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154G-47, when a lad of nine. He was intelligent and, iudt-ed,
precocious, conscientious, obstinate,^ evidently impressed by his
responsibilities and anxious to diseharge them well. Yet, neces-
sarily, he was mainly dependent upon the guidance of his coun-
sellors. Henry had sought to secure tliat these should be
friendly to the lad and to each other, but should represent dif-
ferent opinions, so that, at least until the young king's ma-
jority, matters might go on much as in the past. But Cranmer,
much further advanced in Protestantism than his old master
probably knew, with the Earl of Hertford, the king's uncle,
proved to be the determining forces in the Council. And Hert-
ford — made Duke of Somerset, Protector of the Realm and
Governor of the King's person — whose chief idea seems to
have been to jday the king pro tempore, also was committed
strongly against Kome.

It is further obvious from the speech and conduct of the
young monarch, and especially from his " Discourse about the
Keformation of many Alnises," ~ that personally he was earnestly
in favor of the new movement in religion. Here was one mighty
force likely to be efficient. On the other hand, in a.ldition to
the multitudes of remaining Romanists, thousands remembered
that the late king's will left his daugliter by his Spanish wife —
who, should she come to the throne, might lie expected to carry
England back to the Pope — next in succession to the throne,
and governed themselves accordingly.

1 Hook say3 (vii : 28"1) : " The young- kinj, whose precocioua talents were ac-
coinprmicil by the self-sulTiciency and obstinacy by which the Tudor race waa, for
good or evil, distiiifjiiisheil"

- In full in Burnet, ii (2) : 09.



70 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

Moreover, Ilenry VIII. had difd heavily in dvht. Although
he had begun his reign with a large sum in hand,' his extrava-
gance, with that of the State, had driven England into two
grave financial errors. She had borrowed money at Antwerp at
usui-ious rates, and she had begun to debase her owii coin.
These blunders had serious influence upon her subsequent re-
ligious develoj)ment.

The reformers lost no time. The coronation oath was amended.
Cranmer in his address to the youthful monarch repudiated all
dependence ujh)u the Bishop of Rome ; reminded Edward of
the boy-king of Israel, Josiah ; and suggested that, as in Jo-
siah's case, it might l)ecome his duty to suppress idolatry. A
popular movement began. The otficials of St. Martin's, in Iron-
monger Lane, Loudon, cleansed it of crucifix, images an^l pic-
tures of saints ; and, although comjjelleil to restore them, were
justified by the primate and imitated by others.- At Canter-
bury a crucifix was melted into coin. Nearly forty injunctions
were sent out in the king's name, and the clergy were required
to have the same " observed and kept of all i)ersons." ^ The
tendency of all this must have been to dislodge remaining Ro-
manism, and to substitute Protestantism. A translation of the
" Paraphrases of Erasnuis " on the Gospels and the Acts also
was directed to be studied by the clergy and to be set up in
churches with the great Bible, so as to be accessible b}' every-
body.

A royal visitation followed. The country was divide. 1 into
six circuits, and representatives of the Crowii were sent through
them to in(piire how far old superstitions were giving wav. A
Book of Homilies.^ or sermons in English, was prepared, to sup-
ply the defects of a ministry largely incompetent to make ser-
mons, and still more so to make sound ones. Preachers, among
whom were Hugh Latimer, and, later, John Knox, diligently
instructed those whom they could reach. AVhen Parliament met
in November the obnoxious Six-Articles Bill and the old stat-

» " No less than £1.800,000." Ibid, i (1) : 2.
2 IbiH. ii (1): 0.

' A. Sp.irrow, Collecfion of Artines. Injunctions, Canons, etc. (ed. IfiTo), 11, 6.
* CerUiijne Strmons or Homilifs appoijnud by the Kyn'jes Maiestie to be declared
and redde in Churches, etc., 4to, 1347.



PROGRESS AND RETROGRESSION 71

utes against the Lollards were repealed. A new Order for the
Comimuiion, in Kiiglisli, was set forth, whose vital terms of ad-
ministration were these: ^ —

When he [the Priest] cloth dehver the Sacranu-nt of tlie body of
Clu-ist, he shall say to every one these words fcjUowing :

QTbc boDp of our LoiD jJ^rssiis Christ, tuhtrl; tuae itDcn for tjjrc,
prc6crt)c tl)p boBp unto cBcrlaottnj lifr.

And the Priest deHvering the Sacrament of the Iduod. and givinLj
every one to drink once and no more, shall sav :

(E\)t blooli of onr LorD 'Ijcms Christ, mhitl) teas shcU for tbrc, prc -
errtt tl;i> coul unto ciDcrlacting; hfr.

By the second assembling of this Parliament, in Xovemher,
1548, Cranmer was ready with his draft of a Prayer-Book in
English,- intended to snpersede the ancient Rome-saturated
Latin service.

In the preface of this volume it is said : —

Here you haue an ordre for praier (as touohyng the readyiig of
holv scripture) ... a groate deale more ])rolitable and coniniudlous,
then that whiche of late was used. It is more jirufitalile. because In re
are left out many thynges whereof some be vutnie, some vucerti'in,
some vain and supersticious : and is ordeynod nolhyiig to be r-ad.
but the very pure worde of God. the holy scriptures, or tlial wbiciie is
euidentlv grounded vpon the same : and that in suche a language &
ordre, as is most easy & plain for the vnderstandyng, ... It is also
more comodious. bothe for the shortnes thereof. »Sc for the j)laiiies
of the ordre, & for that the rules he fewe & easy. . . .

And where heretofore, tliere hath been great diuersitie in saying
and synging in churches within this realme : some folowyng Sal-bury
vse* some Htrford vse. some the vse of Bangor, some of "ioiko, »fc

' The Ord.T of the CrnihWiinn. etc. (")), in Spnrn.w. At once translatcil into
Latin by >(il.s ("ov.rdule and sent by liim to Calvin iOrifiinal L-IKrs. 1">:;T-'>>,
Purktr .^iic. xixl. in tlw expectation th.at he wonid approve and print it, as he
could more . a^^ily than the translator. But Calvin does nut seem to have done this.

2 Tfir h'l'ike iif the rommon pniiir anil ndministracion of ihf S'lrrnnifnlfS. and other
rite-: and crrt monies of thf Church'- : after the vse of thf Churrhe (f Kmjland, 1.'j4'J,
fol. iv.

' A term appli'-d to the ritual as arranged by authority and practised in any
diocese. H-fure this date the service, with a peneral resemblance, had varied in
: luor particulars in the tive dioceses named. See F. Procter, Hist. lik. CVm.
Prat/rr, 4.



72 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

some of Lincolne : Now from heceforth. all the whole realme shall
haue but one vse.

This, coininonly caUod the First Book of Edward VI., liad
been prepared with wide considtation, from wliicli Lutherans,
Calvinists and Zwiiiylians had not been exchided. Of its thir-
teen compilers all Init one had l^een edueatt'd at Cumbridf^e.
Founded on the lSalisl)ury ritual,' from whose missal and bre-
viary chiefly it was renilered into English, it was largely in-
debted to a German work- drawn up tive years before for llur-
mann, Prince Archbishop of Cologne, to suggest to his subjects
a Scriptural form of doctrine and worship. That work had been
done by Melancthon and Bucer, their model being a form com-
posed fifteen years before for the use of Brandenburg and Nu-
remberg by Luther. Traces of the influence of two other man-
uals have been thought to exist in this Prayer-Book : one, the
reformed breviary of Cardinal (^uignon ; ^ the other, the Service-
Book^ of the church at Glastonbury, which is believed to have
suggested the Litroductory Sentences and the Exhortation, Con-
fession and Absolution, witli the Ten Commandments and their
Responses.5 Thus a considerable consent of leading Protestant
minds was wrought quietly into this manual, although it is diffi-
cult to trace anything directly back to Calvin, whose General
Service-Book also prol)ably was in hand.

The new Prayer-Book was sanctioned ])y Convocation, but
there was sharp debate in Parliament, and some bishops opposed
it to the end.*^ It shows unavoidable traces of the temporary
and compromised condition of affairs. It uniformly styles the
officiant the " priest." The Communion table still is the "altar."
The name of the Virgin is mentioned specially in the praise

' Hook, vii : i'52.

'^ Simplex Judicium de Reformatinne Erclesiarum Electoratus Coloniensis. \'AZ.
A Latin rendt'riiiy {Simplex ac pia Delibera'io. l.")4.")) was issued; .and in ir)47 an
English version : .1 Simple and reiiyiuu^ Consultation of us Herman, etc Tliis wxs
revised and printed nsj.iin the next year. Both are in the British Musfuni.

Breuiarium Eomanum, ex sacra potissimum Scriptura, etc., 1543 Hook viii •
2(30.

* Liturgia Sacra, seu Ritus Ministerii in ecclesia peregrinorum pr of ugorum propter
Evangelium Cfiristi Argentinae. etc., \'>'>\.

^ Procter, 4.>— Ifi.

* Kinar Ed%v.ird'8 Journal. Burnet, iii : Coll. of Rt cords: C. Traheron to Bul-
linger, Orig. Letters, Parker Soc. clii. Ranke, i : 175.



PROGRESS AND RETROGRESSION 73

offered for the saints. The sign of the cross is prescribed in
marriage, contirniation, anointing the sick, and the consecration
of the water of baptism, and twice each in the baptismal and
conununion services. The trine immersion, the form of exorcism,
the anointing and the chrism are retained in baptism, and the
water of the font must be changeil and reconsecrated at least
once a month, for which service an extended form is provided.
Prayer is offered for the dead. The Communion service is neu-
titil as to the Keal Presence.

An Act of Uniformity made the use of this liturg}', which
began with Whit-Sunday. June 9, 1549, imperative. On the
whole, the new Prayer- Book was well received, largely, no doubt,
because so much of it was old. Many Komanists liked it as
containing the ])rimitive elements of true worship. !Most Re-
formers favored it because they so much had their own way in
it. But some Papists termed it •' a parliamentary religion," and
some Protestant extremists thought it tinged with Lutheranism.
It was translated into Latm.^

Events moved on rapidly. To disfavor to the last degree any
possible return to the old mass-books, an Order in Council, after-
wards confirmed and extended by act of Parliament, required
that they be called in. defaced and destroyed. Hooi)er in his
Lent Sermons before the Court - pleaded, since no Christian
sacrifice now requires an altar, that the magistrates remove '• all
the monuments and tokens of idolatry and sujierstition," and a
movement in that direction began. Multitudes also were led to
scruple the priests' robes as remnants of Popery,-^ especially the
scai'let vestments of the bishops.

When, in 1550, Hooper was named Bishop of Gloucester, the
matter gained prominence by his reluctance to accept the otftce
on that account. He declined to receive the tonsure or to wear
a mitre, or any robe excepting his university gown of black. Con-
troversy ran high. Bucer at Cambridge and Peter Martyr at Ox-
ford preferred sim})licity, Init questioned whether, wlieu weightier

^ By Alex. Alesius — known nlso m Ales and Alane — whom Cranmer em-
ployed so that Bucer and Martyr, who could not read Eng-lish, n>ij;ht f^ive him
tlii'ir views upon it. Dirt. y,it. Ih'"fj. i: ?")7.

- Fourth Sfrmon upnn Inna^. Earii/ Wrilings of llonper. Parker Soc. 4S8.

' BuUingiT on Prayer-Book, Parker Soc. 2 Zuriub, 307.



74 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

matters should have been ailjusted, tlio vostmeuts and coivmo-
nies might not be managed more easily. ^ Hooper inclined
towards a more serious view. To him the oath " in the name of
God, the saints and the gospels " was impious and the surplice
the very badge of Antichrist. He was forbidden to preach and
sent to the Fleet. Co<>l reflection brought him round to the po-
sition of his Continental friends. The king cancelled the objec-
tionable portion of the oath, and Hooper agreed to wear the ob-
noxious garments wlien preaching before the king, if he might
disuse them afterwards.

Such discussions sliuudated Protestantism until it became
obvious that the Prayer-IV)ok had not gone far enough. The
king himseK wanted more changes.^ Accordingly, a connnittce
of divines under Cranmer undertook its revision in the autiunn
of 1550. Parliament met, Januaiy 23-February 2, 1551-52,
and in April the revised Prayer-13ook was adojjted, but Mas
not to be used until All Saints' Day, November 1. The many
changes made uniformly were in the interest of Protestantism,
so far as they were doctrinal. The name of the Virgin Maiy
and the sign of the cross were omitted. Exorcism, anointing
and the trine inauerslon were stricken from the baptismal ser-
vice. Prayers for the dead disapjieaivd. In the rubric concerning
the robing of the clergy it was ordered tliat neither alb, vest-
ment nor cope be put on. An archbishop or bishop was to wear
a rochet, priests and deacons the surplice only. The most im-
portant change concerned the Lord's Supj)er. A believer in the
substantial corporeal i)resence of Christ in the bread and wine
might have aece]ited the Prayer-Book of 1540 with a good ccju-
science, but this of 1552 represented our Lord as present only
as He always is present to the pr,ayers of his disciples. In
place of " The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given
for thee, preserve thy body unto everlasting life," etc., tlie
new book reads : —

Take and eat this, in remembrance that Christ died for thee, and
feed on him in thy heart by faith, with thanksgiving.

* Strrpe, Fed. ^f^m<;. ii (2) : 4.'.r;, and Cran. i : 30t. Epis. Tigurin, cclxiii, cxxiv.
Foxe. Acts ami .U,ns. (,-d. 1.")'^) iil : 11:0.

* Martyr to Bucer. January 20, lo51. Strype, Cran. ii : SU9.



PROGRESS AND RETROGRESSION 75

And the minister that dulivereth the cup, sliall say :
Drink this in remeinhranre that Christ's blood was shed for thee,
and he tJinnlcfnl.

An odil f:u't only lately has bocoine known. This re\'isLHl lit-
urgy not only had been })rinted, but was bound and ready for
distribution. It reijuired tlie consecrated bread to be delivered
to the people '' kneeling." John Knox was in Lomlon that year
and was a royal chaplain, and a contemporary letter^ intimates
that it was he who preached before the king and the Council in
October, inveighing against kneeling at the Lord's Supper.
There is some probability, also, that he protested before the
Privy Council against this rubric- All ended in a statement'^
to be pasted into the already completed books : —

Lest yet the same kneelynge myglit bo thought or taken otherwyse,
we dooe declare that it is not monte thereby, that any adoracion is
doone, or ought to bee doone, tyther vnto the Sacrauuntall bread or
wj'ne there bodelye receiued, or vnto any reall and esseiioial ])resence
there beyng of Clirystes naturall flcshe and liloude. For as concernyng
the SaiM-amentall bread and wyne, they remayne styll in theyr verye
naturall substaunces, and therefore may not bee adored. . . . And as
concernynge the naturall bodye and blond of our Saviour Christ, they
are in heaven and not here. . . .

Thus, at the last moment and in a manner clearly ojieu to criti-
cism, this additioTial heavy weight in favor of Protestantism
was thrown into the scale.'*

Coineidently there were prepared Articles of Faith, author-
itatively intended •• for the auoiding of controuorsie in opinions.
& the cstablislnnent of a godlie Concorde." It already has been
stated that, as eai'ly us 1536, ten Articles had been ordained
by royal authority to " stablyshe Christen quietnes and unitie
among us.' They were a compromise and never were wholly
satisfactory ; while the heightened conservatism of the sub.se-

^ Epis. Tiij. cclxxiii.

* P. Lorimer, John Knox and Ch. of Eng. 110.
' Two Lituryies, I'arkor Soe. -7'.), -60.

* In some copies this uits pasted in, liavinfj been printed on a slip for that pur-
pose. Somcliiui's an extra l''nf was intercalati-d, iiiterniptiiiK' tlie ri';,'iilar pa^^-inp.
.Vnd siinie lopie.s were iss\ied witlioiit it. or vitli it so ill attached that it was lost
in tbe course of time. Lituryies of Ed. VI. Parker Soc. 'H-i.



76 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

quent reactionary Six Artielos, of 1539, only made tlieir unfit-
ness more distressing. Moreover, by some the Keformers were
suspected, if not accused, of heresy, a disrepute which they
determined to neutralize by an authentic statement of belief.
Furthermore, the new outspring of thought which the Keforma-
tion was favoring was producing over all the Keformed coun-
tries a croj) of wild vagaries which ueeiled criticism. Accoril-
ingly in 1551 Cranmer was directed to recast the old Articles
to meet existing needs. He long had desired greatly, and the
more since the Romanist gathering at Ti-ent,^ that a '• GoiUv
Synod,'" representing all the Reformed cluirehcs, might enrich
that age, if not also succeeding ages, with some strong and sage
deliverance, not merely propounding the genuine essence of
Orthodoxy, Init also illustrating the wisest forms of its expres-
sion. He was the more anxious that this should be international
because there was a dearth of scholars, fitted for such work, at
home.2

He had written on the subject to Melancthon several times.
and addressed him again early in 1552, saying^ that tlic king
promised his o\ni royal assistance and a secure and cpiiet place
of assembly in England for such a Synoil. He also had written
to Calvin and Bullinger.

In the time of Henry VHI., Cranmer at Nuremberg had made
the actpiaintance of Andreas Osiander, an eminent scholar and
critic, whose niece he married, and who, as an lui-Lutheranized
Reformer, strongly won his sympathy. Through him he came to
know others. He learned to think highly of the Swiss theolo-
gians.'* It jdcased him greatly when, in EdwaicFs time, some of
them visited Cambridge and Oxford. His hospitality to them
was unbounded. Such men as Valcrandus Pollanus, tiio pastor
of the "Walloon Church, then sheltered in Cilastonbury ; the
converted Jew, John Emanuel Treniellius, for a time Helirew
professor at Cand)ridgi'; his gifted associate, Anthony Kodolph
Chevallier, a j)ersonal friend of Calvin ; and the Sj)anish 1* rancis

* In session, with lone: iiitiTrnptions, friiin Dec. 13, 1.''j45, to Dec. 4, I'ttVl.

* Prill. Ciinniiig;hnin. Ui/onwrs iiml Theol. of lltformalion, I'JO. MuUinjer. ii :
102.

* Parker Soc. cclxxjtv, ccxcviii ; Kpis. Tig. cccxxxvii.

* MuUiii^'tT, ii : 108.



PROGRESS AND RETROGRESSION 77

Encinas — oftt'n known as Dryunder — who for a short tinu*
taught Gret'k in the same university and translated the New
Testament into his vernacular, were Cranmer's casual "-ucsts.

But he also welcomed for periods of weeks or months others
of similar qualities and fame. Among them were John a Lasco,
the Polish nulilt'iiian, who was superintendent of the Diitcli
congregation in Austin Friars, London ; John Uiteidiovius, from
Ghent, anotlier officer of that same church ; Martin Bucer, the
famous Alsatian ; Peter Martyr, the Florentine, Regius i)ro-
fessor of theology at Oxford ; Paulus Fagius, the German :
Peter Alexander, a French refugee, who uiuler Cranmer's roof
comi)iled a new volume of " Sentences," to correct misrepresen-
tations of patristic teaching as to doctrines at issue ; Mattluw-
Negelinus, afterwards a minister at !Strasburg ; and Bernard
Ocliinus, an erudite Italian, the author of eifective dialogues
against the Po])e"s primacy.

Add to these, most of whom were on the ground, still otliers
with whom correspondence was maintained freely — Calvin and
Melancthoii, with "Wolfgang ]\Iliscu1us and Henry Bulluiger of
Zuricli, a i)owerful upholder of the Zwinglian doctrines, who
presumably exerted a stronger influence over tliis phase of the
Reformation in England tlian any other foreigner 1 — and it is
plain that, ahliough no formal synod met, the new Confession
did not lack the aid of Continental ex})erts.

The body of doctrine, which took the shape of tlie Fortv-two
Articles, was nmch more exelusive and repressive than inclusive
and uj)building. The recent and novel freedom of popular
thought had started many peculiar opinions, but only special
study can develop tlu; sur])ri>ing facts aiUnpiately. All tilings
considered, it would have been unreasonable not to exj)ect tiiat
intense but narrow minds, long and unjustly rei)ressed and n(jw
turned loose to interpret Scripture for themselves, with little
knowledge and no experience, would grow giddv and tliiidc that
they ought to lielleve, ])reacli and })ractise manv things con-
trary to the ancient ways. Nor can it l)e denied that even their
worst excesses were likely to be only corollaiies illegitimatelv
drawn from postulates common to tliem and to the most discreet

* Cuiiiiin^'ham, ILH).



78 THE PROTESTANTISM OF OUR FATHERS

Reformers ; with whom thi'v joined in assorting the supremacy of
the Bible, the saereJ indepeudence of the individual jud^^nant
and conscience, and the supreme importance of personal faitli.

Beginning: with the preacliing tours of Thomas Miinzer in
1521, and growing through imagined divine revelations into a
strange mixture of socialistic and s})iritual truth and error ;
reaching its height in the •' Peasants' AVar *' of 1525 ; and re-
appearing ten years later in the Miinster insurrections and
excesses ; ^ what, from a single distinctive tenet, it became com-
mon to call Anabaptism soon grew to be regarded as the svu-
ouym of whatever was fanatical, corrupt and corrupting. This
hydra-headed public nuisance, with some forth-puttings of
Socinus, Servetus, Schwenkfeld and the Gospellers, with the
Arians, Marcionists, Libertines, Danists, etc., alarmed Cranmer
and his associates. They felt that they must set forth on beludf
of the Church of Englaml with authority that it held no sym-
pathy with any such hallucinations and heterodoxies ; and that,
if it repudiated ancient Papal errors, it no less denied the fool-
ish and fatal fancies of tlie enthusiasts.

Accordingly, the Forty-two Articles fall into four classes.
The first consists of distinct assertions of truth ; the second of
distinctions between the Church of England and Ilomanism ;
the third of affirmations condemning tenets known by the gen-
eral name, Anabaptism ; the fourth of such as controverted both
these and other systems believed perilous.

Of the first class there are four : the seventh, setting forth
the verity of the Apostles', the Nicene and the Athanasian
Creeds ; the thirty-second, affirming tliat excommunicate persons
are to be avoided : the thirty-fourth, asscn-ting the spiritual value
of the Book of Homilies; and the thirty-fifth, endorsing the
latest Book of Cuiiunon Prayer.

Of the second class there are nine : the twelfth, against some
Schoolmen, and denying the sufficiency of works before justifi-
cation ; the thirteenth, of the impossibility of works of supt^r-
erogation ; the twentieth, of the Church, denying the infallibility
and supremacy of Kome ; the twenty-first, limiting the author.

^ L.imbiTtus Ilortt'tisius, Tuinultuuin Annbajitistarum, l.'jJS, passim. narj'.\ick,
Hist. Arts. Ht'ig. >(;-'.'o.



PROGRESS AND RETROGRESSION 79

ity of the Clmirli to the warranty of the Inble ; the twenty-
second, that Gonenil Councils are convocable only by the civil
power, have erred and enjoy no extra-Scriptural prerou;atives ;
the twenty-third, that the doctrine of Purgatory is luiscriptural ;
the twenty-fifth, that divine worship should be intelligible to the
people ; the thirtieth, that Christ's oblation on the cross needs
no supplementing by the mass ; and the thirty-fu'st, sanctioning
the marriage of the clergy.

Of the third class there are twenty : the first, treating of the
divine unity and trinity ; the second, of the very manhood of
Christ ; the third, of his descent into Hades ; the fourth, of his
resurrection ; the sixth, of the abiding value of the Old Testa-
ment ; the ninth, that man has no free will without grace ; the
tenth, of grace as aiding, yet never forcing, the will ; the fif-
teenth, of sin after baptism ; the sixteenth, of blasphemy against
the Holy Spirit; the eighteenth, declaring that sincerity and
sect-fealty will not save ; the nineteenth, tliat men are bomul to
keep the moral law ; the twenty-fourth, that no man should
minister unless regidarly called : the twenty-seventh, that the
personal untituess of the minister does not destroy a sacrament;



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