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Henry Onderdonk.

A history of Maryland : upon the basis of M'Sherry, from its settlement to 1867, with illustrations and an appendix containing the constitution of the state for the use of schools online

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tracts ranging from one hundred to three thousand
acres, were granted, in proportion to the number
of settlers, whom the applicant introduced into the
colony. A quit rent of twenty shillings for every
thousand acres was reserved for the Proprietary.
12. These liberal terms were well calculated to
induce men of wealth, who were able to bear the
expense of transporting servants and dependents,
to emigrate to this province, and contribute to the
growth and prosperity of the colony.



CHAPTER VI.



1638-1642 — The Second General Assembly — Mis-
sionaries — Kent Island — New Hundred — New Code of
Laws — Trial of Smith — Claiborne' s efforts in England
— Returns to Virginia — Missionaries — Conversion and
Baptism of Tayac — Father White — Privileges of the
Governor extended.

1. Prior to 1638, the inhabitants of Kent Island
had, to a certain extent, submitted to the govern-
ment of Maryland, and courts were established
there, in the name of the province, for the trial



Questions. — 12. What was the effect of these liberal terms?
1. What is said of the inhabitants of Kent Island?



Kent Island. 37

of civil and criminal cases. The factious fol-
lowers of Claiborne, still looking forward to the
success of their leader resisted the processes and
warrants of the civil courts. A visit from the
governor himself with a military force was neces-
sary to bring it to complete subjection to his
authority.

2. In the settlement at St. Mary's, the planta-
tions had already extended to the west side of St.
George's river, and there being large accessions
from the northern country, a new hundred — a divi-
sion similar to our election district — was erected.

3. Lord Baltimore now caused the code which
be had prepared, to be presented. But the people
thinking that the power of making the laws was
vested in them, and that the Proprietary had only
a veto power, immediately rejected the laws sent
by Baltimore, and set about framing such as they
thought proper.

4. After a short time, however, the controversy
was concluded by the Proprietary abandoning his
claim. Preferring the welfare of the colony to his
own individual privileges, and satisfied that the
veto power was sufficient to protect his authority,
he gave to his brother, the Governor, the right to
assent to any law, " which he might think good for



Questions.— 1. "What was necessary? 2. Where was a New Hun-
dred erected? 3. What dispute between Lord Baltimore and the
people? 4. How was the controversy concluded? What right did
he give the Governor?

4



38 History op Maryland.

the government of the province, and not contrary to
the laws of England." The Assembly met in 1639,
and passed a Code of laws. Among these laws
was one interesting to farmers, as it legalized a
custom still existing in this State. It was in refer-
ence to the measurement of a barrel of corn. "A
barrel of new corn, at or before the fifteenth day of
October in any year, shall be twice shaked in the
barrel, and afterwards heaped as long as it shall
lie on ; and at or before the Feast of Nativity
(Christmas), shall be twice shaked and filled to the
edge of the barrel, or else not shaked and heaped
as before ; and after the said feast it shall not be
shaken at all, but delivered by strike."

5. Thomas Smith, who had been captured in the
expedition sent out by Claiborne, was tried for
murder. He was found guilty, and sentenced to
death, though it is not ascertained that he was
executed. A bill of attainder was passed against
Claiborne by which his property was confiscated
to the Proprietary.

6. Claiborne was still in England endeavoring
to accomplish his object through the known ava-
rice and unscrupulousness of the royal court. He
boldly laid claim to the Isle of Kent and its de-
pendencies, and charged the Proprietary's officers
with having attacked and slaughtered his men. —



Questions. — 1. When did the Assembly pass laws ■? 5. What was
done with Smith? G. Where was Claiborne, and what was he
doing? What did he charge upon the colonists?



Missionaries. 39

In the trial of Smith, however, it was proved that
the first fire was from Claiborne's boat. In a peti-
tion to the king, he offered to pay the crown two
hundred pounds sterling for a grant of the Isle of
Kent and other valuable possessions.

7. The whole matter having been referred to a
proper committee, they reported, after a full inves-
tigation, that the lands in question belonged abso-
lutely to Lord Baltimore, and that no trade with
the Indians could be carried on without his con-
sent.

8. Claiborne, thus baffled, returned to Virginia
to carry on his old schemes of annoyance. The
legislature, however, interfered and compelled him
to desist. Then he dispatched an agent to Mary-
land praying the restoration of his property which
had been confiscated to the government. His
prayer was rejected, and, for a while, he aban-
doned his efforts.

9. During the earlier years of the colony, the
settlement was circumscribed within narrow limits,
and the presence of the two missionaries who had
accompanied the colony was required in the settle-
ments. For these reasons their efforts at convert-
ing Indians, were confined to those who were in
friendly relationship with the settlers. But as the

Questions.— G. What was proved on the trial of Smith? What
did Claiborne ofter the king? 7. What was the report of the com-
mittee? 8. What did Claiborne do? 9. How many missionaries
accompanied the colonists? Why did they not go abroad among
the Indians? ]>id they teach the Indians in the settlement?



40 History op Maryland.

colony increased, new missionaries arrived from
England.

10. These zealous men immediately began to
penetrate into the interior, and visit every tribe
and village. The Indians at Patuxent received
them very kindly, and bestowed upon them a plan-
tation called St. Mattapany, on the Patuxent,
where a missionary station and a store house were
immediately erected. The missionaries travelled
in a boat, subsisted by hunting, and at night slept
under cover of a slight tent. Confiding themselves
to the protection of God, they slept as soundly aa
if surrounded by the luxuries of a palace.

11. In five years they had extended their sta>
tions throughout a large portion of the province j
they had visited many tribes, and made many con
verts ; they possessed four permanent stations, tho
most distant of which was one hundred and twenty
miles from St. Mary's. They went in every direc-
tion preaching Christianity to the savages, and by
their gentle influence they maintained the peace and
quiet of the settlements more firmly and securely
than could have been done by all the militia of the
proviuce.

12. The conversion and baptism of Clitomachen,
the Tayac, was a remarkable event. The Tayac
was the chief officer of the Piscataways, the most

Questions.— 0. When did more arrive? ]0. What did they do?
How did the Indians receive them ? How did they travel?
11. What was the result of their labor? 12. Describe the baptism
of the Tayac ?



Tayac. 41

extensive and powerful tribe in Maryland. Shortly
after the arrival of Father White, the missionary,
the Tayac was taken sick, and forty medicine men
tried all the arts of conjuring within their power,
to cure him. The missionary gained permission to
treat the sick chief, and by his treatment shortly
restored him to perfect health. After having been
properly prepared for the reception of the holy
rite, the Tayac and his household were baptized.

13. The Tayac after this abandoned the habits
and dress of the savage, adopted those of the
English, and learned their language. In a con-
versation with the governor on the advantages of
trading with the settlers, he is reported to have
said : 4< I consider these as trifling, when compared
with this one benefit, that, by their aid, I have
arrived at the true knowledge of the one God, the
most important of all knowledge."

14. Thus surrounded by Christian Indians, the
colony suffered but little from the hostilities of the
natives, nothing .that rose to the dignity of an In-
dian war. What troubles they had were caused
by the Susquehannas, the Wycomeses and Nanti-
cokes, who were too far from the settlements to be
brought under the good influences of the whites.
The promptness and energy, however, of the gov-
ernor, prevented any serious disaster to the colony,



tyiestions. — 13. What is said of the Tayac, after his baptism?
What remarkable language is attributed to him? 14. What In-
dians were troublesome ?

4 *



42 History of Maryland.

and in a short time a truce was concluded with the
Nanticokes.

15. The colony had gone on improving, strength-
ening their settlements, and extending their legis-
lation, and, although by act of the Assembly which
met iu 1639, the privileges of the Governor had
been greatly extended — privileges that might have
been of dangerous consequences — the wise and
virtuous administration of Leonard Calvert, fully
justified the confidence which the people placed in
his honor and integrity..



CHAPTER VII.

1G43-1647. — Claiborne and Ingle's Rebellion— <
Troubles in England — Insubordination of Claiborne —
Calvert Visits England — Indian Troubles — Ingle—-
Gov. Brent — Calverfs Return — Endeavors to obtain
Possession of Kent Island — Calvert compelled to Flee -
Conduct of the Insurgents — Success of Parliamentary
1 Party — Calvert Regains Possession — Death of Calvert.

1. The contest which had broken out in Eng-
land, between the King and Parliament, materially
affected the good order of the Maryland colony.
The government was a royal grant, and the Pro-
prietary was an adherent of the king. As the

Questions. — 15. What is said of Leonard Calvert's administra-
tion ? 1. What is said of the contest in England ? To which sido
did tho Proprietary belong?



Rebellion. 43

cause of the king at home declined, the friends and
adherents of Claiborne, and the advocates of the
Parliament considered this a favorable moment to
throw off the authority of the Proprietary.

2. Uncertain what course to pursue, and anxious
to view in person the tendency of affairs in the
mother country, Governor Calvert determined to
visit England and consult his brother, Lord Balti-
more. He set sail in the early part of the year
1643. During his absence the spirit of disaffec-
tion increased, and at length broke out in Clai-
borne and Ingle's rebellion.

3. The Indians, either urged by the malcontents,
or perceiving the internal divisions of the settlers,
again began to be troublesome. The Susquehan-
nas were particularly so, having, contrary to the
laws of nations, been furnished with lire-arms by
the Swedes and Dutch.

4. Whilst the Indians were threatening the
colony on the north, Captain Richard Ingle, an
associate of Claiborne, a pirate and a rebel, was
hovering about the settlement with an armed ship,
holding communication with the disaffected, and
endeavoring to strengthen their numbers. Gov-
ernor Brent, who was acting in the absence of



Questions.— 1. What did the advocates of Parliament think?
2. Why did Calvert return to England? What happened during

his absence? 3. What is said of the Indians? Who furnished
them with arms? 4. Who was Ingle, and what was he doing?
Who acted in the absence of Calvert?



44 History of Maryland.

Gov. Calvert, issued a proclamation ordering bis
arrest and the seizure of bis ship. Ingle was
taken, but soon effected bis escape, to join Clai-
borne and concoct new trouble for the colony.

5. On bis return in 1644, Calvert found tbe
province in great disorder, the public officers at
variance, tbe Indians encroaching, the pirate Ingle
at large, his enemy, Claiborne, in arms, and once
more in possession of Kent Island.

6. Calvert endeavored to obtain possession of
Kent Island, but bis efforts failed ; and the rebels,
emboldened by success, and certain of assistance
from their friends, invaded the Western shore, and,
after a short struggle, obtained complete posses-
sion of the province. Governor Calvert was com-
pelled to fly to Virginia.

T. The conquerors immediately commenced a
system of outrage and oppression upon those who
had adhered to his fortunes, and bad supported
the laws of the colony. Many were robbed of all
their possessions, and banished from the province.
Even the missionaries, among whom was Father
White, called the apostle of Maryland, were seized
and sent in chains to England. The provincial
records were mutilated and destroyed, so that it is
almost impossible to get accurate accounts of their



Questions.— i. What proclamation did he issue ? 5. Describe the
condition of the colony on the return of Calvert ? 0. What did
Calvert endeavor to do? What, the rebels? 7. How insurgents
act? Whom did they seize?



Calvert does not Yield. 45

proceedings, or of the struggle which followed
their success.

8. The parliamentary party being now com-
pletely in the ascendant, and having the king in
their hands, Claiborne and Ingle acted in the name
of parliament. Their success seemed a death-blow
to the supremacy of Lord Baltimore in the pro-
vince. He felt this, and accordingly, in 164f5 t
directed his brother, the governor, to collect and
take charge of his private property, and save what
he could from the wreck of his fortunes, apparently
abandoning the hope of recovering his rights.

9. Leonard Calvert was not willing to yield. —
The people of Virginia were loyal to their sove-
reign, and he believed that the majority of the
people of Maryland were attached to the mild and
parental sway of the Calverts. In Virginia he
found not only a safe refuge, but also the means
for a final effort to subdue the rebels. The out-
rage, oppression and misrule of the usurpers in
Maryland, soon prepared the people to sustain
him in the attempt.

10. Having completed his arrangements, at the
close of the year 1646, he crossed the Potomac
with a military force, surprised the enemy, entered
St. Mary's in triumph, and once more took posses-
sion of the government.

Questions. — 8. In whose name did Claiborne act? What did
liord Baltimore direct? 9. Why did not Calvert yield ? What did
lie rind in Virginia? 10. When did he return, and with what suc-
cess ?



46 History op Maryland.

11. Kent Island, the stronghold of the malcon-
tents, did not submit so easily as the rest of the
province. It was found necessary to declare mar-
tial law; to cut off all communications from with-
out, and send an expedition under the governor
himself, into the island before the rebels could be
reduced once more under the authority of the Pro-
prietary. The governor having secured the tran-
quillity of the island, granted an amnesty to most
of the offenders and returned to St. Mary's.

12. Just as order was once more restored to the
colony, and renewed prosperity began to dawn
upon the settlers, they met with a heavy blow in
the death of their governor. Governor Calvert
died, surrounded by his family and friends, on the
9th of June, 1647, having named Thomas Green
his successor.

13. During the space of fourteen years he had
guided the colony through the storms which had
darkened around its infancy — he had devoted his
whole life and energies to its permanent establish-
ment — with a disinterested self-devotion, he had
striven in the wilderness for its glory and its pros-
perity : and it seemed as if, through a special
providence of heaven, to reward his labors, a beam
of sunshine had broken over the province as he
was about to die, at peace with all, triumphant



Questions.— 11. What did he do on Kent Island? 12. What mis-
fortune bel'el the Colony? 13. What had been the character of
Calvert's administration ?



Liberty op Conscience. 47

over the enemies of Maryland, fall of honor, and
enriched with the prayers and blessings of a res-
cued people. His character, public and private,
was without stain, his abilities were undoubted, his
government, kind and parental, and his memory
was long cherished by the colonists with grateful
recollection. He was indeed a great and good
man.



CHAPTER VIII.



Liberty of Conscience— New guards to Liberty of Con-
science — Oath of Office — Acts of Assembly — Protection
to Feelings — Who formed the Assembly.

1. Lord Baltimore now perceived, that, while
some concessions to the disaffected might be neces-
sary to maintain his provinces, new guards were
necessary to prevent the growing feeling of intoler-
ance manifested by the insurgents, and which was
tending to destroy the sanctuary he had erected at
the cost of so much care and treasure.

2. Therefore, in 1648, he appointed William
Stone, governor of the province, and prescribed
the famous oath of office, as a further guaranty for
the continuance of liberty of conscience, and full



Questions.— 1. What did Lord Baltimore now perceive? 2. Whom
did he appoint governor ? What oath did he prescribe to the
governor ?



48 History op Maryland.

toleration to all persons who believed in Jesus
Christ.

3. The assembly that met on the 2d of April,
1G49, after enacting severe penalties for the crime
of blasphemy, and providing that certain penal-
ties shall be inflicted upon any one who shall call
another a sectarian name of reproach — such as
"heretic," "idolater," "schismatic," "round-head,"
&c. — declared that "no person or persons profess-
ing to believe in Jesus Christ, shall from henceforth
be any ways troubled, or molested, or discounten-
anced for, or in respect of his or her religion, nor
in the free exercise thereof, nor any way compelled
to the belief or exercise of any religion against his
or her consent."

4. The passage of this act, when compared with
the intolerant laws existing in other colonies, is one
of the proud boasts of Maryland. Whoever was
oppressed and suffered for conscience, might here
find refuge, protection and repose.

5. It is said that some of these legislators could
neither read nor write. "Two of them at least
were in the habit of making their signet mark.
But did they not leave a mark also upon the coun-
try, and upon the world ? In depth and earnest-
ness, in real dignity and propriety, in profound



Questions.— 3. Against what penalties did the assembly make
enactments? 4. How does this act compare with laws in other
colonies? 5. What is said of the learning of some of these legis-
lators I



Protection to Feelings. 49

views of human nature, and in true legislative wis-
dom, they were not behind those earlier law givers
who bore the appellation of 'The Wise."'* Their
want of culture, though sometimes made the sub-
ject of ridicule, adds to the numerous examples
in history, that progress is not so much depen-
dent upon mental culture as upon force of char-
acter. This is the motive power in the progress of
events.

6. JN"o person was allowed to stigmatize his fel-
low-man by any term of reproach on account of his
religious belief, or the sect to which he belonged.
The law protected not only the property and per-
sons of the citizens, but also their feelings. ' It also
made it penal to deny the Saviour, and to blas-
pheme. It has been objected, therefore, that the
" freedom of conscience " was not entire. But
freedom to deny and blaspheme God and his wor-
ship is not, in any sense, freedom of conscience, for
conscience never yet required any man to deny or
blaspheme his Maker. There is no conscience
where God is denied, for conscience is man's re-
cognition of what the law of God commands.

7. This act, passed by an assembly made up of
men of many different creeds, introduced no new
principle in the colony, but, in its best provisions,

*Davis.



Questions.— 6. What was disallowed? What were protected?
What was made a penal offence? What is said of this? 7. Who
composed this assembly?

5



50 History op Maryland.

was merely affirming and recording the law which
had hitherto governed the province. This libe-
rality, as we shall see in subsequent chapters, was
the cause of greatest misfortune to the province.



CHAPTER IX.

lG49-lfiG4— Puritan Settlements— The Liberal Policy
attracts Settlers — Richard Bennett and his Puritans —
Chivalric Conduct of Marylanders — Influx of Puritans
— Reduction of Virginia — Claiborne and Bennett's De-
scent upon Maryland — The Proprietaryship Abolished
■ — Indian Troubles — Claiborne and BennetVs Invasion.

1. The liberal policy of Maryland could not fail
to attract the attention of the colonies. The Puri-
tans, on the James river, in Virginia, having been
ordered to leave that colony, soon found an asylum
here. Under the leadership of Richard Bennett,
they founded settlements on the Severn. They
called the place New Providence. It was near the
present City of Annapolis.

2. These settlers governed themselves entirely
independently of any connection with the colony,
which received and protected them. They did not-
even obtain grants for the land they occupied.

Questions.— 1. Who were ordered to leave Virginia? Where did
they go? 2, What is said of this settlement?



Puritans. 51

3. At this time an event happened that showed
the generous and chivalric character that has ever
marked the sons of Maryland. 'Charles I, by a
tribunal constituted for the purpose, had been put
to death, and the parliament had passed a decree
declaring it td be treason for any one to acknow-
ledge his son Charles, as king He was imme-
diately proclaimed sovereign by the authority of
Maryland. This daring act of loyalty aroused the
adherents of parliament, and finally led to the
reduction of the province.

4. The Puritans, attracted by the liberal policy
of the province, were settling in it, in considerable
numbers. Besides those who came from Virginia,
a colony came from England, under the patron-
age, it is supposed, of Governor Stone ; another,
on South river, and also a Protestant settlement,
twenty miles from the mouth of the Patuxent, un-
der Richard Brooke. When the assembly was
called, it was found that the partizans of Cromwell,
who had usurped the power in England, were in
the majority.

5. Parliament had passed an ordinance for the
reduction of Virginia. The armed force that was
sent out to effect this, was joined by Claiborne and
Bennett, the Puritan, who had been appointed
commissioners. The governor of Virginia made

^ruestioni.—3. What happened at this time? What was the effect
of this daring act? 4. What other Puritans came to the colony ?
5. What decree had Parliament passed? Who joined the armed
force ? What did Virginia do ?



52 History of Maryland.

his submission and received favorable terms. Al-
though his duties as commissioner had now been
performed, Claiborne could not forego the favora-
ble opportunity he enjoyed of gratifying his ancient
hostility to the colony of Maryland. The Puritan
Bennett, who had lately been so kindly received in
the province, when exiled from Virginia, eagerly
joined in the schemes of Claiborne.

6. Having come to St. Mary's, towards the close
of March, 1G52, they demanded that the. colony
should submit to the Commonwealth, which was
the name given to the government ; they insisted
that the name of the Proprietary should be erased
from all writs and processes ; they removed tho
governor from his office, and entirely abolished tho
authority of Lord Baltimore, in the province. —
Stone was subsequently reinstated, but with modi-
fied powers.

7. Simultaneously with the ascendancy of the
Puritans, the Indians began to be troublesome.
The Nanticokes broke in upon the Eastern Shore
settlers, burning, killing and ravaging. Great
efforts were made to raise a force and protect their
frontiers. The Puritans of Anne Arundel, how-
ever, refused to make their levies, and the expedi-
tion had to be abandoned.



Questions— ?>. What did Claiborne then do? Who united with
him? G. What did they require ? 7. When did the Indians begin
to be troublesome? Who refused aid?



Claiborne and Bennett. 53

8. Lord Baltimore did not rest quietly under
the wrong that had been done him. He imme-
diately took steps to call the commissioners to ac-
count for their unlawful proceedings, and directed
Governor Stone to require all persons to take the
oath of fidelity, and to re-establish the Proprie-
tary government, which was accordingly done in
1664.

9. Claiborne and Bennett immediately invaded
Maryland with a considerable force, and Stone,
either from timidity or disaffection, submitted. —


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Online LibraryHenry OnderdonkA history of Maryland : upon the basis of M'Sherry, from its settlement to 1867, with illustrations and an appendix containing the constitution of the state for the use of schools → online text (page 3 of 22)