Henry O. (Henry Ormal) Severance.

A standard library organization suggested for Missouri high schools online

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M/.Y 14 1919



THE UNIVERSITY ORMISSqURI BULLETIN

VOLUME 20, NUMBER 11



EDUCATION SERIES 13



A STANDARD LIBRARY
ORGANIZATION .

SUGGESTED FOR

MISSOURI HIGH SCHOOLS

by

Henry Ormal Sevei?ance
Librarian^ Universty of Missouri

f




ISSUED THREE TIMES MONTHLY; ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MAT-
TER AT THE POSTOFFICE AT COLUMBIA, MISSOURI— 1000

APRIL, 1919



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI BULLETIN

VOLUME 20, NUMBER 11



EDUCATION SERIES 13



A STANDARD LIBRARY
ORGANIZATION

SUGGESTED FOR

MISSOURI HIGH SCHOOLS

by

Henry Ormal Severance
LibrariaUj JJniversty of Missouri




ISSUED THREE TIMES MONTHLY; ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MAT-
TER AT THE POSTOFFICE AT COLUMBIA, MISSOURI— 1000

APRIL, 1919



FOREWORD

The movement for better library facilities in high schools
i? growing rapidly. The library is so great a factor in modern
teaching that no school without adequate library facilities c .n
justly claim to be modern in its methods or to give the best re-
turns for the money invested in it.

In the interest of establishing standards for high school
libraries in Missouri, this bulletin has been prepared. In pre-
paring it a careful study has been made of the high school
libraries of the state by means of a questionnaire sent to all
high schools accredited by the University of Missouri. The
authorities of 179 schools replied to this questionnaire. In the
following discussion references are made to the data collected
and at the end of the bulletin a summary of these data is
given.



A STANDARD LIBRARY
ORGANIZATION

Suggested for

MISSOURI HIGH SCHOOLS

The essential features of a standard library organization
for a high school are:

1. Appropriate housing and adequate equipment;

2. Professionally trained librarians ;

3. The scientific selection and care of books, the proper
classification and catalogiijg of them, and the establishment of
a serviceable loan system ;

4. Adequate annual appropriations for salaries, for equip-
ment, for supplies, for the purchase of books, for bindings, and
for subscriptions for magazines.

The standard library organization varies with the size of
the school. The larger the enrollment, the greater should be
the library facilities. A school enrolling 500 pupils should, for
instance, have more books in the library than a school enrolling
50 pupils. The library of a high school which enrolls 300
pupils should have a full-time professionally trained librarian,
whereas the library of a high school which enrolls only 100
pupils can be well cared for by a teacher-librarian who has
pursued a short course in library methods. A separate room is
practically necessary to accommodate the library in a high
school of 500 pupils, but a classroom or a section of the study
hall may answer this purpose in a high school of only 50 pupils.

Since the standard library organization varies with the
size of the school, high schools will, for the purpose of our dis-
cussion, be grouped into three classes based on enrollment as
follows :

I. High schools with an enrollment of less than 200 pupils ;
II. High schools with an enrollment of between 200 and 500
pupils ;
III. High schools with an enrollment of more than 500 pupils.

(4)



A STANDARD LIBRARY ORGANIZATION 5

I. HIGH SCHOOLS WITH AN ENROLLMENT OF LESS
THAN 200 PUPILS

A more detailed discussion of the standard library organi-
zation is given in the case of this group, because in Missouri
this group includes more than three times the number of
schools included in the other two. Questionnaires with the de-
sired data were returned by 127 high schools each having an
enrollment less than 200 pupils.

1. HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT

A separate room, if possible, should be devoted to the li-
brary. If a separate room is available for this purpose, sug-
gestions given below for Group II should be followed. If a
separate room is not available for this purpose, a classroom or
a section of the study hall may be used. The room should be
easily accessible from the study hall — preferably adjacent to it
— and should be open to students only when the librarian or
her assistant is in the room.

The librar}^ room should be well lighted, ventilated, and
heated. The north light is best for reading purposes. The
room should be large enough to accommodate, in addition to
the book stacks, the librarian's desk, a catalog case, and tables
and chairs sufficient for twenty-five or thirty readers.

There should be shelving enough to provide for the present
collection of books and for the probable additions in the next
five years. In estimating the capacity of shelving, eight books
to the foot should be used as a basis.

The shelving should be placed against the wall of the
room; but, if this space is not sufficient, free standing cases
with shelves on both sides may be installed. In the latter case,
the passage-way between the stack and the wall should be about
three feet wide.

The cases of shelves may be made of wood by a local car-
penter, or steel cases of shelves may be purchased. The cases
should not be over seven feet high. Those seven feet high will
accommodate seven shelves. The shelves, which should be
adjustable, should be three feet long and eight inches wide, ex-



6 13 EDUCATION SERIES, MISSOURI BULLETIN

cept that the bottom shelves should be twelve inches wide in
order to hold folio books. The bottom stationary shelf should
be placed three or four inches above the floor in order to avoid
unnecessary dust. The current periodicals may be laid on their
sides on the shelves m one section devoted to periodical litera-
ture, or a few pigeonholes may be made for them. For the
average-sized periodical, these pigeonholes should be twelve
inches high, ten wide, and twelve deep. A few larger pigeon-
holes may be made for folio periodicals like the Scientific
American. If the school has sufficient funds, a periodical rack
for the better display of periodicals should be purchased.

The size of the tables should depend upon the size of the
room. A table ten feet long and three and one-half or four feet
wide is convenient for study, and will accommodate twelve
readers. Any good chairs are satisfactory, except that arm
chairs take up too much room. Sheboygan chairs, costing
about $2.50 each, have been found economical and satisfactory.
They should be provided with gliders or rubber tips on the
bottoms of the legs. The librarian's desk and chair may be
secured thru a local dealer. A flat-top desk and swivel chair
cost about $30. The desk should have drawers on both sides
of the front. It should be placed near the exit so that readers
must pass it on leaving the room. There should be provided
also a catalog case, the number of drawers in it depending upon
the probable number of books in the library after five years'
expansion. One drawer affords space for 500 cards. Each
book requires on an average four cards. Sectional cases of
drawers are very satisfactory. If this style of case is used, a
section of drawers can be added whenever needed.

The foregoing standard for the housing and the equipping
of a high school library is not much higher than that maintained
in the average high school library about which data were se-
cured. Of the 127 high schools reporting, 47 have separate
rooms for the library, 68 have card catalogs, and 67 have desks
for the librarians.



A STANDARD LIBRARY ORGANIZATION 7

2. THE LIBRARIAN

A librarian having some professional training and employed
for full time is the ideal. If a full-time librarian is employed,
suggestions given below for Group II should be followed. In
the larger schools with enrollments of less than 200 this ideal
can be realized, but in the smaller ones it may be necessary to
provide "teacher librarians." The term "teacher librarian"
means a high school teacher who is relieved of part of her
teaching duties and placed in charge of the school library. To
qualify for this work she should have, at least, a six weeks'
course of training in a summer library school, or its equivalent.
If college training is essential for the high school teacher, col-
lege and technical library training are essential qualifications
for the librarian. A school which cannot secure a full-time
librarian who has had the regular one-year course in library
training in an accredited school for librarians, should have a
librarian who is a college graduate with not less than six
weeks' training in library science.

Only one high school reporting in the group of schools
having enrollments under 200, employs a librarian who devotes
all her time to the library. This schooP has an enrollment of
135 students, a library of 4,796 volumes, a separate room for
the library, and a card catalog and other necessary equipment.
In sixty-four of the high schools reporting in this group, teach-
ers have charge of the libraries and give a few hours a day in
each case to this work. Only eleven of these teachers have had
technical instruction in library science. High school pupils
have charge of twenty-nine of the libraries. These student lib-
rarians are remunerated by the remission of tuition fees, by
small stipends of three to five dollars a month, or by some less
tangible reward. In several high schools, the position of
librarian is given to students who have the highest grades in
fheir studies.

When a teacher supervises the library, her daily schedule
should be definitely arranged so that she will have regular
hours for this work. Pupils should not, of course, be admitted

1. Lamar High School



8 13 EDUCATION SERIES, MISSOURI BULLETIN

to the library when no one is in charge of it, but arrangement
can easily be made to have someone in charge each hour of the
school day, if the teacher librarian trains one or more pupils
to assist her in supervising the library.

In Wisconsin, even teacher librarians are practically re-
quired to have technical training in library science, according to
the following announcement by the State Department of Pub-
lic Instruction: "Beginning with the school year 1919-20, it is
expected that every high school in the State of Wisconsin will
employ a teacher librarian who has had the training represented
by the course for teacher librarians in the State University.
Necessity for this requirement is the result of the growth of
the high school libraries and the responsibility of vital training
which they afford when properly organized and administered."^
In New York, high school librarians must have technical
library training, "in as much as a district quota cannot be al-
lowed for the service of a school librarian unless said librarian
is a holder of a certificate."^ Four grades of certificates are
issued.

3. SELECTION AND CARE 0F_ BOOKS, CLASSIFICATION, CATALOG-
ING, ETC.

A high school with an enrollment of 200 pupils should
have a library of at least 2,000 volumes, and a high school
with an enrollment of 100 or fewer pupils should have a library
of not less than 1,000 volumes. There should, in fact, be ap-
proximately 10 volumes for every pupil in high schools with
100 or more pupils. The sizes of the book collections in the
cases of schools reporting in the group vaiy from 300 to 5,000
volumes. The median number of volumes, i. e. the number
which has as many cases above as below it, is 1,000 volumes.

The efficiency of the high school library may be materially
increased through co-operation with public libraries, both in the
matter of books and in the matter of advice and service the
librarians of public libraries may give. The pupils of thirty

1. See American Schoolmaster, Vol. 10, No. 10 p. 474.

2. Library Journal, Vol. 43, 1918, p. 717.



A STANDARD LIBRARY ORGANIZATION V

of the schools reporting in this group have access to public and
institutional libraries.

Greater care is needed in selecting books for a small library
than in selecting books for a large one. It is difficult to select
the few best out of a multitude of good books. In selecting
books for a high school library, it should be kept in mind that
every book purchased should be useful and should render con-
tinual service.

A list of books compiled for high school libraries by good
authorities are: Library Books for High Schools, compiled by
Martha Wilson and published by the U. S. Bureau of Educa-
tion, Bulletin No. 41, 1917; Books for High School Libraries,
compiled and published by the Oregon State Library Commis-
sion, Salem Oregon; and Bulletin on High School Libraries,
University of lUinois Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 33. A list of the
reference books which should be found in every high school
library is given in chapter two of The Library Primer, written
by H. O. Severance and published by the Missouri Book Co.,
Columbia, Mo. These lists simplify the work of selecting
books, because all the books named in the list are good for high
school libraries.

Every high school should subscribe for several good maga-
zines for library use, some for the teachers and others for the
pupils. A suggestive list of general magazines for high school
libraries and a card form for recording the receipt of magazines
are given in The Library Primer, pp. 28-29. A larger list an-
notated is given in F. K. Walter's Periodicals for the Small
Library, published by the American Library Association, Chi-
cago. In the high schools reporting in this group, the number
of magazines received by the several libraries varies from to
thirty-two. Twenty schools receive none, and ten schools re-
ceive one each. One school with an enrollment of 380 and a
library of 1,087 volumes receives one magazine; another with
an enrollment of 135 receives 28 magazines; still another with
an enrollment of 93 receives 25 magazines.

The processes involved in accessioning, classifying, catalog-
ing, and installing a loan system are fully described in The
Library Primer, pp. 28-63, and in Fay and Eaton's The Use of



10 13 EDUCATION SERIES, MISSOURI BULLETIN'

Books and Libraries, published by the Boston Book Co., Boston,
Mass., pp. Ill, 387 et seq. The accession book should contain
a list of all books belonging to the library. As soon as a book
has been checked with the invoice and collated, it should be
accessioned and then have the marks of ownership put into it.
Book pockets and loan cards, as described later, should be
added. Books should be arranged by classes and arranged
alphabetically by authors within the classes. The Dewey deci-
mal system is in general use. The textbook for this work is
Abridged Decimal Classification and Relatif Index, Revised,
Library Bureau, Chicago, $1.50. The books should be cata-
loged on cards. These cards should be arranged alphabetically
by authors, subjects, and titles, forming a dictionary catalog,
and should be filed in a catalog case provided for that purpose.
Only fifty-eight high schools in this group reported card cata-
logs. Others have begun to catalog their libraries, but have
not completed the work.

Every book should be provided with a pocket fastened to
the inside front cover. In this pocket should be a book card,
preferably 2"x5", at the top of which the name of the author
and the title of the book is written. When the book is loaned
for use outside the library, the borrower should sign the card,
which should be kept by the librarian as his record. A charg-
ing tra> shouM be provided. Samples of cards and pockets and
of record cards may be secured by writing the Gayiord Bros.,
Syracuse, N. Y., and to the Library Bureau, Wabash Ave.,
Chicago.

4. APPROPRIATIONS

There should be a definite annual appropriation, however
small the amount may be, for the purchase of books, for sub-
scriptions for magazines, for equipment, and for supplies.
Th"s annual appropriation should range from $100 in the case
of the smaller schools to $400 in the case of the larger schools
in this group. The amount should be approximately $2 for
each pupil. Schools not having a minimum library should se-
cure, in addition to the regular annual budget, sufficient funds
to install the necessary library equipment. According to The



A STANDARD LIBRARY ORGANIZATION 11

High School Jlsitor of Illinois,^ p. 4, the cost of a standard
book and periodical equipment for a minimum library for
schools with fifty pupils enrolled is $450. For each additional
fifty pupils, this amount should be increased by from $200 to
$400. An examination of the reports by schools in this group
reveals the fact that the present annual appropriations vary
from $25 to $750. The median is $75. Many schools have
no appropriations.

II. HIGH SCHOOLS WITH AN ENROLLMENT OF BETWEEN
200 AND 500 PUPILS

1. HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT

"The library must be an integral part of the high school,
boused in the school building, and should not as a rule be open
to the general public. The library reading room must be cen-
trally located, well lighted, and planned appropriately with ref-
erence to general reading, reference, and supplementary study.
It must be emphatically a place of refinement, comfort, at-
tractiveness, and inspiration. The room in all its appointments
should be a place essentially attractive to high school students
and should be made as free of access to them as possible.

"Freedom of access to the library must imply not only
freedom to consult books for reference and for supplementary
and collateral study, but also freedom to read books for recrea-
tion and pleasure."^

The indispensable equipment includes all that is described
under Group I. The room should be larger. It should ac-
commodate more than fifty students at one time. There should
be more tables, more chairs, more shelving, etc. Of the thirty-
five schools reporting in this group, seventeen already have sep-
arate rooms for the library, tv/enty-five have card catalogs, and
twenty-six have desks for the librarians.

2. THE LIBRARIAN

The duties of the librarian are manifold and the services
she can render to the teachers and to the pupils are of very

L University of Illinois Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 33, 1917.

2. Certain, C. C, A Standard Library Organisation for Accredited Secondary
Schools of Different Sizes, p. 2.



12 13 EDUCATION SERIES, MISSOURI BULLETIN

great importance. They are far greater than merely "keeping
the books." She should do much technical work such as
classifying the books, instituting a loan system, making bibli-
ographies, and indexing useful material not otherwise indexed.
She should help teachers and pupils to find suitable material on
special topics, provide answers for many questions that arise in
the class-room and laboratory, call the attention of teachers to
new books and magazine articles, and suggest to pupils books
for cultural reading. In addition to this, she should select and
purchase the books and supplies, direct the general policy of
the library, prepare the budgets, and keep an account of library
expense. Nothing can take the place of the personal work of
the librarian. She should have equal rank with the high school
teachers, her salary should be as large as that of the teachers
of English or history, and frequently it may be necessary to
pay even a larger salary in order to secure a well qualified
librarian.

Every high school with an enrollment between 200 and
500 should have a full-time technically trained librarian. This
librarian should have a college as well as a professional train-
ing. The school authorities should require a college training
in the case of the librarian no less than in the case of the high
school teachers. A college course together with a short profes-
sional course in library science is preferable to a high school
course followed by a long professional course. A college or
university course followed by one or two years' study in a
good library school affords the ideal training for a high school
librarian. Only 10 schools in the group with an enrollment
of from 200 to 500 pupils reported that they employed full
time librarians; 14 reported teacher librarians, five of whom
have technical library training; and 6 reported student
librarians.

3. THE SELECTION AND CARE OF BOOKS

The standard set for Group I for the selection and care
of books holds also for Group II, and there should be a larger
number of reference books, a larger number of books suitable
for cultural reading, and a larger number for collateral read-



A STANDARD LIBRARY ORGANIZATION 13

ing. The collections should average about 10 volumes for each
pupil; a school with an enrollment of 300 pupils, for example,
should have a collection of 3,000 volumes. A school of this
size should add each year to its library from 300 to 400 vol-
umes. The library should receive at least ten good current
magazines in addition to bulletins, circulars, and the like. The
reports reveal the fact that in Group II the libraries range
from 500 to 5,740 volumes. The average is about 2,000 and
the median is 1,800.

Information regarding the accessioning, classifying, cata-
loging, and charging of books, may be found in the discussion
under Group I.

4. ANNUAL APPROPRIATION

There should be a definite annual appropriation for books,
magazines, supplies, and equipment, however small the amount
may be. The amount should range from $1 to $1.50 for each
pupil ; a school which enrolls 300 pupils should, for example,
have an annual appropriation of from $300 to $450.

One of the high schools reporting^ may, in many ways,
be taken as one of the best types of this group. This school,
which enrolls 281 pupils, has a library of 1,968 volumes and
receives 32 current magazines. The annual appropriation for
books, magazines, and supplies is $550. In the year for which
data were reported, 210 volumes were added to the library.
One room (28x22 ft.) is used exclusively for the library. It
is well equipped with shelving, tables, chairs, etc. The books
are selected by the librarian and the superintendent. The li-
brary is open JYz hours a day and is in charge of a librarian,
a high school teacher with technical library training, who de-
votes her whole time to the library.

III. HIGH SCHOOLS WITH AN ENROLLMENT OF MORE
THAN 500 PUPILS

1. HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT

A separate room for the library is indispensable and should
not be used for recitation purposes. This room should be adja-

1. Clinton High School.



14 13 EDUCATION SERIES, MISSOURI BULLETIN

cent to the study hall, so that pupils may easily pass from the
study hall to the library. A librarian's work room adjoining
ihe library should be provided and equipped with desk, type-
writer, table, chairs, and shelves for new books in process of
cataloging and for old books withdrawn for repairs and bind-
ing. The libraries should be provided with shelving for a
maximum collection of from 8,000 to 10,000 volumes in the case
of high schools with from 500 to 1,200 enrollment. The read-
ing room should be provided with facilities to accommodate at
one time as many as from 60 to 100 readers.

In addition to the equipment recommended for Groups
I and II, the library should be provided with a charging desk,
a desk for reference work, a periodical rack, a newspaper rack,
bulletin boards, and a book truck.

2. THE LIBRARIAN

The librarian should possess all the qualifications described
m the case of Group II. The minimum requirement should be
graduation from a University and the satisfactory completion
of a one year's course in an approved library school. In a
larger high school, where the funds are available, the superin-
tendent should secure a librarian with a few years' experience
in addition to the qualifications noted above. Untrained help
should be employed for the clerical work in the library such as
cutting leaves and pasting labels.

3. THE SELECTION AND CARE OF BOOKS

A high school with an enrollment of 500 or more students
should have a collection of 1,500 or more volumes witl\ an
annual increase of 500 volumes, provided the library is not a
branch of the public library located in the same city. In cases
where the public library establishes a branch in the school
building, the permanent collection and the annual additions
need not be so large. The library should subscribe for fifteen
good magazines for current use. They should be bound for per-
manent use when the volumes are completed. The reports
show that all the schools in this group are served by public
libraries, and that the permanent collections range from 900



A STANDARD LIBRARY ORGANIZATION 15

volumes to 10,631 volumes. The median is 3,300 volumes. The
number of magazines received range from one to thirty-five,


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Online LibraryHenry O. (Henry Ormal) SeveranceA standard library organization suggested for Missouri high schools → online text (page 1 of 2)