argues that it is unlawful for a minister of Christ to bear
civil office ; that church government by an eldership in every
congregation is peri)etual ; that cathedral churches should be
turned into colleges, or put to some good use ; that excommu-
nication does not belong to the bishop alone ; that the deacon's
office is eleemosynary ; and that baptism by private persons,
especially women, is unlawful and void, etc. Upon one point
he advances a little beyond where he and his party so far had
stood. As to authority, as between Church and 8tate. he says :
" As wel in the decision oi the doctrine, as in the chois of the
variable ceremonies of the church, the principal autority belngeth
\^lto the ministery."'

For a short time no attempt seems to have been made to set
forth in any systematic form the new polity which, in genend.
had been advocated in the " Admonition " and in Cart\NTight's
books. Rut now and then the wide discontent thrust itself into
notice. A fair sample of these exhibitions of feeling is tliis
paragi-aph, dated 1574:- —

you Pastours. you Preachers, you Guides of the people, & you
pillars of the churches, O you maisters of this worke, & surueyors as
it were, of tliis building, dueth then the kingdome of heaueu stande
in eating and drinking ? Can the Tenijjle of God be sustained with
Pluralities and Tot qiiofs,^ with Deanries and Prebendes, with othce
and honour? hath nut Christ ordained you as Lanternes of liglit. as
salt of the earth, and ministers of Salvation ? Is it not savde vou are
Gods lahourt' rs, Goils worckemen. and tiie builders of Gods Teni])le ?
Howe happes it (then) that you bee huilders uf your own stoare, and

Ifimo, entitled An Examination of M. Dr. Whitgifles censures. Conteined in two
TdbUs, set b(/ore hi.<: hnnlc intituhd the di-frnre of the Answere to the admonition
against the Rapine of T. C. 1")75. But Caiiwrifjlit said in the introdiiftion to the
Second lieplye (xxx) that he had just seen this Kxnmimition. after he had ended
that lieplye ; and that for the truth's sake hn was triad to see it, and heartilv
thanked its author. This of course proves that lie did not write it.

* The rest of the second rtplie of Thomas Carliiriijht : aqaynst Muster Doctor Vvhit-
gifs Second ansrur, tourhimj the Church (liscijiline. M.D.LXXVII. 4to, ii : 1-31,
32-'t\, 7"-7f., 77-'."s, 70-1 1.-). 1 1(;-14:;. 17U, L'Go.

^ E. Hake, - 1 Tovchstone for this time present, etc., 1574, Svo.

' ExactioiLS of annates already paid.



138 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

not builders of Gods churche ? Maintayners of your owne wealth, &
not sustainers of gods temple ? feeders of your selues & not of your
flocke ?

In 1571 Walter Travers — who had taken his degree in
Divinity at Cambridge, liad been connected with the beginnings
of Puritanism in EuglauJ, and had found refuge in Antwerp,
where he subsequently, in 1578. was ordained by a Dutch
sjTiod — wrote a book,^ printed at Kochelle. Its object is to
set forth the necessity' of ecclesiastical discipline, with the facts
that it can be made certain from the Scriptures and must follow
them closely ; and then to expound the functions of the Scri])-
tural office-bearers, and the corresponding duties of the body
of the Clnirch towards them. It has a preface by some one else,
said to be Cartwright.^

In the same year Cartwright, if, indeed, he did not translate
it, superintended the issue from a Continental press of the same
work in a black-letter English version.^ The preface is tliat of
the other. The book itself is considerably extAided — although
with care not to modify the sense — particularly by the addition
of two pages * of direct address to the queen. The book asserts
as fundamental that every human society must have some cer-
tain manner of government and discipline, and that for the
church "• let . . . all tliinges be exacted as nere as maie be \'nto the
worde off God." ° It divides ecclesiastical discipline into ecclesi-
astical functions, and the duty of the remainder of the faithful.

^ Ecclesiasticae Disciplinae et Anglicanae Ecclesiae ab ilia aterrationis, plena,
e verba Dei, c^- diiucida. f ryj/iWUio, M.D.LXXHII, ITimo.

" Brook. Cartwright, 24:3.

' A full and plaine diclaradon of Eccle.'iiastirall DiscijAine owt off the. word off' God,
and ojj'the dfclminge ojf the churche njf England from the .same, M.D.LXXIIII. 4to.
Several times rtprinted. The issues of Geneva (1580, IGmo) and of Levden
(Wm. Brewster. 1(317. 4to), with the orig^iual Latin and the earliest English
editions, are in Dr. Dexti-r's collection.

* Paf,'e3 ISS, li>S>. Also there appears to have heen prefixed — there is no trace
of anything resenihlin'^ it in the L.itin ori^rinal — an elaborate analysis, or "' a table
or short vieu' ojf all ErcL siasticall Discipline ordained by the word ofGod,^^ cover-
ing both sides of two lari,'e fulilinsr Itavt-s. Probably owinij to its size, and to the
ease with which such prefixed or appended leaves suffer dania^je. it is now s.I.lom
seen. Brewster alone — in his Leyden issue of ItJlT — reprinted it, making;' five
and a half tjuarto pacfcs.

* Full ani plain dedar. 17. 1-17, 44, 57, 39, 80-109, 110-117, 113-12"), 12>-1.3i',
161, 177, 178, 180, 1S7.



THE LITERATURE OF THE CONFLICT 139

There are two sorts of ecclesiastical ordinary officials, the bishops
and the deacons. Xo man may be appointed to any ecclesias-
tical office " but he that is called to a ccrten churche wherto
exercise it." A minister must be maiutaincd by the Church, but
modestly. A plain black gown is most suitable as liis apparel.
The " consvstory or councell of the churche " is declared to con-
sist of pastors, doctors and elders. To it the keys of heaven are
entrusted. It is declared an " Aristocratie, that is, that gouern-
ment and state wherin a fewe off the best do beare the rule."
The subject of Synods is touched upon lightly, probably not yet
having been thought out. Every estate, including the magistracy,
is declared subject to discipline ; and then the weak point of
the movement reveals itself in the remission of the whole essen-
tial work of the Church back to the world to gain its effi-
ciency': —

But the Magistrates haue this proper and peculier to tliem selves
aboue tlie rest oS. the faithfull. To set in order and establishe the
state oir the churche by thor authoritie and to preserue and mainteine
it according to godds will being once established. Not that they should
rule the Kcclcsiasticall matters by their authoritie. for this helongeth
vnto Christ alone and to hym he hath committed this charge, hut . . .
they ought to prouide, and see that the seruice olY God bo established
as he hathe appointed, and administred by siiche as ought to adniln-
istre the same, and afterwardes preserued in the same simplicitie and
sinccritie vndofiled.

A few years of comparative quiet followed the first clamor of
this discijdinarian controversy. Yet this quiet had its uneasinesses
for faithfid men, an example being the case of Richard Gawton.^
He' was charged before the bishop with having confuted the
bishop's chajdain. He acknowledged that he had confuted some
false doctrine of tlie cha])lain. Then he was accused of repudi-
ating lawful ecclesiastical authority, which he denied. A sharj)
discussion followed on the propriety of the name and style of
" Lord Bishop : " and tlic bishoj) suspended the intrej)id preacher,
who commented on the act thus : —

^ The Trnuhhs o/".Vr. Ilirhird Gawton, of late prfdrher at Xorii-ich. about Anno.
]'>7f:, 20 Aug. 'Zm, ;;'J".). Ki^priuted, 15'JO, ia .1 I'arte of a HeyisUr, 3'Ju-iUU.
Strypi-, An. ii (2) : 09.



140 THE rUOTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

I perceiue now that as was lately allinucd, if one had . . . the diu-
initie of S. Paul, if he were hecre and woulde not weare the surplesse,
you would put him out. Briefly answered [the Registrar or sunie otli-
cial] they would doe so. And the Bishop vjiheld it, sayintj : if S. Paul
were here hee would were [wear] a fook-s coate rather then bee put to
silence. I answered, hee should then be contrarie to his owne doctrine.
for if hee had rather neuer eat flesh, then hee would offend his ^eake
brother, he would also be as scrupulous to goe against those rules the
Holy Ghost had set downe by him.

The barbarism of the goveruuient towards those who dilt'ered
from it as to any vital matters was muibated. ^latthew Flain-
mond,^ a plough-wright of Iletherset, Norfolk, was liuriied to
death at Norwich on May "20, 1570, having the week before lost
his ears, for denying tlie divinity of Christ and abnsing the (jueeu
and council. And, on November 3, John Stiibbe, a gentleman
and scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a lawyer of Lin-
coln's Inn, London, had his right hand eliopped oft by tlie public
executioner for a pamphlet against the threatened marriage of
the queen with the Romanist and profligate Francis of Valuis,
afterwards Duke of Anjou. Before he fainted, he had time to
wave his hat with his left hand and shout, " God save the
Queen!" and he lived, after a merciless imprisonment in the



Online LibraryHenry Martyn DexterThe England and Holland of the Pilgrims → online text (page 14 of 65)