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customed channels, making it easy to repair the damages.

The moral effect of this life and death grip upon civil liberty
and the Reformed religion by which Leyden had held Spain at
bay so magnificently, and of the vast sacrifices of the States
which had saved her, was very great. The whole Netherlands

^ Bor, Nedcrlantsrhe Oorlogen, vii : fol. C2.

' A river which enters the town on the south side.

« Rise, ii : 57G. * Psalm ix. Ilofdijk, 230.


was nerved to a new obstinacy of resistance. And Spain learned
that, after all her enormous expenditures of money and men for
so many years, she had made no progress in subduing the Dutch.
Their spirit was indomitable, while, so far from being destroyed,
the Reformed faith was indestructible. Beyond question, Lev-
den's fiery trial had done a great service to all the States.

This William the Silent and the States themselves were
quick to recognize. An annual fair, beginning on Oct. 1 — Oct.
3 to be a solemn festival — was established. And on Feb. 6,
1575, a charter was granted founding a university in Leyden in
recognition of the patriotism of its citizens. It illustrates afresh
the anomalous condition of things that in this very act of cele-
brating successful rebellion against Philijj, the Hollanders still
maintained the fiction of his sovereignty ; this charter declaring
the grant of power to emanate from him.^

The recent overthrow of the Roman Catholic Church had re-
leased much 2)roperty to the State. The new university was well
endowed from this at the outset, and for its abode was given
the empty cloisters of St. Barbara, on the corner of the Rapen-
hurg and the Valdersgracht (Fullers' St.), the present Lange-
hrugge (Long Bridge), the same premises afterwards appropri-
ated to be the jP)'inscnhoJ\Tpuh\\G guest-house for royal visitors).
Measures were taken immediately to secure eminent instructors.
Van der Does, who had commanded ably during the siege, and
whose genius and learning also commended hiiu specially, was
appointed its first Curator. He had studied at Lier, Delft,
Louvain, Douay and Paris, and had wide acquaintance with

Early in 1575 a grand festival of institution and inaugura-
tion was held. Even its minuter details are described in con-
temporary documents. It was on Feb. 8.^ It began at seven
A. M,, with a religious service in St. Peter's. At nine a grand
procession was formed in the Breede-straat in front of the City
Hall, including the four battalions of civic troops, two as its

^ Van Mieris, iv : 514.

' Motley (IUse, ii : 580) g^ves the date as Feb. 5. Young (Hist. Neths. 175)
makes the same error. But the contemporary and early authorities are explicit ;
e. g., '■ die octavo Februarij " (Meursiua, 18). So Orlers, i: 195 ; Van Mieris, ii :
545 ; Fabricius, 24.


van and two as its rear guard. Religion, Law and Medicine
were represented in the picturesquely typical fashion of the
time. Miuer^-a was there, in fuU armor, with Aristotle, Plato
Cicero and Virgil ; while a host of local and other dignitaries'
foUowed in brilliant robes of office. The whole city was deco-
rated, and aU manner of exultation exhibited itself in wavs
which taxed heavily the Latin of the chronicler.

The procession moved eastward along the Breede-straat and
Its continuation the Kohel-straat (Noble St.), under a ti-i-
umphal arch upon the Hoogewoenh bridge, and then swept to
the right, foUowing the curve of the Steenschur around to the
Nonnen-hrug (Nuns' Bridge), which it crossed, under a second
arch, passing then along the Puipenhurg to a final arch crown-
ing the bridge over the Valdersgracht and to the St. Barbara
cloister, its destination. The inaugural address was delivered by
Caspar Coolhaes. Educated at Diisseldorf, he had been called
to the great cburch in Leyden just before the siege, and now, at
thirty-eight, became for a time the acting professor of Theo-
logy m the university. This service concluded, the procession
resumed its march, traversing the Breede-straat again, and
making a circuit through the north part of the citv, finaUy
disbanding at the junction of the Oude Vest and the Rhine.

The wise policy was pursued of winning fame for the new
university by making it worthy of fame. This was done by se-
curing, so far as possible, teachers ah-eady reno^raed. The first
Curator, van der Does, was a great attraction, and Ludovicus
CappeUus, who had been professor of Civil Law at Bordeaux
and later pastor of the gi-eat churches at Paris and Meaux,
early undertook a professorship of Theology. Justus Lipsius
was the first professor of History, editing Seneca and Tacitus,
and sending out from the Plantin press at Antwerp various
works whose elegant scholarship excited universal admiration.
John Drusius filled its chair of Oriental languages for nine
years, having gone thither from Oxford with a reputation which
attracted students from all Protestant countries. Moreover, for
his last sixteen years, the famous Joseph Justus Sealiger was its
professor of Bdlcs-Lettrcs ; the man of whom Mark Pattison
said that, when he died, " the most richly stored intellect which


had ever spent itself in acquiring knowledge was in the pre-
sence of tlie Oniniseieut."

The young institution did not remain long in the St. Bar-
bara premises. For some reason it was moved east, appar-
ently in September, along the Bapenhurg to the chapel of the
Falyde Begiiynen (Veiled Nuns Convent), where tlie Library
now is. Here it remained until 1581, when it was transferred
across the canal to the deserted premises of the Witte Xonnen
(White Nuns), opposite the end of the Kloksteeg (BeU Lane),
where its principal building is to-day. Very likely the larger
possibilities of securing land for the Botanical Garden — which,
under the renowned Peter Paauw soon became famous — influ-
enced this final selection.

The religious perturbations of the land, already alluded to,
were increased in Leyden by differences between the Reformed
ministers. Peter Cornelison wanted elders and deacons named
by the Consistory independently of the magistrates. Coolhaes
thought that, upon nomination by the Consistory, the civil au-
thorities should approve. The magistrates naturally sided with
Coolliaes. Out of this difference ^ grew a wider one, in a way
precluding the Arminian difficulties. Coolhaes avowed unusu-
ally liberal \'iews of infant baptism, the Lord's Supper, and
election, and paroxysms of indignation, now difficult to be under-
stood, were exhibited.

Of course Leyden also watched interestedly that great series
of events, between the Pacification of Ghent, in 157G, and the
Act of Abjuration, of 1581, by which Holland and Zealand for-
mally threw off the Spanish yoke, acknowledging the divine
right of kings, yet insisting that Philip had forfeited all rights
by Ins tyi'anny. But almost the only special event in her own
history was one in 1587, connected with the disgraceful record
of Leicester's later months in the Netherlands as Queen Eliza-
beth's representative.

Most of the Brabanters and Flemings attracted to Leyden
were rigid Calvinists. But the tremendous pressure of the siege
had so pulverized religious distinctions that a Papist who had
fought and starved for the common liberty was regarded almost

1 Brandt, i : 367.


as one of themselves by his Protestant comrades, and a Protest-
ant as a Papist by his compatriot Komanists. The records
show that one or two magistrates were Romanists, while not
only was a public school kept by a Romanist, but even old Bur-
gomaster Van der Werff sent his son to it. Yet in time religious
differences grew bitter and affected civil affairs. Leydeu had
taken open issue with the Synod held at Dort in 1581, and
had suj)ported Coolhaes, in defiance of its excommunication.
Multitudes withdrew fi-om the Leydeu churches. The Lord's
Supper was discontinued for more than eighteen months, and,
when resumed, in lo82, scarcely 100 persons at first attended.^
The place seemed a favorable hotbed for the seeding of se-
dition, and, when tliat illustrious Cahanist, Leicester, began
plotting to gain possession of some important cities to reestab-
lish his waning power, his friends in Leyden made a serious
effort to effect a revolution in his favor. Jacques Volmar, a
deacon of the Reformed Church ; Adolph van ^Nleetkerke, for-
merly President of Flanders, whom Leicester had made a member
of the Council of State, but whom the States had removed ;
Cosmo de Pescarengis, a Genoese captain ; Dr. Hadrian Sara^
via, a professor of Divinity and preacher in the French church,
and others entered into the scheme.

Captain Nicolas de Maidde, who commanded the Leyden
forces and had been disgusted by the way in which the Sluys
garrison had been sacrificed a little while before, also joined
the plot. Early on Sunday morning, Oct. 11, 1587, he was to
march his troops to the City Hall, where he was to meet a body
of armed citizens. T(\gether tliey were to seize the City Hall in
the name of the Earl and pul)lish a placard announcing their
object. But the Genoese captain was imprisoned for debt- just
then, and one conspirator, alarmed thereby, revealed all that
he knew to the authorities. x\lthough De ?kleetkcrke, Saravia
and others, made tlieir escape, Volmar and De Maulde were
arrested. They claimed that they had acted under Leicester's
orders. But of course they could produce no written proof, and,
in any case, he left them to their fate. Volmar, De Pescaren-

1 Brandt, i : 382.

^ Brandt says (i : 420) : " Being suspected of some other crime."


gis and De Maukle were beheaded on Oct. 26. In the case of
De Maiilde, who is said to have been young and handsome, an
ancient custom was viohited, the entreaty of a noble lady, who
claimed his life by demanding him as her husband on the scaf-
fold, being denied. The magistrates were inexorable, and it even
was whispered ^ that of the two fates De Maulde preferred the
axe. The severity shown in this execution illustrates the revul-
sion of the popular feeling in regard to Leicester.

In IGOO Leyden replied to questions of the nobles about the
Lutherans that they -' were the best Patriots of the State, and
. . . ought to enjoy the fruits of what was formerly conceded
to them." 'In 1605 the Classis of Dort requested the Syuod of
Rotterdam to discuss the disputes about the doctrines of the
Reformed Churches. This was supposed to be aimed at Armiu-
ius, and it prompted the Curators of the university to inquire
of the Divinity professors whether such disputes occurred. To
which the three professors, Gomar, Arminius and Trelcatius,^
replied that possibly they did occur among the students, but
there were no differences between themselves.

Reference has been made already to the contentions between
Gomar and Arminius. But they did not reach their height until
after the Pilgrims had settled in Leyden. The air of Holland,
however, was surcharged with excitement, centring about these
two men, and there was a skirmish of pamphlets.

' Bor. xxiii : 97.

2 Lucas Trelcatius, Jr., successor of his deceased father.



So far as the theological or the political atmosphere was con-
cerned, the Pilgrims probably saw little difference between
Amsterdam and Leyden. Although much less famous commer-
cially than Amsterdam, Leyden was a busy city of about 50,000 ^
people, unlike Amsterdam in the predominance of manufactures.
particularly of woollen cloths, and especially in its decided ele-
ment of student life. Serge, baize, bombazine, fustian and some-
thing like modern " rose blankets " were the staples. The Oade
Vest canal became a favorite resort of the cloth-makers, and on
fine days one could see on its borders great numbers of people
scouring their cloths and then drying them upon frames attached
to the houses ; a sight, indeed, not unknown now in connection
with laundry work.

Forgetting that the idea of weaving by machinery was not
evolved imtil the eighteenth century,'^ and that not until the
nineteenth was there a power-loom, some have imagined Leyden
at this time as having huge mills. But weaving then was done
in private houses, a hand-loom and a spinnmg-wheel being house-
hold articles nearly as indispensable as a brass kettle. Different
headquarters also were provided for different sorts of cloth, Baai-
halle, Fustcyn-halle, Laken-haUe, Saai-haUe (baize, fustian.
cloth, and serge-halls) and the like, to which the fabric was
taken to be inspected and stamped by the proper officials.

The first task of the Pilgrims was to find homes, and their
chief members no doubt counselled together in order to secure
for Robinson quarters spacious enough to enable them all, with

' The Enc. Brit, saya (xiv : 405) that the population was much more than 50,000
in 1623, and was estimated at lOO.UOO in 1()40.

^ In 1745 Jacque3 de Vaucanson nearly completed the great invention, but missed
it. £nc. Brit, xxiv : 4(35 ; xiii : 5o9.


some crowding, to meet there for worship. Possibly a few found
shelter in property owned by the city. That confiscation of
Romanist convents, etc., to which refei-ence has been made,
sometimes carried with it the title to many small tenements.
For example, the gi-ound plan ^ of the premises of the Fahjde
Beguynhof shows that there were some fifty small houses,
•grouped about the central court and the chapel. Probably the
State, or city, sold such dwellings now and then, but obviously
a few years before Robinson's company arrived it still held con-
trol of a number of them. If some Pilgrims, and perhaps Rob-
inson himself, found shelter there, it would suggest one reason
why, two years later, they pitched upon the almost adjoining
property as their headquartei's.

Their distribution among the industries of the place is sug-
gested by the various volumes of public records covering the
period between 1609 and Jidy, 1620, which will be described
later. Of course it is not possible to associate all the English
then in Leyden with Robinson's company, but probably the
major portion of them had some connection with it ; a connec-
tion rendered almost certain for many, as to whom other evi-
dence is lacking, by the presence with them on various occasions,
as witnesses, sponsors or sureties, of those kno^vn to have been
Pilgrims. Although no hint occurs as to how some well known
members of the company, e. g., Thomas Blossom and John Carver,
employed themselves, the records mention the occupations of 131
persons, whose names or other details concerning whom imply
their English connections, and eighty-six of whom are known to
have belonged in some sense to the Pilgrim company. Concern-
ing the others, who cannot be proved to have been members of
it, if at all, until after the departure, in July, 1620, of those
who came to America, there also is considerable information.

Among these 131 persons fifty-seven occupations were repre-
sented — taking them as recorded, although several are almost
identical — as follows : baize weaver, two ; baker, one ; block
maker, one ; bombazine weaver, three ; brewer's man, two ; bunt-
ing maker, one ; cabinet maker, one ; camlet nierchant, two ;
candle maker, one ; card maker, one ; carpenter, one ; cloth
' Platte-ffnnd van 157S. In Li iilen voor SOO Jaren. Nos. S, 33.


draper, one ; elotli filler, one ; cloth maker, one ; cloth merchant,
three ; cloth weaver, one ; cloth worker, one ; clothier, two ;
cohbler, two ; cooper, one ; draper, one ; engTaver, one ; fustian
weaver, four ; glove maker, three ; grocer, one ; hat maker, four ;
jeweller, one ; leather dresser, one ; leather worker, one ; linen
weaver, three ; lock maker, one ; looking-glass maker, two ; mason,
two ; merchant, five ; minister, one ; polisher, one ; printer, four ;
pump maker, one ; real estate dealer, one ; ribbon weaver, three ;
say 1 weaver, twenty -two ; shoemaker, two ; shop keeper, one ;
silversmith, one ; sniith, one ; stocking seller, one ; student, three ;
tailor, five ; tallow chandler, one ; tobacco worker, one ; tobacco
merchant, three ; tobacco-pipe maker, three ; twine maker, one ;
watch maker, two ; wood sawyer, one ; wool carder, five ; wool
comber, eight.^

That they engaged in such himible employments as some of
these was due to the three facts that many of them had been
men of lowly station in England ; that most of them, having
been farmers, now had to turn to such trades as could be learned
easily ; and that, in most cases, having been compelled to sacri-
fice much of whatever property they had in order to escape from
England at all, they were poor and were obliged to accept at
once whatever work could be found. The records show, however,
that, although two or three of those who remained in Leyden
after 1G20 seem to have failed to prosper, being entered in the
census of Oct. 15, 1G22, as " too poor to be taxed," most of the

^ Say, or saai, probably was a coarse, thick woollen fabric, like that of a

^ Arranfjed in the order of numbers they are as follows : —

Baker, block maker, buntinn^ maker, cabinet maker, candle maker, card maker,
carpenter, cloth drapor, cloth filler, cloth maker, cloth weaver, cloth worker,
cooper, draper, engraver, procer, jeweller, leather dresser, leather worker, lock
maker, minister, poli?;her, pump maker, real estate dealer, shop keeper, silver-
smith, smith, stockinii- seller, tallow chandler, tobacco worker, twine maker and
wood sawyer, one eacli.

Baize weaver, brewer's man, camlet merchant, clothier, cobbler, looking'-fjlass
maker, m.a.son, .shoemaker and w.itch maker, two each.

Bombazine weaver, cloth merchant, plove maker, linen weaver, ribbon weaver,
student, tobacco merchant and tobacco-pipe maker, three each.

Fustian weaver, hat maker and printer, four each.

Merchant, tailor and wool carder, five each.

Wool comber, eif^ht.

Say weaver, twenty-two.


company, although in many cases, as Bradford declares,^ only
after a severe struggle, raised themselves above actual want.
Some engaged in several different occupations successively, and
ordinarily with improved fortunes.

As for their dwellings, if the same period — from May, IGOO
to July, 1620 — be examined, mention is found in seventy-four
cases, including two successive residences in eleven instances and
three in two instances. But in three or four cases ownership
rather than occupancy may be imphed. Forty-six ^ are those of
Pilgruns, but only eight ^ of these became ^Sla^-flower passengers.
Nine* others are recorded before 1G20 of persons who may have
belonged to the company, and the census of Oct. 15, 1G22. names
the residences of fourteen more who are known to have been,
and of five ^ who may have been. Pilgrims before the departure :
most of whom probably had lived before 1620 where 1622 found
and recorded them. Clearly they gravitated towards St. Peter's
and its neighborhood, a most desirable locaHty. Three fourths

1 Hist. 17, 19, 22-23.

- In the Achtergracht. W. Bradford, 1617. Barbarasteeg, T. Rogers, lfi20.
Bogertsteeg, J. Spooner. 1616. Boisstraat, R. Cushman, 1616. Coepoortsgracht,
J. Keble, 1614. Dwarsheerensteeg, H. Collet, 1612 ; J. Keble, 1614. Groenensteeg,
W. White, 1615. Groenhasegracht. W. Jepson, 1614 ; W. Minter, 1614 ; W. Robert-
eon, 1614 ; R. Simmons, 161'J. Iluntmarckl, R. Cushman, 1616. Iloogeu-oerd, R.
Peck, 1609. Jacobsgracht, T. Wlllet, 161.5. Korte Heerensteeg, H. Collet. 1614.
Marendorp, R. Peck, 1610; Eliz. Pettinger. 1610; W. Pontus, KVIO. Marepoort, S.
Fuller, 1617. MiddUberg, J. Carver, 1609. Nieuwestadt, E. Chandler. 1619 ; S.
Lee, 1619. Nieuwesteeg, S. Butterfield, 1617; R. Thickins, 1615. Nonnfiisteeg.
R. Cushman, 1610. Pieterskerkgrachl ( Klokste eg), I. AUevton, 16£0; J. Allerton.
1616; T. Blossom, 1617; T. Brewer, 1615; J. Brewster, 1619; Mary Butler,
1611; S. Fuller, 1615; E. Jessop, 1618; R. Peck, 1619; J. Rubinson, 1612;
W. White (another), 1618. Stinksteeg, W. Brewster, 1609. St. Ursulasteeg, W.
Brewster, 1600. Sti/enstrfg.E. Jessop, 1615. Uiierstegracht, R. Masterson, 1614;
W. White, 1616 ; r'. Wilson. 1014. Veldcstrant, J. Jenney, 1618. F/iVf, Z. Bar-
row, 1616. -Year Vrowekerk, Mary Butler (another), 1610.

« I. Allerton, J. Allerton, Bradford, Brewster, Carver, Fuller, Rogers and
White (the first-named).

* The nine are : Achtergracht, J. Leighton, 161.''.. East Rapenburg, T. Edwards,
1616. Mirakehteeg, S. Singleton, 1617. Nonnensteeg, P. Edwards, 1610; H. Rich-
ard, 1614. Noordende, D. Crickett, 1610. Pieterskerkgracht, J. Ainsworth, 16 IS ;
J. Bailey, 1616. Sonnerveltsteeg, .J. Robertson. lOl-'i

* The fourteen are: J. Spooner, in the Ketelbnersteeg. and Z. Barrow, R. Ch.m-
dler, J. Crips, J. Dunham, D. Fairfield, E. Horsfield, J. Hurst, W. Jepson, W. Pon-
tus, A. Price, S. Tracy, R. Wilkins and T, Willet in the Zerenhuysen. 1'ho five
are : P. Cushman, in the Oostnieuwelant, and Josephine Brown, A. Garretson, Su-
sanna Ilalton and J. Smith in the Zevenhuysen.


of them lived not more than a quarter of a mile from the house
on the Kloksteeg, under the very shadow of St. Peter's and only
a stone's throw from the university, which became their head-
quarters and where Kobinson lived until he died. Leyden then
was a specially agreeable place of residence. Bradford called it
"a fair & bewtifull citie, and of a sweete situation." And a
French chronicler, who wrote from intimate knowledge, said,^
" The City of Leyden is, without contradiction, one of the grand-
est, cleanest, and most agreeable cities of the world."

Some of its more conspicuous features still characterize it.
They foimd two great Reformed churches, in which they may
not have worshipped much, but under which they buried their
dead. Near the centre of the original city was the huge, but
severely plain, cathedral, the Fieterskerk. This was partly sur-
rounded by a dozen quaint little houses, nestling up against it,
erected in 1593, for the use of subordinate officials, and occu-
pied when the Pilgi-ims were there. A few memorial tablets
within the building then were in place, among them those of
Rembert Dodonaeus and John Heurnius, famous university pro-

Northwest from the Fieterskerk, on the other side of the
Rhine, was, and still is, St. Pancras, near the Burg and there-
fore often called the Hooglandsche Kerk (Church of the High-
lands). Probably the only monument of any distinguished
person then buried there is that, dating back to 1604, of buro-o-
master Van der Werff. In addition to these two great Reformed
churches there was, also across the Rhine and on the present
Haarleynmer-straaU the Licve Vroive, or JIaric, Kerk. now de-
stroyed, dedicated in 13G5 to the Virgin, and after the Reforma-
tion the gathering place of the French and Walloons. Probably
few monuments adorned its interior in 1G09, although it con-
tained the fresh graves of two university professors ; the great
Scaliger, since transferred to the Fieterskerk, and Carl Clu-


Next to the cathedral the most important building was, and
is, the Stadt-huis, or Eaad-hvis (City Hall, or Senate House),
on the Breedc-straat ; a long, picturesque structure adorned

^ Les Delices de Leide, 1.


with grotesque piunacles, and an elaborate tower containing a
sweet chime o£ bells. The date of its construction is unknown.
But it was rebuilt in 1481, and again, in part, in 1577 and
1597. There are two side doors at the street level and an im-
posing main entrance between them by steps up to the next
floor. Above one of the side entrances is a wall tablet with the
legend : ^ —

33ett3oevt .^ccv ^oUanb :

(Sn ^aticf)t ?ci)bcn ;

followed by this enigmatical inscription : ^ —

9?a SSSarte f)3>iuicri^ noot,

©cbvadljt fjabbc te boot

580 me§t 3ei^ bi^Ot^ent 9}?cn§(I^en

5l(«t @obt ben .'pccv iun-broot

®a f)3 ^uci iBiu'bcr broot

(Soo 23eel 3,>i>0 (2i>nc-tcn ^SScn^d^en.

Moreover, a mosaic arrangement of the pavement in the street
called attention to the arms of the city, the date of the siege,
1574, and the motto : 5Jict pubcr ©ob.^

Two pictures still hang within which must have been there
in the Pilgrims' time, and on which, no doubt, they looked
somewhat askance. One, by Cornelis Engelbrechtszen, repre-
sents in the middle panel the Crucifixion and on the two sides

Online LibraryHenry Martyn DexterThe England and Holland of the Pilgrims → online text (page 48 of 65)