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Mar. 27, 1623. Durie, if meant, probably would have been
termed '' the Scotch preacher," but the record says "■ the Eng-
lish preacher " in each case, and the former entry gives his
residence as the Pietersherhhof and. the latter as " by the bell
house," i. e., the tower opposite to Robinson's door. On June
1, 1621, he received a power of attorney enabling him to sell
his brother-in-law's, Randall Thickins's, rights in the Robin-
son house. The census of Oct. 15, 1622, records him in the
Zevenhnyseii with his wife, Bridget, their chUdren, John,^
Bridget, Isaac, Mercy,- Fear and James, and their servant,
Mary Hardy.

In 1624 he published, probably in London, his " A Defence
of the Doctrine p^opo^^lded by the S\Tiode at Dort ; " and also
" An Appeal on Trutlis behalfe." In 1625, one of his last labors,
he saw through the press at Leyden his " Observations Divine
and Morall."

He died on Mar. 1, 1625, after an illness of eight days,
painless but incurable. It was not the plague, then raging, but
some disease which Roger White, in a letter-^ of Apr. 28 to
Bradford and Brewster, calls '"• a continuall inwarde ague, but
free from infection, so yt all his freinds came freely to him."
White touchingly adds, " And if either prayers, tears, or
means, would have saved his life, he had not gone hence." He
was buried in St. Peter's on Mar. 4, many university pro-
fessors and other eminent citizens being present. The church

^ Either he or James probably was the sou intended for the ministry. (See let-
ter by Walaeus, p. o02.) He is more likely to have been the one, as the oldest sou.
2 Probably the child buritid May 27, 1G23.
» Bradford, Ilist. liOO.



692 THE PILGRIMS IN LEYDEN

register shows that nine florins were paid for opening the grave.
This sum was customary, — only six had been paid in the case
of Armiulus, — the few instances of a larger payment being
those of burials at some other than the usual time, then between
12 M. and 1.30 p. M. The place of his grave is unlcnown, but
a tradition, possibly well-founded, locates it in the bay or al-
cove ^ which projects from the cathedral at the point nearest to
his house.

His widow is recorded as in Leyden as late as April 6, 1G40,
and Hoornbeeck states that she and their children, with others
of his friends, joined the Dutch Church.

In 1872 Dr. Dexter found in the archives of the English Re-
formed Church at Amsterdam a document of which this is a
translation : —

I, the undersigned, hereby certify that D[omine]. Rubbensonus,
pastor of the English chiu-cli here which is called the Browuists', has
at divers times conversed with me concerning the separation between
their congregation and the otlier English congregations in this country,
and that he has at divers times testified that he was disposed to do his
utmost to remove this schism ; that he was also averse to educating
his son for the work of the ministry in such congregations, Init nmch
preferred to liave him exercise his ministry in the Dutch churches :
that to this end, by the help of Domine Teellinck and myself, he had
also begun to move some good people in Middelburg to provide some
decent support for his son's studies for a few years ; that he, moreover,
at divers times assured me that he found in his congregation so many
difficulties in connection with tliis, that he with a good part of his con-
gregation was resolved to remove to the West Indies where he doubted
not he should be able to accomplish his desires.

This has passed between us at divers times.

Given at Leyden, 2,5. May, 1628.

Antonius Walaeus,

Professor of theology in the university.

^ The accompanying' photograph represents the -memorial tablet to Robinson
erected in ISUl by the National Council of Congregational Churches of theLnitfd
States. It is on tlie outside wall of St. Peter's, j\ist across the Kloksteeg from tlie
site of his hotise. It was unveiled, with public ceremonies, by a committee of the
Council on July - I, ISOl. Addresses were delivered in the cathedral by Kf v. (!. U.
Palmer, D. D., chairman of the committee, and by representatives of tlie city. tlM
university, etc. A man still llvinp^ recalls having seen Robinson's name in the
alcove pavement on a stone now removed.




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ROBINSON TABLET ON THE XIETEUSKEKK.



CONCLUDING WORDS 593

That which Is ahove testified concerning the union of the English
churches in this country, I, the undersigned. Hkewise certify that I have
divers times heard from the Late D[omine]. Robinson.

At Ley den, 26. May, 1C28.

Festus Honimius, Rector of the Theological College.

The history of this document is unknown. Perhaps it was
written to aid the transfer of members of Robinson's church to
the Dutch Church. It suggests that Robinson, always catholic
for his time, came to regard the position of the Reformed churches
as, on the whole, the wisest. It may indicate the explanation of
his willingness to subscribe to the articles drawn up for sub-
mission to the Council in IGIT.^ The same revision of opinions
also is intimated by a manuscript found in Robinson's study and
published in 163-1, '^ A Treatise of the La\\'fulnes of Hearing
of the iSIinisters in the church of England." - Here be exhibits
increasing mildness towards the Anglican Church, and Hoorn-
beeck states, in a higlily laudatory notice,^ that, under the in-
fluence of Ames and Parker, he began to consider returning to
that church. That he grew increasingly liberal in mind with ad-
vancin<T years is easy to be believed. It is a common experience
with o-ood men. But Iloornbeeck's assertion cannot be accepted
without more e\4dence than seems to exist. Moreover, Robin-
son probably did not contemplate going to the West Indies.
Doubtless AValaeus had the Plymouth Colony in mind. Another
little book from Robinson's pen is " A Briefe Catechism con-
cerning Church Government." Although no edition earlier than
that of 1G12 is now known, it probably was printed at Ley den

1 See p. r,C,ii.

2 The iiitroductirfn. by the printers, shows (xi) that the Leyden church still ex-
isted. althoiij;li it had dwindled to about one fifth of its former size. Moreover,
the following- extract from the Acts of the Church Council of St. Peter's, June 17,
1639, to wliich Mr. L. G. LePoole has called my attention, proves that the church
still lingered at that date ; " John Meester and his wife, also Steven Butterfield,
English, from the congregation of the sainted Robinson, complaining since hia
death of a lack of appropriate exercises, so that they cannot be edified as if they
were members of some other church provided with a pastor, request that they may
be allowed to become members of our church, which is granted by the brethren."
And Jnlin Cottim says (Way of Cong. Churches Cleared, 14) that as Robinson's
church began before him, so " it continued after him, and still doth," which state-
ment apparently was written in 1647.

2 Sum. Controv. lielig. Lib. x.



5U THE PILGRIMS IN LEYDEN

before his death. Evidently it was prepared for his own use in
instructing his congregation.

Like Browne, the re-discoverer of substantial Congregation-
alism, Robinson — who, although not precisely a modem Con-
gregationalist, did more than any one else, excepting Browne,
to prepare the way for its later development — seems to have
failed to find in its workings, as he knew them, something which
he expected. The time was not ripe for it. The best conditions
with which he had to deal were unfavorable. In order to get
rid of the traditions and beliefs which hindered its growth into
a self -consistent and efficient form of church life, as in the early
years of the Christian era, experiment with it in the free atmos-
phere of a new country and an miformed political State had
become necessary. Neither Browne nor Robinson was able to
share in making that experiment, but each contributed much
which helped the experiment, when made, to succeed.

In the Plymouth Colony and, later, in that of Massachusetts
Bay, the free church system flourished. It had a large part in
shaping the thought and life of the colonists. It tinctured their
political ideas and aided powerfully in preparing the way for
American independence, and ever since their day it has con-
tinued a potent factor for good in our national life. In the mo-
ther country also, although hampered by many hostile conditions
and not wholly free, even yet, to do its best work, it has be-
come conspicuous and eifective, and during the nineteenth cen-
tury it accomplished much of what it could not bring to pass in
the seventeenth.

During the intervening generations Episcopacy and Presby-
terianism, too, have freed themselves from most of their former
unlovely and discreditable characteristics, and now they exhibit
on each side of the Atlantic a purer and nobler spirit than ever
in the past. Each of tlie three forms of church organization and
government has been benefited by the example of the others.
Each also has learned already, in larger measure than could have
seemed possible to the devoutest minds of the seventeenth cen-
tury, that Christianity, as taught and illustrated by Christ him-
self, is spiritual rather than dogmatic or ecclesiastical.

It would be a mistake, however, to regard the Pilgrim Colony



CONCLUDING WORDS 595

in America, the outgrowth of the conditions and struggles which
these pages have narrated, as merely ecclesiastical in origin
or development. Primarily it was this, but also it was more
than this. It was one of the earliest manifestations of that re-
sistless impidse of expansion and conquest which asserted itself
in the England of that period, and even earher in Spain, and
which changed the whole face of the globe. It opened a fresh and
vitally important era in human history. It was practically the
beginning ^ of the civilized, permanent settlement of an almost
unknown continent. It prepared the way for the birth of a new
and mighty nation. The world's debt to the Pilgrims is not
limited by any denominational lines. It is universal. The ad-
herents of the free-church systems fairly may claim to possess
special justifications for pride in the Pilgrim history, but nobody
can monopolize it. All lovers of intelligence, progress, and civil,
as well as religious, liberty have the right to share in it.

Vale, et sine gratia, sine odio, lege, judica.

Episcopius, Op. ii, Pt. 2 : 108.

^ "Virginia in it's infancy was strug^lincr for life, and what it's fate would
have been if the fathers of it in Ena:land had not seen the rise and growth of
other colonies near it, is uncertain." — Hutchinson, Hist. Col. Mass. Bay, i: 3.

Note. Since this book was published Volume VIII of the " Nottinghamshire
Parish Register" has appeared. Mr. W. P. Greenlaw kindly has informed me that it
contains (p. 99) a record of the marriage of " Mr. John Robyiison & Mistress Bridget
Whyte 15 Feb. ItiOS." in Greasley, some thirty-five miles south from bcrooby ;
and that Volume VI also mentions (p. 94) the marriage of " Thomas Helwys &
Joan Ashmore 3 Dec. 1595," at Bilborough, four or five miles from Basford.
Probably Robynson was the Pilgrim leader.



^9'/'f-9J



APPENDIX



APPENDIX

Dr. Dexter caused investigations of the Amsterdam and Leyden
archives to be made, in order to learn everything relating to the indi-
vidual Pilgrims during tiie whole, or any part, of their residence in
Holland. He also made such researches himself. But the results were
incomplete and sometimes inexact, as he did not live to perfect tliem.
I have supplemented his efforts by more than seven months of per-
sonal examination of the records, and the following pages contain the
fruits of this labor. The chief sources of information have been men-
tioned already.^ Some advantage also has been taken of knowledge
gained elsewhere.

Some members of the Pilgrim company in Leyden are known posi-
tively, e. g., William Bradford, William Brewster and John Robin-
son. The records show who were associated with them in all sorts of
transactions, and thus indicate their fellow-members. When tliey had
need of witnesses or guarantors they sometimes called in their Dutch
or Walloon friends, but ordinarily they depended upon each other for
such services. There also were English residents who did not belong
to their body, yet even somewhat remote links of connection may not
be disregarded because the Pilgrims numbered more than those who
can possibly be identified now." The first names of those who cer-
tainly, or presumbly, belonged to their company are italicized, as are
the last names, in parenthesis, of married women who were Pilgrims
before marriage.

As the Dutch recorders wrote down an English name merely from
the sound, seldom, if ever, inquiring how it was spelled, it often is
difficult, and occasionally is impossible, to be certain what English
name is represented. Sometimes this can be determined by external
evidence. For example, the name of Brewer is established by the
letters of his countryman. Ambassador Carleton, although the Dutch
records give it as Brower, Bronwer and Braeber ; and Pontus, writ-
ten at Leyden as Pantus and Pantes, is settled by the Plymouth Col-
ony records. But in such a case as that of Rose Singer's last name,

» Pp. 502, :m.

2 In the Proceedings of the Mass. Hist. Society. II, Ser. XVII : 1G7-194 for April,
1903, is a paper by nie, briefly siimmarizin;:;- the follo\vin<j notes as to the member-
ship of the company in Leyden. Since that article was written I have discovered
sur.io additional facts, and in a few instances my opiuiuu has been amended.



600 APPENDIX

recorded as Chinheur, one is left in doubt. Prolonged study. reiiK^m-
bering the pecuHaritiea of tlie Dutch pronunciation, and consultation
with English-speaking Dutch scholars have led to the conchisions
which are set down. It is by «o means certain that they are correct in
every instance, but at any rate they are probable. A few persons,
evidently holding relations with the English, are included, although no
English equivalents of their names are known, because they, too, may
have been English whose names the Dutch clerks have managed to
disguise ; e. g., Peter Boey and George Matersc^.

Wlien it is possible that the deceased first husband, or wife, of one
of the company may have been' in Leyden for a time, such a person is
included ; e. g., Samuel Fuller's first wife, Alice (Glascock). When
the only known parent (or both parents) was in Leyden until July,
1620, it is assumed, if there is no indication to the contrary, that the
children also were there ; e. g., the AUerton children. Eacli case,
however, needs to be considered by itself, and occasionally in very
similar conditions different conclusions have seemed probable. Un-
doubtedly some other persons, not now to be identified, were members
of the company, which from first to last — i. e., from the spring or
early summer of 1G09 to about the end of July, 1620 — must have
included at least from 400 to 500 individuals. The examination of
tlie records has been continued down to the end of the seventeenth
century, by which time the members of the company had died, had
left Holland, or had become absorbed in the Dutch population.

In connection with their residences in Leyden it should be noted
that several names are those of districts, much like the wards of a
modern city and each including a number of streets. Such are the
Noordende, Nieuwestadt, Zecenhuysen, etc. At least a hundred and
fifty of the company lived within the shadow of the Pleterskerk or
within five minutes' walk of tliat spot. Apparently the P ieterslcerkhof
was similar in appearance to the " hofs " in a modern Dutch town and
evidently was the little colony of houses built upon the grounds of tlie
Robinson estate. Sometimes, also, it is called the Groenepoort, and In
other instances somewliat tlissimllar names evidently mean one place ;
e.g., Coepoortsteeg and Coepoortsgracht. M'uldleherg and MlddlegracJd.

It has not been thought worth wiiile to print tlie liundreds of refer-
ences to the Dutch archives which substantiate the successive items
mentioned, many of which, indeed, have been given already, but they
all are in my possession. In the following lists M. against a name
means that its owner came over in 1620 in the Mayflower ; F. in 1621
in the Fortune ; and a. l. j. in 1623 in the Anne or the Little James.

M. D.



APPENDIX 601

THE PILGRIM COMPANY IN LEYDEN.

Ainsworth, John. Tobacco-worker. Betrothed to Eliz. Keble Dec. 5,
1636, with witnesses Thos. Nash and her moth., Eliz. Keble.
Married Dec. 24. Guaranteed as citizen by Thos. Johnson and
Sam. Lee Nov. 4, 1639. With bro.-in-law, Wni. Back, and
wives sold house to vStepIi. Butterfield May 3, 1646. Witnessed
betrothal of Sam. Lee Oct. 18, 1648. Lived on Pieterskerksteeg.

Elizabeth (Keble). Wife of John. With moth, and sist.. Mercy,

mortgaged house on Dwarsheerensteeg for 300 gilders Sept. 13,
1638. With sist., Mercy, and husbands sold house on St. Michel-
steeg for 1500g. to Steph, Butterfield May 3, 1646. Sold mort-
gaged house for 1700g. to Dirckson van Assel Dec. 13, 1646.
^ Wit. bet. of Gid. Bartlett Feb. 10. 1651. Lived on Chursteeg.
^ Wit. bet. of John Price June 8, 1651. Do. Jas. Jennings May

21, 1654.
Allerton, Isaac. M. From London. Tailor. Bet. to Mary Norris
Oct. 7, 1611, with wits. Rich. Masterson. Ed. Southworth, Dille
(Priscilla) Carpenter and Anna (Susanna) Fuller. Mar. Nov. 4.
Guaf. by Rog. Wilson and Hen. Wood Feb. 7, 1614. Guar, bro.-
in-law, Deg.°Priest, Nov. 16, 1615. Wit. bet. of Ed. Winslow
Apr. 27, 1618. Do. Rogi Wilkins Sept. 16. 1619. Buried chikP
in St. Peter's Feb. 5, 1620. Then lived in Pieterskerkhof. With
Bradford, Fuller and Winslow wrote letter from Leyd. to Car-
• ver and Cushman in Eng. June 10. 1620.

Mary {Norris). M. From Newbury, Berks. Wife of Is. Wit.

bet. of Jolm Reynolds July 28. 1617. Do. Ed. Winslow Apr. 27,
1618. Do. Dan. Fairfield July 14, 1618.

. Child of Is. and Mary. Died Feb., 1620.

Bartholomew. M. Son of Is. and Mary.

' Remember, m. Dau. of Is. and Mary.

Mary. M. Dau. of Is. and Mary.

John. M. Bur. cliild in St. Pet., May 21, 1616. Then lived in

Pieterskerkhof.

. Child of .John. Died 1616.

Robert. From Scotland. John Brown and Rob. Robertson de-
posed, Aug. 21, 1619, that he had lived in Leyd. 12 years.
Arnold, Elias. Watch-maker. Bet. to Sincere Pickering Feb. 22,
1636, with wits, his bro., Nath. Arnold, of Amst.. and her moth.,
Mary Pickering. Mar. Mar. 18. Wit. bet. of John Jennings, Jr..
Aug. 21, 1648. Lived on Rapenhurg.

1 Not necessarily young. Of any age under twenty-one.



602 APPENDIX

Arnold, Sincere (Pickering). Wife of Elias.

Sylvanus. From London. Hat-maker. Bet. to Hest. Butterfield,

July 16, 1632, with wits, her bro., Steph. Butterfield, and Sar.

Lee. Mar. July 31. Lived on Groenensteeg.
Hester (Butterfield). Wife of Sylv.



Back, William. Son of Hen. Shoemaker. Bet. to Mercy Keble Apr.

7, 1640, with wits. Corn. Symons and her moth., Eliz. Keble.

Mar. Apr. 30. Lived on Langehrugge, With bro.-in-law, John

Ainsworth, and wives sold house to Steph. Butterfield May 3,

1646.
Mercy (Keble). Wife of Wra. With moth, and sist., Eliz.,

mortgaged house on Dwar sheer ensteeg for 300g. Sept. 13, 1638.

With sist., Eliz., and husbs. sold house on St. Mlch-elsteeg for

1500g. to Steph. Butterfield May 3. 1646. Sold mortgaged house

for 1700g. to Dirckson van Assel Dec. 13, 1646.
Bailey, Daniel. Wit. bet. of Sus. Bailey to Is. Chilton May 6, 1615-

Prob. her bro.-in-law.

Susanna {de la Cluse). From Norwich, Norf. See Sus. Chilton.

Barker, Elizabeth, m. From " Chatsum." ^ See Eliz. Winslow.
•^^Barlow, Thomas. Bur. wife in St. Pet. July 1, 1621. Tlien lived on
' Langebrugge. Wit. bet. of dau., Abig., to John Dunham Oct.

7, 1622. bo. dau., Anna, to Nath. Walker May 28. 1624. Do.

daa., Mary, to Steph. Foster, of Rotterdam, June 4, 1639.
( ). Wife of Thos. Died 1621.



Abigail. Dau. of Thos. See Abig. Dunham.

Ajina. Dau. of Thos. Wit. bet. of sist., Abig., to John Dunham,

Oct. 7, 1622. See Anna Walker.
Mary. Dau. of Thos. Bet. to Steph. Foster, printer's man, of

Rotterdam, June 4, 1639, with wits, her fath., Thos. Barlow,

and Bridg. Robinson. Mar. July 23.
Barrow,^ Zechariah. Wool-carder. Widower of Ellen. Bet. to Joan

Barrow June 16, 1616, with wits. .Jolin Crackstone, Mos. Fletcher

and Wyb. Pontus. Mar. July 2. Lived on Vliet. Wit. bet. of

dau., Marg., to Rog. Wilkins, Sept. 16, 1619. At census of Oct.

15, 1622, lived with wife in Zevenhnysen. Bur. in St. Pancras

May 22, 1624. Then lived on Ramsteeg.

Ellen ( ). 1st wife of Zech.

Joan (Barrow). 2d wife of Zech.

Margaret. Dau. of Zech. and Ellen. See Marg. Wilkins.

Bartlett, Gideon. Tobacco-pipe-maker. Bet. to Anna Stuart, Feb. 10,

1651, with wits. John Price and Eliz. Ainsworth. Mar. Mar. 4.
* Doubtless Chattisham, SufF. '^ Possibly Barry.



APPENDIX 603

Bartlett, Anna (Stuart). Wife of Gid.

Bassett, William, f. From Sandwich, Kent. Master-mason. Widv. of
Cicely. Bet. to Mary Butler, Mar. 19, 1611, with wits. Wra.

Brewster, Rog. Wilson, Anna (Susanna) Fuller and Rose Lisle.
She died before marriage. Bet. to iVIarg. Oldliam, July 29, 1611,

with wits. Ed. Southworth, Rog. Wilson, Eliz. Neal and Wyb.

Pontus. Mar. Aug. 13. Mar. 3d wife, Eliz, , before coming

to N. E. in 1621.

. Cicely (Light). 1st wife of Wm.

Margaret {Oldham). 2d wife of Wm.

Elizabeth ( ). F. 3d wife of Wm.

Beere, Elizabeth (Sharp). See Eliz. Coit.

Belden, Marcus. Guar. John Spooner Sept. 18, 1623.

Bemiett, Anthony. Cloth-maker. Widr. of Eliz. Bet. to Mercy Peck

Apr. 6, 1644, with wits. Pet. Powell and Eliz. Williauis. Mar.

Apr. 23. Lived on Langejracht.

Elizabeth (Whittington). 1st wife of Anth.

Mercy (Peck). 2d wife of Anth.

Bishop, Elizabeth ( ). From Canterbury, Kent. Wit. bet. of dau.,

Mary, to Pet. Wood, Jr., July 8, 1643.

Mary. Dau. of Eliz. See JNIary Wood.

Mary (Another). See Mary Johnson.

Blossom, Thomas. From Cambridge. Geo. Rogers, student, when

matric. in Leyd. Univ., Oct. 27, 1609, lived with him. Gave power

of atty. to wife, Ann, Mar. 12. 1610, to sell houses in Cambridge,

Eng. Bur. child in St. Pet. Apr. 12, 1617. Then lived in Pie-

tersherkhof. Witii Fras. Jessop, Rich. Masterson, Thos. Nash

and Rog. White wrote to Win. Bradford at Plym., N. E., Nov. 30,

1625. Wrote to same Dec. 15, 1625.^ Came to N. K with wife

and two sons in 1629.
Ann ( ). Wife of Thos. Inherited by \\\\\ of moth's, fath.

certain houses in Cambridge, Eng., and received power of atty.

from husb. to sell them, especially two in St. Giles Parish, Mar.

12, 1610.

. Child of Thos. and Ann. Died 1617.

Thomas. Son of Thos. and Ann.

Peter. Son of Thos. and Ann.

Boey, Peter. Guar. Rog. Wilson Dec. 7, 1609. Do. John Turner Sept.

27, 1610.
Bowman, Margaret. Bet. to Edm. Elias White Aug. 14, 1629. Banns

forbidden. See E. E. White.

1 Bradford. Li-tter Bk. Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. I. iii: 41, 44.



604 APPENDIX

Bradford, William, m. From Austerfield, Yorks. Fustian-weaver.
Guar, by Wni. Lisle and Rog. Wilson Mar. 30, 1612. Wit. bet.
of Dor. Pettinger Nov. 1, 1613. Bet. to Dor. May at Anist. Nov.
9, 1613, he being 23 and she 16, with wit. her fath., Hen. May ;
and at Leyd. Nov. 15 unaccompanied and by '• attestation upon
their own behalf." Mar. at Amst. Dec. 10. The Leyd. records
have an entry of the marriage with the note " No certificate left."
Wit. bet. of Mos. Fletcher Nov. 30, 1613. Guar. Sam. Lee Oct.
19, 1615. Borrowed 400g. from Jan van Griecken on house in
Achtergracht June 12, 1617. Sold this house for 1120g. to Jan
des Obrys Apr. 19, 1619. Guar. Wm. Ring June 7, 1619. With
Is. Allerton, Fuller and Winslow wrote letter ' from Leyd. to
Carver and Cushman in Eng. June 10, 1620.

Dorothy {May), m. From Wisbech, Cambs. Dau. of Hen." Wife

of Wm. Wit. bet. of Hen. Wilson, May 13, 1616.

John. Son of Wm. and Dor. Came to Plym. in 1627 or soon

after.

Brewer, Thomas. Printer. Matric. in Letters at Leyd. Univ. Feb. 17,



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