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Henry Onderdonk.

A history of Maryland : upon the basis of M'Sherry, from its settlement to 1867, with illustrations and an appendix containing the constitution of the state for the use of schools online

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dred thousand dollars — an amount almost twice as
great as the whole revenue of the IState.

1G. Instead of following the example of some of
the other States, by repudiating her debts, it was
resolved that a direct tax should be levied on the
property of the people ; as a means of revenue, it
also adopted the stamp system on all pecuniary
obligations. By the energetic measures recom-
mended by Governor Pratt, she redeemed her
credit, and her financial condition has ever since
been highly prosperous.

17. In the Mexican war, which broke out in
1845, Maryland was represented by many brave
and distinguished heroes, among whom was Maj.
Samuel Ringgold, who, at the head of his battery
of light artillery, had distinguished himself through-
out that conflict. He was killed at Point Isabel, in
Texas, May 11th, 1846. He is buried in Green-
mount cemetery, near Baltimore.

18. Colonel Win. H.Watson distinguished him-
self at the battle of Monterey. He fell a victim
to his ardor. Struck by a cannon ball, he sunk in



Questions.— 15. What is said of Maryland? 16. How did she re-
lieve herself of her difficulties? 17. What is said of the Mexican
war? Of Major Ringgold? 18. What is said of Col. Watson?



220 History of Maryland.

the arms of Capt. Oden Bowie one of his com-
rades, since made Governor of this State, and
expired.

19. Lieut. Randolph Ridgeley, who distinguished
himself at the battle of Resaca de la Palma, and
who had passed unscathed through so many scenes
of blood, was instantly killed by being thrown from
his horse.

20. In the battles of the valley of Mexico, the
Maryland company of Voltigeurs was distinguished
in the storming of the Castle of Chapultepec, where
they were thrown in the advance. Captain John
Eager Howard, grandson of the hero of Cowpens,
was the first officer to cross the parapet, and to leap
down amidst the bayonets of the foe, slaying seve-
ral of the enemy with his own hand. Capt. Archer
and Lieut. Swan were also distinguished for their
courage.

21. Thus stood Maryland in 1848. Its credit
established ; its property redoubled ; its internal
improvements hastening to completion ; its me-
tropolis growing with a rapidity almost beyond
precedent; its commerce, agriculture and manu-
factures flourishing and improving, and its people
proud of its past history, were welcoming home
those gallant sons who had so sustained her repu-
tation with the brave old Maryland Bayonet.



Questions.— 10. What is said of Lieut. Ridgeley? 20. What is paid
of the Maryland company in the battles of the valley of Mexico?
Of Howard? 21. What is said of Maryland in 1818?



New Constitution.



221







The Thomas viaduct on the Tatapsco.

CHAPTEIl XXV.

He-Survey of Mason and Dixon's Line— New Con-
stitution — Completion of Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road
— Its Communication with Europe — Southern Boun-
dary Line of the State — Commission appointed to Re-
trace the Line.

1. Very little of interest occurred after the Mexi-
can war, until the civil war of 18G1. In 1849, a
revision was made of the boundary line betweeu
Maryland and Pennsylvania. The re-survey was
made by commissioners appointed by the States of
Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania. So accu-

Questton.— I. What is said of the re-survey of Mason and Dixon's
line ? .

u*



222 History of Maryland.

rate was the work of Mason and Dixon, that the
change involved by the corrections amounted to
less than two acres, which were added to the area
of Maryland.

2. In 1851, a State Convention was appointed
to form a new constitution. By this constitution
lotteries were made illegal ; imprisonment for debt
was abolished; the judiciary was made elective;
and, the fees of the officers were not allowed to
exceed three thousand dollars ; all in excess of
this amount was to be paid into the State treasury.
Other changes were made, but they were not of a
permanent character.

3. On the first day of January, 1853, the Balti-
more and Ohio Rail R,oad was finished to the Ohio
river. It had been promised two years before, that
it should be completed on that day, and true to the
time appointed, the first passenger train from Bal-
timore arrived at the bank of Wheeling Creek.

4. Thomas Swann, Esq., subsequently governor
of the State, was president of the road at that
time. It was to his boldness, eloquence and con-
fidence, sustained by the skill, experience, energy
and caution of the chief engineer, Benjamin H.
Latrobe, Esq., that this work was carried through
its difficulties to a successful completion — a work

Questions.— 2. State some of the changes made by the Consti-
tution of 1851? 3. When was the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road
completed? What had been promised two years before? 4. Who
was president of the road at that time? To what was the com-
pletion of the road due?



Southern Boundary. 223

whose importance to Maryland, and particularly
to Baltimore, can never be over-estimated.

5. Upon its completion, Mr. Swann resigned.
The presidency of this corporation, which exercises
so controlling an influence over the whole business
of Maryland, and even of neighboring States, has
fallen into able and trustworthy hands. Such
judicious connections have been made with western
roads, that the distance between the seaboard and
the great west, finds its shortest line along the Bal-
timore and Ohio Rail Road, which is, therefore,
destined to form a part of the great highway be-
tween the two Oceans.

6. Availing themselves of this fact, the company
have made direct communication with Europe, by
means of two lines of steamers, one to Liverpool
and the other to Bremen. By the exercise of
energy and tact, Baltimore was, in 1868, in this
way, the only American owner of Trans- Atlantic
steamers, and that, too, without the aid of govern-
ment subsidy.

7- The southern boundary line of this State was
described in the/ charter as " a right line drawn
from the promontory, or head-land, called Wat-
kins 1 Point, unto the main Ocean on the East."
In 16G1, a dispute arose as to the precise location
of Watkins' Point.

Questions. — 5. When did Mr. Swann resign? Who is the present
president? What connections have been made? 6. What is said
of communication with Europe? 7. How was the southern boun-
dary of the State described in the charter? When did a dispute
arise ?



224 History op Maryland.

8. This dispute was settled by articles of agree-
ment between Philip Calvert, commissioner for
Maryland, and Edmund Scarbrugb, commissioner
for Virginia, in the year 1668. (See page 1± )
By this agreement, Watkins' Point was defined to
be the whole body of land between the north side
of the Pocomoke bay and the south side of Anna-
messex bay, now Big Annamessex river.

9. The commissioners ran what was intended to
be an east line, from " the extremest part of the
westernmost angle of the said Watkins' Point."

10. All of the existing maps of Maryland and
Virginia being incorrect, the points named did not
conform with the provisions of the charter; and,
the time and manner of the early settlement of the
boundary line being almost forgotten, the old ques-
tion of the locality of Watkins' Point was revived.
In 1858, Thomas J. Lee, Esq., was appointed
commissioner for Maryland, in conjunction with a
commissioner from Virginia, " to retrace and mark
the boundary between Smith's Point, at the mouth
of the Potomac, and the Atlantic."

11. The commissioners, in retracing the line
from Watkins' Point, discovered that it did not run
east. By the agreement in 1668, it was intended
to be an east line, or a parallel of latitude ; and

Questions.— 8. How was the dispute settled? 9. What was the
line intended to be? 10. What is said of the maps of Maryland?
Of the settlement of the dispute? When was a commission ap-
pointed to retrace the line? Who was appointed for Maryland?
11. What did the commissioner discover?



Southern Boundary.



225



such a line would add about twenty-three square
miles to Maryland. But as the error in the line
was probably due to not taking into the account
the variation of the compass, and as its direction
was fixed by marks, the commissioners simply
renewed such landmarks as were either lost or
destroyed, and did not look to any change in
the present limits of the State.




Near View op Thomas' Viaduct.



Questions. — 11. What is the probable cause of this error Did
they propose any change?



226 History of Maryland.



CHAPTER XXYI.

Character of the Period — Election of Lincoln —
Southern Vleivs of the Government — Northern Views
— The Feelings of Mary land — Its Geographical P*i-
Hon — Not prepared to Secede — Slave Properly — Excite-
ment — Riot in Baltimore.

1. The period upon which we are about to enter
is one of great gloom. It was characterized by
that civil war, from the effects of which the whole
country is still suffering.

2. The election in 1860, of Abraham Lincoln as
president of the United States, by the anti-slavery
party, alarmed the people of the South for the
safety of their institutions. They declared that
the compact of the constitution had been violated
by previous acts of the Northern States, and that
their rights, both political and personal, were now
in danger. They, therefore, asserted and exercised
the right of separation from the Union.

3. There had always existed two parties in the
country, differing in their ideas of the fundamental
principles of the government; one had favored a
strong central, or a federal government, the other,
as was mentioned in the chapter on the Federal
Constitution, fearing that too great centralization



Questions, — 1. What is said of this period? 2. What was the
effoct of the election of Lincoln ? 3. What two parties had always
existed ?



Southern Tiews. 227

would ultimately destroy State independence, and
popular liberty, asserted the States Rights doc-
trine.

4. Although Massachusetts, as early as 1811,
was perhaps the first to avow and maintain that
withdrawal from the Union was the " privilege of
all and might be the duty of some," the States-
rights party had its strength mostly in the Southern
States.

5. The State in which he was born ; the laws
under whose protection he lived ; the institutions
by which he was surrounded ; the common inter-
ests and sympathies of his section ; the scenes of
his childhood ; his home ; the history of his State
as a State, in which he had so much pride, and of
which he himself, or his ancestors were a part ;
these made for the Southerner his country, these
claimed and received his allegiance.

6. The interests, the sympathies, and the habits
of thought of the Northerners were different, and,
in many respects, opposed to those of the South-
erners. The population of that section was greatly
modified by immigration, and its bulk increased far
beyond the natural increase by births.

7. This vast army of foreigners, with their de-
scendants, had no social or historic associations



Questions.— 4. What State first asserted the right of secession ?
Where was the States-rights party the strongest ? 5. What is said
of the people of the South ? fi. What, of the North ? 7. How did
the foreigners regard the country ?



228 History op Maryland.

connected with the State which chance, interest,
or necessity had determined as their future home,
and it is natural that they should look upon the
country as a unit; not as a union of several States,
but as a consolidated nation. And thus when the
Federal Government determined to resist, with all
its power, the act of secession on the part of the
Southern States, the old party divisions in the
North were, to a great extent, obliterated, and
nearly all united on the idea of a national unity.

8. The people of Maryland were devoted to the
union, and loyal to the Constitution ; but the sym-
pathies of the majority of the State were upon the
side whose interests and institutions were identical
with their own. These people looked upon the
preparations of the Federal Government as a viola-
tion of the Constitution, and as an unlawful aggres-
sion upon the rights of the Southern people.

9. The geographical situation of Maryland ren-
dered it desirable to the Southern States that she
should join them. The Federal Capital was within
her border, and should Maryland secede, Wash-
ington would become the capital of the Southern
Confederacy. But this geographical position, on
the other hand, operated to deter her from that
step. On the north and east she was bounded by
Pennsylvania and Delaware whence, as there was

Questions.—!. At the breaking out of the war which side did they
espouse ? 8. What is said of the people of Maryland ? 9. What, of
its geographical situation T



Slave Property. 229

no barrier to prevent an invasion, she could be
overrun by the Northern forces. The South, to
meet these forces, would be compelled to send
adequate numbers to the borders of Maryland,
and thus this State would be the battle-ground
of the two sections.

10. Notwithstanding their sympathy with the
Southern brethren, and their belief that the South-
ern States were exercising a natural and constitu-
tional right, the people of this State were not yet
prepared to think they had sufficient cause to leave
the Union, but thought they should contend for
their rights in the Union, and, therefore, were not
willing to make their territory desolate in order to
enforce an act of which they doubted the wisdom.

11. Again, many thought her large slave prop-
erty would, in the event of Maryland's seceding,
immediately leave for the neighboring free State of
Pennsylvania, and thus, beside depriving her citi-
zens of property valued at fifty millions of dollars,
the State would be left comparatively bare of labor
for the cultivation of the soil. She would cease to
be a slave State, and hence have less interest in a
a union with slave States, and at the same time
would be in a hostile position towards the free
States. There were also not an inconsiderable



Questions.— 9. What other effect had this geographical situation?
10. Did the people of Maryland think the act of secession a wise
one ? 11. What other cause deterred Maryland from uniting with
the South ?

20



230 History of Maryland.

minority, with the Governor at their head, who
looked upon secession as treason, and upon all
acts or words looking that way as treasonable,

12. A feeling of intense excitement, therefore,
pervaded all classes, especially in the city of Bal-
timore. Many prominent men had expressed their
views on both side3, and meetings had been held
in favor of uniting with the South, and also against
any such step. On neither side, however, was there
any organization. Great efforts were made to in«
dnce Governor Hicks to call an extra session of
the Legislature. The Governor opposed this,
thinking it involved a seizure of Washington, and
the prevention of the inauguration of President
Lincoln. The Governor was supported in his
course by a large number of citizens on the East-
ern Shore and in the Western counties. The
Southern counties, however, and the city of Bal-
timore were emphatic in their denunciation of the
executive.

13 When in obedience to the President's call for
seventy-five thousand volunteers, the sixth Massa-
chusetts regiment reached Baltimore, on April
19th, 1861, a disposition was manifested to inter-
fere with their passage through the city. After
some of the troops had been transported by car



Questions.— 12. What was the state of feeling? What was the
governor desired to do? Why did the governor oppose this?
Who supported, and who denouueed lam? 13. What happened
on the 19th of April?



Riot in Baltimore. 231

to the Washington Depot, obstructions were placed
upon the track in the city, which stopped the
progress of the remainder. These alighted and
proceeded to march to the Washington Depot.

14. As the police authorities had no knowledge
that troops were expected that day, until within
an hour of their arrival, but a short time was
allowed to make proper arrangements to preserve
order. The marshal of the police, Geo. P. Kane,
Esq., immediately called out a large portion of his
force, which came, in squads, to the Washington
depot.

15. Whatever disturbance there may have been
in that neighborhood having been quelled by the
police, an alarm was given that there were more
troops at the Philadelphia depot, and that the mob
was tearing up the track. Having sent a hasty
summons to a body of police to follow him to the
scene of the riot, the Mayor, Geo. Win. Brown,
Esq., proceeded alone to the Philadelphia depot.
When he reached the obstructions on the track, he
ordered the few policemen that were on the ground
to remove the obstructions, and his authority was
not resisted. When he approached the troops, he
found an attack upon them by a mob had already
commenced. He immediately placed himself by
the side of the officer in command, and marched
with him, doing what he could by his presence and
personal efforts to allay the tumult.

Questions. — 14. What is said in this section? 15. What did the
mayor do? Where did he place himself?



232 History of Maryland.

16. Missiles were, notwithstanding, thrown at
the troops, and some of them were injured. The
soldiers fired upon the crowd, with fatal effect upon
distant and innocent spectators. An intense and
irrepressible feeling was at once aroused ; one of
the mob seized a musket from a soldier and fired.
Fire-arms were then freely used on both sides. —
Three of the Massachusetts regiment were killed.

IT. At this moment, Marshal Kane, with about
fifty policemen, from the direction of the Washing-
ton depot, rushed to the rear of the troops, and
formed a liue across the street, with their drawn
revolvers, checking and keeping off the mob.
Under the escort of this body of policemen, the
troops finally reached the Washington depot.

18. The police authorities insisted that they had
both the disposition and the power to prevent the
riot had timely notice been given of the arrival of
the troops, and that, had it not been for the effi-
ciency of the marshal and his men, the bloodshed
would have been great.

19. In the meanwhile, another body of troops
arrived at the Philadelphia depot. These troops
were protected by the police until they were sent
back to Havre-de-Grace, whence they were taken
in transports to Annapolis. From Annapolis they
marched to the Washington rail road and were
thence transported in cars to the Federal capital.

Questions.— 1G. State what happened? 17. Who appeared at this
time? 18. What did the police authorities declare? 19. What is
6aid of another body of troops?



Destruction of the Bridges. 233

20. The Governor of Massachusetts telegraphed
to the Mayor of Baltimore to have the kilied sent
forward to him. The Mayor, in promising to do
so, reminded the Governor that the Massachusetts
soldiers were considered as invaders of the soil of
Maryland. He also told the Governor that the
wounded were tenderly cared for, and said : " Bal-
timore will claim it as her right to pay all the ex-
penses incurred."

21. By night, the excitement in the city was so
great that it was regarded by the police authori-
ties as impossible that soldiers from other States
could pass through the city without a fierce and
bloody conflict at every step, and that great loss
of life, and possibly the destruction of the city
itself might ensue.

22. As the readiest method of averting such a
calamity was by stopping the immediate arrival of
more troops from the North, it was suggested that,
to this end, the bridges on the roads leading to
the city should be disabled. Governor Hicks hav-
ing agreed to these views, and given his consent
thereto, instructions were issued for carrying them
into effect.

23. On the 2 1st, Gen'l B. F. Butler arrived with
troops off Annapolis. He requested permission

Questions— 20. What did the governor of Massachusetts do?
What was the reply? 21. What was the condition of the city?

22. What was thought the best method of averting the calamity?

23. Who arrived on the 21st?

20*



234 History op Maryland.

from Governor Hicks to land his forces. The
Governor, in his message to , the General Assem-
bly, says he refused his consent. The troops,
however, were landed. The Governor protested
against this act, as well as against the forcible
seizure of the Annapolis and Elk Ridge rail road.

24. Great excitement prevailed on the same day
in Baltimore. A body of troops, on their way to
the South, had been stopped at Ashland Station,
on the Northern Central rail road, by the destruc-
tion of the bridge. Many of the citizens, both of
the city and county, armed themselves to resist
their passage. The troops returned to their State,
and were sent forward by another route, the Presi-
dent having agreed with the Governor of the State
and the Mayor of Baltimore, that no more troops
should be sent through that city.

25. Among the troops that were compelled to
return, was the Seventh regiment of New York,
the favorite corps of that city. Their trip to
Washington was regarded by these gay young
men as a party of pleasure, and they were sur-
prised to find that they were to be resisted in Bal-
timore by those with whom, in former days, they
had exchanged hospitalities.

26. It was the remark of the officers of this
regiment that, if the fortunes of war should bring

Qucstiotis.— 23. State what further is said? 2t. What was the con-
dition of Baltimore? What did the troops do ? 25. What regiment
was among those compelled to return? What is said of them?
26. What remark was made by their officer?



Riot in Baltimore. 235

them in conflict with their old friends of Baltimore,
at the first fire, they would present arms ; at the
second, they would defend themselves. As this
regiment was never under fire, it cannot be known
whether the gallantry of their deeds would equal
the courtesy of their language.

27. The exasperation felt towards Baltimore in
Northern States was intense and universal. At-
tacks were threatened, not only by troops in the
service of the General Government, but also by
independent organizations, sworn to the perpetra-
tion of all kinds of excesses.

28. The people of the North regarded secession
as treason, and the acts of the 19th and 21st of
April, by the people of Baltimore as aiding and
abetting treason. The South regarded the right
of separation from the Union as a sovereign right,
and while denying the charge of treason, retorted
that the acts of the Federal Government were
aggressive, tyrannical, and a usurpation of power
subversive alike to political and personal liberty.
Each side may have acted conscientiously, but
neither side had charity sufficient to make allow-
ance for the different views of the nature and rela-
tions of the General Government to the States that
had prevailed ever since the adoption of the Con-
stitution.



Questions— 20. Was this regiment ever under fire? 27. What is
said of the feeling towards Baltimore in the north? 28. What is
said in this section?



236 Histoby of Maryland.

29. The people of Maryland, while opposed to
the policy of secession, generally conceded the
right of a State to secede. Believing that the
Federal Government had no right to wage war
against a State for the purposes of subjugation or
conquest, they refused to regard those as guilty of
treason who struck a blow at the invaders of their
soil, on their way to slay their kindred.



CHAPTER XXVII.

Meeting or Legislature — Governor's Message — Ad-
dress to the People — Military Departments — Scott's
Campaign against Baltimore — Butler's Occupation of
Baltimore — Non- Resi stance of Baltimore — Habeas Cor-
pus — Case of John Merryman.

1. Washington being now safe from the supposed
seizure by the Southern sympathisers in Maryland,
there was no reason why Governor Hicks should
decline to call an extra session of the Legislature.
But as Annapolis was now in possession of the
Federal troops, by a proclamation, dated April
24, he appointed Frederick as the place of meeting.

2. Accordingly, that body met at Frederick on
the 26th. The Governor, in his message, briefly



Questions.— 29. What view did Marylanders take? 1. What i9
said of calling an extra session of the legislature? 2. When did it
meet and where?



Governor's Message. 237

detailed the startling events that had induced him
to summon them together, and stated his views of


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Online LibraryHenry OnderdonkA history of Maryland : upon the basis of M'Sherry, from its settlement to 1867, with illustrations and an appendix containing the constitution of the state for the use of schools → online text (page 13 of 22)