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Church is to deny Christ for Christ is the truth." Almost con-
temporaneously was reissued another earnest volume ^ on the

1 T7ie Catholikes Svpplication vnto the Kings Maiestie ; for Toleration of Catho-
like Jidigion in England, etc., 1005, 4to, oU. 5.

* A Supjiliration to the Kings most excellent M^aieslie, Wherein, seuerall reasons of
State and llf.ligion are briefely touched, etc., 4to. Repr. in the reply to it, o, 4, .5, 8.

^ The Snpj/lication of Certaine Masse-Priests falsely called Catholikes. etc., lC)i'4,
4to.

* A Directorie Teaching the Way to the Truth in a Briefe and Plaine Discovrse
against the htresies of this time, etc., l^iO."), IGino, 1. 4. 407.

® Autobiog. of Fath. Thos. Manhy, alias Rogers. Bees. Eng. Prov. Soc. Jesus,
xi : 603.

* A Survey of the New Religion. Detecting ^fany Grosse Absvrdities which it im-
plieth, etc., IGOO, 4to. Epis. to King : 13 ; Epis. to Council : 7, 394.



348 THE PILGRIMS AND THE CONFLICT

Papal side, somewhat enlarged and with a special address to
the PriN-y Council, hy Dr. ^Matthew Kellison, then reading di-
vinity lectures at Rheims and within a year of the presidency
at Douay, which he held until his death. He labors to demon-
strate the great difference between the Catholic religion and
the new doctrines, but his work is a plea rather than an argu-
ment, and made very little impression. It was answered 'soon,
and very sharply, by Dean Sutcliffe, of Exeter.^

One of the fellows of St. John's, Cambridge, was Thomas
Morton, afterwards Bishop of Chester, Lichfield and Coventry,
and Durham, who had held some public discussion with Romish
recusants, and was ui-ged by Bancroft, now Archbishop of Can-
terbury, to reply to a plausible recent volume - by John Brerely
— really James, or Laurence, Anderton, of Lostock, Lanca-
shire.^ Morton prepared an elaborate argument * defending the
English Church, founded upon the concessions of Romanists and
issued, in two parts, in 1G05-6. It is very learned, and the
Romanists could "avoid its force only by the twofold plea that
the Papal authors cited were not representative, and that the
various disagreements between them did not concern essentials.
Sutcliffe ^ aired his vocabulary of abuse once more, prompted by
a tract of the Jesuit, Robert Persons, but neither said anything
worth mention. Persons "^ also paid his respects to Morton, in
1607, scolding him for being a hypocrite and liar.

A quieter and wiser treatment of the Papists was offered by
Richard Field, whose treatise ' on the Church has held a place
in the literature of the English Establishment perhaps only

1 The Examination and Confutation of a certain scurrilous treatise entituled, The
survey of the neire Religion, etc., ICOti, 4to.

^ The Protestants Apologie for the Roman Church, 1G04, 4to.
» Dodd, ii : 3SG-3S7.

* Apologia Catholica ex meris Ii-suitarum contrail ictionibus conflata, etc., 1605, 4to,
and Apologiae Catholirae Pars StrunJa, etc., 1(300, 4to.

* The Blessings on Movnt Gerizziui, and the Curses on MoLmt Ebal : or the Happie
Estate of Protestantes, compared with the miserable Estate of Papists vnderthe Popes
Tyrannic. 4to, 380.

* A Treatise tending to Mitigation tovvardes Catholicke Subiectes in England, etc.,
by P. R., 1007, 179, 2;J7.

' Of the Church. Four Bookes. By Richard Feild. Doctor of Diuinitie, 1000,
4to, iii : 15, 16, 40, 72, ."/.), 54, 55 ; and The Fifth Books of the Chvrch, Together with
an Appendiz,-etc., 1610, 4to.



MORE CONTROVERSY ABOUT THE TRUE CHURCH 349

second to Hooker's. He rose to be a canon of Windsor and a
chaplain to the king. He is said to have been a friend of Hooker
in his last years. In 1606 he published his first part, the second
following four years later. His style is in refreshing contrast to
Sutclift'e's. He is fair and usually niikl and courteous.

His first book defines the Church, the second describes it, the
third identifies it, and the fourth expounds its pri^'ileges. The
Church is the body of those whom God calls by knowledge and
sanctifies by grace. But some are partial in knowledge, and
therefore heretics ; some not in unity, and therefore schismatics ;
some in unity, yet not in sincerity, and therefore In^pocrites ; all
these being in the Church as opposed to infidels and open un-
believers. The true Catholic Church always is distinguishable
from Pagans, Jews, heretics and schismatics by three essential
notes : the profession of those supernatural verities which God
has revealed in Christ, the use of such holy ceremonies and sacra-
ments as he has ordained, and a union of men in this profession
and use under appointed pastors. The Latin Church used to be
the true Church, but needed reformation when Luther came.

This ti'ue Church Dr. Field identifies with the Reformed
Churches, which, although they neither are,

nor perhaps hereafter shall bee, in all, or the most parts of the worlde,
yet are they catJiolique, for that they doe continuate themselues with
that Church, which hath been, is, or shall bee. in all places of the
worlde, before the comming of Christ, and undoubtedly already hath
beene in the most part thereof.

When the fifth book, treating of the office of the Church,
came out, it indicated a moderation in marked contrast with
Bancroft's High Church claims. If men of the spirit of Field
had controlled affairs, the Puritans might have had some chance
within the Church. But the bishops and the king — and over
them a higher Power, for his own wise reasons — had decreed
otherwise.

Two attacks of another sort upon Romanism in 1606 help to
show the public dread of it. j\Iuch the more important is a little
anonymous treatise ^ suggested by a conversation at a dinner-

^ A Beporte of a Discovrse concerning supreme power in afaires of Religion. 'Mani-
festing that thif; poicer is a right of Rcgaiitie inseparably annexed to the Soueraigntie



350 THE PILGRIMS AND THE CONFLICT

table. It argues against Papal supremacy in England. The
other was by Oliver Ormerod, of Eiuanuel College, Cambridge,
and afterwards of Huntspill, Somerset, who, having issued the
year before a singular volume ^ " made dialogue-wise " against
the Puritans, now printed a similar one ^ against the Romanists.
A passage from it illustrates the current style and the common
line of argument. A rector finds a parishioner prajang before a
cross and accosts him : —

Minister: How now, neighbour, haue I found you crouching to a
Crucifix ? . . .

Recusant: ... let me make an end of my prayers, and then I will
come and conferre with you.

M. : No, neighbour, God loueth alacritie in his worke ; excuses he
much disliketh. The delay that Elizeus made, let me go kisse my
father, and those shifts in the Gospell, let mee goe hurie my father, or
take leaue of my f rinds, are not admitted iu the Lord's businesse : noe
more is this of yom-s, let inee make an ende of my prayers.
R. : Yes, I pray you giue me leaue.

M. : I pray you intreate nie not; for I dare not giue you leaue to
commit idolatrie.

R. : Idolatrie ? Do you charge me Avith idolatrie ?
M. : It is an old saying, and I see that it is true, not onely in cor-
poral! whoredome, but in spiritual! [Prov. xxx : 20] ari adulterous
woman eateth ; and after iclpeth her mouth, and saith, I haue not
committed iniquitie. AVith wliat face can you denie your selfe to be
an idolater ? haue I not taken you in ipso facto ?

R. : You haue taken me indeede praying before a crucifixe, but I hope
you account not that Idolatrie.

M. : Yes, Saint Ambrose [rfe Obltu Theodos'] telleth you, that to
worship the Crucifixe is grosse idolatrie : and 1)efore him Arnobius
made tliis answer in the behalfe of all true Christians \_Adversus
Gentes.lAh. 8] Cruces nee colimus nee optamus : vos plane qui
ligyieos deos consecratis, omces ligneas. ut deorum vestrorum j^artes,
forsitan adoratis. We neither ivorshippe crosses, Jior xcish for them,

of Ewry State, etc., IGOrt, Svo. Possibly this may have been a rudimentary issue
of Sir John Hayward's Of Supremacie in ajfairs of Religion, printed in 1024.

^ The Pictvre of a Puritane : or, a Relation of the opinions, qualities, and prac-
tises of the Anabaptists in Germanie, and of the Puritanes in England, etc., 1C05,
8vo.

* The Picture of a Papist : or, a Relation of the damnable heresies, detestable quali-
ties, and diabolicall practises of sundry hereticks, informer ages and of the Papists in
tins age, etc., 1606, Svo, 1.



MORE CONTROVERSY ABOUT THE TRUE CHURCH 3ol

you that consecrate iroodden Gods do happily adore icoodden Crosses,
as parts of your Gods. In a word, you may as iustly be tearmecl
Chazinzarij & Staurolatrae, as the Aruienij : for you worsbippe tlie
Crosse of Christ as well as they.

E. : No, we worship not the Crosse it selfe, but Christ that was cruci-
fied on the Crosse.

M.: Yes, Thomas Aquinas, Aleocander de Hales, Gregarie de Valen-
tia, and the rest of your chiefest doctors doe teach, that Crucifixes
are to bee worshipped with the very same worship, wherewith Christ
himselfe is to be worshipped.

E. : I Aunswere with Cardinal Bellarmine, that albeit Crucifixes are
to be worshii)i)ed with the same worship ; yet is it with respect to
Christ : and tliat the worship passeth by the inia"-e to him.
M. : This shift will not serue your turne ; for to co-adore the crucifixe
with Christ, is palpable Idolatrie, as may be prooued by the deter-
mination of the Councell of Ephesus.
E. : How I pray you ?

M. : Nestorius conceiued the manhood of Christ to be a distinct perso
from the word, or sonne of God : and withall he framed a co-adora-
tion, whereby this manhood was to be adored with the ivord. Xow
the Counsell of Ephesus condemned this co-adoration: in like sort
may we condemne your co-adoration of the crucifixe with Christ.

Of course there was discussion of general points of theology
during these years, but it hardly needs mention here. The de-
scent of Christ to the underworld, as to which, possibly in def-
erence to the views of Calvin, the Third Article had been
altered in the last revision under Parker, was discussed. Bilson ^
and others 2 labored to refute Calvin, and Broughton '^ took the
other side, and even went so far as to write to Geneva upon the
subject in Greek.^

1 The Svrvey of Christs Sufferings for mans redemption ; and of his descent to
Hades, or II d for our deliuerance, 1C04, fol.

2 A Treatise of the Sufferings and Victory of Christ, in the icorJc of our redemp-
tion, etc., ir>t)S, ItJmo. Sifjned H. I., i. e. Henry Jacob.

A Briefe Answere vnto certaine ohiections and reasons against the descension of
Christ into hdl, etc., 1G04, 4to.

8 xin Explication of the Article KarriXetv fh S5f of our Lordes soules going from
his body to Paradise ; touched by the Greek, generally aSov, The world of Soules ;
termed lid by the old Saxon. ^- by all our translations : with a defense of' the Q. of
Englands religion, etc., 1(30.5, 4to.

* A070J wpos TOVi rtyeffaiovs trtpi tijs «aTo;8o<r«u)5 «ir aSov, etc., 1601, 16mo.



CHAPTER VI

THE CONTROVERSY CONTINUED

Within the Establishment discussion upon points questioned
by the Puritans and the Separatists went forward steadily.
Among other voliunes some unidentified breath — " I. F." —
blew a short blast in Latin upon a " Tuba Academica." ^ The
writer is severe upon the Puritans as being specially obstinate,
quarrelsome, and ambitious to appear better than others. But
evidently his book passed quickly into obscurity. To under-
stand the full force of the general discussion, those acts of the
govei-nment which provoked it must be noted. While Whitgift
still was Ipng unburied at Lambeth, the king sent out a pro-
clamation - upon the Prayer-Book. He had been '• importuned
Avith informations, very specious," and " the conqilainers " had
held assemblies without authority, and otherwise were " carry-
ing a verie apparent show of sedition, more then of zeal." The
Hampton Court Conference had been held, with " small effects."
There really was no ground for any change, but, that the " pub-
lic form " should " be free, not only from blame but from sus-
picion," it had been thought best " that some small things
might rather be explained than changed." This had been done.
A new Prayer-Book had been printed, incorporating these ex-
planations ; and now must be used " as the only publick form
of ser\nng God, established and allowed to be in this realm."
And the new whip ended with this snapper : —

Last of all we do admonish all men, that hereafter they shall not
expect nor attempt any further alteration in the common and public
form of God's service, ... for that neither will we give way to any
to presume, that our own judgment hauing determined in a matter of

Tuba Academica, qua Patrum antiquorum defensionem Author libere audactcrque
MUiccpit, etc., li'03, lUmo, 2S.
» Card well, ii : 76, 79.



THE CONTROVERSY CONTINUED 353

this weight, shall be swayed to alteration by the frivolous suggestions
of any light spirit ; neither are we ignorant of the inconveniences that
do arise in gouernnient, by admitting innovation in thinges once set-
tled by mature deliberation.

A fortnight after this assumption of spiritual authority by
the new monarch, Parliament and Convocation met for the first
time under his reign. The king not only interfered beforehand
in the elections, but also, in his speech at the opening of Par-
liament, attacked the Puritans. They were confused in policy,
ever discontented with the government, and " scarcely to be
endured in a well regulated Commonwealth." Such language
was singularly ill-advised before a House of Commons of which
it was said that three out of four were Puritans, or Puritanically
inclined.^

Convocation spent its time mostly in discussing " such Can-
ons, Orders, Ordinances, and Constitutions " as were thought
needful. The result- soon was published, and chilled the heart
of every one who hoped for reform. It begins by condemning
every one who impugns the king's supremacy over the Church
or says tliat the Church of England is not a true and an Apos-
tolical Church, etc. It further denounces all who separate
themselves from the State Church, combine in a new brother-
hood, and afHrm that ecclesiastical rules may be made without
the royal authorit3\ All such persons become excommunicates.
Further, every parishioner must receive the communion at his
rector's hands at the least thrice in the year, including Easter ;
and all students in colleges four times a year at least. Every
candidate for the ministry must subscribe three articles ; assert-
ing (1) the royal supremacy in all spiritual or ecclesiastical
things as well as temporal ; (2) that the Book of Common
Prayer contains nothing contrary to the word of God, and that
he himself will use it " and none other " in worship ; and (3)
that the Thirty-nine Articles are " aU and every " agreeable to
the word of God.

It also decrees that the licenses of all non-conforming minis-

1 S. P. Dom. vii : 2.

^ Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiasticall, etc., 1G04, 8vo, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 17, 18, 36-
38,52,73, 110, 147.



354 THE PILGRIMS AND THE CONFLICT

ters, remaining such after admonition, shall be void ; that, on
pain of excommunication, no religious meetings shall be held in
private houses ; and that all whom church wardens, questmen
or assistants regard as schismatics shall be presented to the
bishop's court. These stringent statutes are flanked by a royal
proclamation that every minister should read them to his con-
gregation in church once a year.

As Convocation was prorogued on July 9, this code of church
canons probably was sent forth before the summer was over.
As petitions had been offered both in Parliament and Convoca-
tion for reform in the Prayer-Book, and as many ministers evi-
dently still retained their livings who favored the Genevan dis-
cipline, the king made a fm-ther effort for uniformity. On July
16 he issued another proclamation,^ declaring that, the matter
having been settled, conformity must be insisted upon and pre-
tended reformers punished. Accordingly he gives them until
the last of November to decide. Unless they conform by that
date, they must " dispose of themselves and their families some
other waies." He expects all church officials and civil magis-
trates to " do their uttermost "' to bring about the desired re-
sult. The king received vigorous aid. On Dec. 4 Bancroft was
consecrated as primate. His hard and narrow mind could con-
ceive but imperfectly that the Puritans were acting from con-
science.^ He therefore felt no compunction in sternly enforcing
the law. Before the close of his first week with the Council he
had begun this work.

Some Englishmen, however, would not submit to all this in
silence. Acting with caution, they managed to reach the public
through the press with both profoundly reasoned and more pop-
ular appeals. One of the first of the latter was another dia-
logue,^ between a Puritan Old Protestant and a New Formalist,
attributed to Rev. Samuel Hieron, of Modbury, Devon.* The
first speaker asks for the latest news, and is answered : —

1 Cardwell, ii : 80-84. 2 Wilklns, Concilia, iv : 410, 408-409.

' A Short l)ialogue proving that the Ceremonyes and some other Corrujitinns now
in question, are defended by none other Arguments than such as the Papists haue
hereto/ore vsed ; and our Protestant icriters have long since answered, etc., IOOj, 4to,
30, oO.

* Brook, Puritans, ii : 271.



THE CONTROVERSY CONTINUED 365

Old Protestant: Sir, I heare a very pitifull and generall com-
plainte of well disposed people for the suspending, depriuing, and
eilencinge of theyr preachers, especiallye in Northamptonshire, where
very many haue bine soe proceeded with, and I heare that the like
course is taken also in other Countries [counties] in so much as it is
certainely reported, that the number of such as are beprived [deprived],
silenced, suspended, and admonished ; amounts to the some of 275.
at the least : (which is a very lamentable thing, specially in so great a
want) besides many others that are in questio, and many others who
being of the same iudgment & practise are like to be talked withal,
and in the same sorte proceeded with, when the Bishops will.

After explaining, in answer to !N^ew Formalist, that the Puri-
tan of the (lay was none other than the True and Old Protest-
ant, the author concludes by a reference to the painfulness of
the situation. 1

A second dialogue,- by Samuel Gardiner, w^as on the other
side. Irenaeus thinks that Antimachus appears sad, and is
told: —

I am sad indeed, because I may not vse the liberty of my conscience,
and because for conscience sake onely I am depriued of my liuing.

Irenaeus fears that Antimachus is " not conformable " and has
fallen under censure of the law, and learns that he has hit
" the onelye argument " of his friend's troubles. The inquiry
proceeds : —

Iren. And why may not you with a good conscience digest the
orders of the Church, as well as others, that are graue, and learned
and are not to be touched with Popery, for order and peace sake ?

Antimachus mentions many reasons which they discuss ; first
agreeing that he who proves to have the weaker side shall yield.
The priestly garments and the cross in baptism then are con-
sidered at great length, Irenaeus of course being the ^^etor.
Whether just or exaggerated, the author's picture of the situa-
tion probably had some foundation.

1 Twenty pages follow devoted to Certayne Reasons why it seemeth that the
Preachers who refuise the Subscription and Ceremonies frged, should not for that their
refusall he remooved from their charyes, or inhibitted to preach : humbly offered to
considiration.

* A Dialogue or Conference betweene Irenaeus and Antimachus, about the rites and
Ceremonies of the Church of England, IGOO, 4to, 1, 54.



356 THE PILGRIMS AND THE CONFLICT

The very Sowter [shoemaker] and cobler now adayes, . . . will bee
80 bold as to giue a blow to them that are his head, with the fist of his
eluishness. The Cooke, . . . wil ... be sawcing Diuinity & be too
saucy with it : ... A frivolous Fidler, if hee be not harping vpon this
string, the Churches guuernment, as the biasse of the worlde now
goeth, is out of his clement. Euery Tailor hath his shredding sheares
for the ceremonies, and hath a measure of his owne for the matters of
the Church. The Smiths prentise wil not stand out, but listeth to blow
the coales of contention among vs. The common people will take
vpon them to put on Aarons raiment, the Rochet and habite of a
Bislioj) and Minister, and teach him what to do, and how to shape his
sermons to sute their affections. Now to all of you, howsoere ye be
stiled, that are of the brotherhood of these busie bodies, I wish more
heede and attendance be giuen to your seuerall vocations, and not so
to leaue your selues as you do, and take such vagaries with the pro-
digall Sonne . . . into so farre a countrey, the matter of Church
gouernment being so farre and wide from your profession, and not to
be spanned and fadomed by the length and reach of your discretion.

About this time appeared a closely reasoned anonymous argu-
ment,^ addressed to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the
Bishops of London, Lincoln, Woi'cester, Exeter and Peter-
borough, inquiring whether a Christian magistrate have the
right to give orders touching the worship of God, not having
the word of faith for his warrant in the same ; or to enjoin the
use of any one garment as essential to ministerial service ; or,
if so, to enjoin such a garment not differing in matter and form
from that already a])propriated by '• Idolatrous Pvltstes in
their Idoll service ? " Then, in an imaginary colloquy, the
prelates insist that they do not take the things complained of
from the Papists, but from their predecessors ; and, in fact, are
restoring these " superstitious abuses " to their ancient integ-
rity. To which their questioners reply : —

Your Lordships argument of such ancientie, and of such integritie
of these ceremonies, as declineth from that ancient, and in al poyntes
and qualities certeyne and vpright forme of Gods worshlppe . , .

^ Certaine Demandes iiith their grounds, draicne out of holy Writ, and propounded
in foro conscitntiae by some religious Gentl vnto the reverend Fathers, Richard, Arch-
bishop of Canterbury. Richard Bishop of London. William Bishop of Lincnlne, Gar-
vase, Bishop of Worcester, William, Bishop of Exeter, ^- Thomas, Bishop of Peter -
borough, etc., 1G05, 4tu, 4, W, (37, (38.



THE CONTROVERSY CONTINUED 357

argueth rather corruption and noveltie, then eyther any ancientie or
integritie.

And they finally declare : —

Ministers notwithstanding hate nothing more than Noveltie. and
crave nothing so much as that the most certeyne and most single forme
of Gods worship, left to the Churches, by the Apostle, without your
many, and vncerteyne rites and ceremonies, might be restored, to her
primative and Apostolicall ancientie and integritie.

When Xovember came, 300 ministers ^ are said to have been
deprived at once. They did not cease discussion, however.
Early in December sundry ministers in the diocese of Lincoln
appealed to the king.^ They objected to the Prayer-Book,
first, that in different ways it was unscriptural and misleading ;
secondly, that it enjoined ceremonies contrary to God's word.
As to ceremonies they said : " They cannot be used witliout
iust cause of greife giuen to many of the godly, and scandall
both to the weake brethren, and to the wicked," and exi)lained
and enforced this point at length.

Other ministers in other counties followed. Nor were they
unsupported by the laity. On Feb. 9 the king was petitioned ^ in
aid of the deprived ministers by forty-four gentlemen of North-
amptonshire. Sir Francis Hastings, now a member of Parlia-
ment for Somerset, who had drawn up the paper, was confined
to his country house. A few others met with similar treatment.
And the king bade the universities admit no one to a degree
thenceforth who had not taken the oath of supremacy and
another oath ■* of allegiance to the Episcopal, as opposed to the
Presbyterian, ideal of church government.

1 Collier, vii: 321. Gardiner says (i ; 21;]. n.) : "The number has been esti-
mated as low as 4i) ; but the arg-umenls in Vaughan's ^^elnorials of the Sluarts seem
to me conclusive in favour of the larsjer number. To the authorities quoted there
may be added tlie petition of the Warwickshire ministers [S. P. Dom. xi : GS], who
speak of 27 beinjj .suspended in that county alone ; though the Bishop expressed



Online LibraryHenry Martyn DexterThe England and Holland of the Pilgrims → online text (page 35 of 65)