Henry Peacham.

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our manners, and allayeth the heate and fury of our
anger, &c.

I might runne into an infinite Sea of the praife and
ufe of fo excellent an Art, but I onely Ihew it you with
the finger, becaufe I defire not that any Noble or Gen-
tleman (hould (fave at his private recreation and leafure-
able houres) proove a Mafter in the fame, or negle£t his
more weighty imployments : though I avouch it a skill


OfMuJicke. ' 99

worthy the knowledge and exercife of the greateft

King Henry the eight could not onely fing his part Erafm. in Fana-
fure, but of himfelfe compofed a Service of foure, five, s'"' ^f'fi-
and fixe parts j as Erafmus in a certaine Epiftle, teftifieth
of his owne knowledge.

The Duke oiVenofa^ an Italian Prince, in like manner, jj. of Venofa.
of late yeares, hath given excellent proofe of his know-
ledge andloveto Muficke,having himfelfe compofedmany
rare fongs, which I have feene.

But above others, who carryeth away the Palme for The juft praife
excellency, not onely in Muficke, but in whatfoever is to of Umrke
be wiflied in a brave Prince, is the yet Mving Maurice Land- ^"^''^' °f
grave of Hejfen, of whofe owne compofition I have feene ' ""'
eight or ten feverall fetsof Motets, and folemne Muficke,
fet purpofely for his owne Chappell ; where for the great
honour of fome Feftivall, and many times for his recre-
ation onely, he is his owne Organift. Befides, he readily
fpeaketh ten or twelve feverall languages j he is fo
univerfall a SchoUer, that comming (as he doth often)
to his Vniverfity of Marpurge^ what queftions foever he
meeteth with fet up, (as the manner is in the Germane
and our Vniverfities) hee will Ex tempore^ difpute an
houre or two (even in Bootes and Spurres) upon them,
with their beft ProfefTors. I pafTe over his rare skill in
Chirurgery, he being generally accounted the beft Bone-
fetter in the Country. Who have feene hiseftate, hishof-
pitality, his rich furnifhed Armory, his brave Stable of
great Horfes, his curtefie to all ftrangers, being men of
Quality and good parts, let them fpeake the reft.

But fince the naturall inclination of fome men, driveth
them (as it were) perforce to the top of Excellency : ex-
amples of this kind are very rare, yea great perfonages
many times are more violently carried, than might
well ftand with their Honours, and neceflity of their
affaires : yet were it to thefe honeft and commendable
H 2 exercifes



M. William

hudavico de

loo of Mujicke.

excrcifes favouring of vertue, it were well : but many
negleding their duties and places, will addidl themfelues
wholly to trifles, and the moft ridiculous and childilh
pradices. As Eropus King of Macedonia^ tooke pleafure
onely in making of Candies : Homitlan his recreation was
to catch and kill flyes, and could not be fpoken with many
times in fo ferious employment. Ptolomaus Philadelphus
was an excellent Smith and a Basket-maker : Mphonfe
Ateftim Duke of Ferrara, delighted himfelfe onely in
Turning and playing the loyner, Rodolph the late Em-
perour,in fetting of Stones and making Watches. Which,
and the like, much edipfe State and Majefty, bringing fa-
miliarity, and by confequence contempt with the meaneft.

I defire no more in you than to fing your part fure, and
at the firft fight, withall, to play the fame upon your Violl,
or the exercife of the Lute, privately to your felfe.

To deliver you my opinion, whom among other Authors
you Ihould imitate and allow for the beft, there being fo
many equally good, is fomewhat difficult j yet as in the
reft herein you Ihall have my opinion.

For Motets and Muficke of piety and devotion, as
well for the honour of our Nation, as the merit of the
man, I preferre above all other our Fhtenix, M. William
Byrd, whom in that kind, I know not whether any may
equall, I am fure none excell, even by the iudgement of
Francea.Ta.dItaly,-whozrQ very fparing in the commendation
of ftrangers, in regard of that conceipt they hold of them-
felves. His Cantiones Sacra, as alfo his Gradualia, are meere
Angelicall and Divine j and being of himfelfe naturally
difpofed to Gravity and Piety, his veine is not fo much
for light Madrigals or Canzonets, yet his Vtrgimella and
•fome others in his firft Set, cannot be mended by the beft
Italian of them all.

For compofition, I preferre next Ludovico de ViBoria,
a moft judicious and a fweete Compofer : after him
Orlando di Laffb, a very rare and excellent Author, who


OfMuJicke. 10 1

lived fome forty yeares fince in the Court of the Duke
oiBavler. He hath pubHflied as well in Latine as French
many Sets, his veine is grave and fweet : among his Latine
Songs, his fevenpceaitentiall Pfalmes are the befl:,andthat
French Set of his wherein is Sufanna "vn jour : upon which
Ditty many others have fince exercifed their invention.

For delicious Aire and fweet Invention in Madrigals, Luca Uarmd'.
Luca Marenxio excelleth all other whofoever, having
publilhed more Sets than any Author elfe whofoever j
and to fay truth, hath not an ill Song, though fometime
an over-fight (which might be the Printers fault) of two
eights^ or fiftes efcapt him ; as between the Tenor and
Bafe in the lail clofe, of I muft depart all haplejfe : ending
according to the Nature of the Ditty moft artificially,
with a Minim reft. His firit, fecond, and third parts of
ThyrJiSj Veggo dolce mto hen chi fa hogp mlo Sole Cantava'-y
or fweet finging Amaryllis, are Songs, the Mufes them-
felves might not have beene afhamed to have had com-
pofed. Of ilature and complexion, he was a little and
blacke man ; he was Organift in the Popes Chappell at
Rome a good while, afterward hee went into Poland, being
in difpleafure with the Pope for overmuch familiarity
with a kinfwoman of his, (whom the Queene of Poland
fent for by Luca Marenzio afterward, flie being one of the
rareft women in Europe, for her voyce and the Lute :) but
returning, he found the afFedrion of the Pope fo eftranged
from him, that hereupon hee tooke a conceipt and dyed.

Alphonfo Ferabofco the father, while he lived, for iudg- «»«'« Vecchi.
ment and depth of skill, (as alfo his fonne yet living)
was inferior unto none j what he did was moll elaborate
and profound, and pleafing enough in Aire, though
Mafter Thomas Morley cenfureth him otherwife. That
of his, Ifaw my Lady weeping, and the Nightingale (upon

(' See Diet. IAms. ii. ii/, where correct titles are given as: — 'Tirsi
morir volea'; 'Veggo dolce mio bene'; 'Che fe hogg' i! mio sole';
'Cantava la piu vaga.')


Horatio Veccbi,

Giovanni Croce,

Ttter Thilips.

Bafchetto his
Motets of 8.
parts, printed
in Rome. 1/^4.

102 OfMuJicke.

which Ditty Matter Bird and he in a friendly semulation,
exercifed their invention) cannot be bettered for fweet-
neffe of Ayre, or depth of judgement.

I bring you now mine owne Mafter, Horatio Vecch'i
of Modena : befide goodnefle of Aire moft pleating of
all other for his conceipt and variety, wherewith all
his workes are Angularly beautified, as well his Madri-
gals of five and fixe, as thofe his Canzonets, printed at
Norimberge : wherein for tryall, fing his Vivo in fuoco
amorofo, Lucretia mia, where upon lo catenato moro^ with
excellent judgement, he driveth a Crotchet thorow
many Minims, caufing it to refemble a chaine with the
Linkes. Againe, in S' io potejji raccor' i mei So^iri^ the
breaking of the word So^iri with Crotchet & Crotchet
reft into fighes : and thzt fa mi vn Canzone, &c. to make
one fleepe at noone, with fundry other of Uke conceipt,
and pleafant invention.

Then that great Mafter, and Mafter not long fince of
S. Markes Chappell in Venice { fecond to none, for a full,
lofty, and fprightly veine, following none fave his owne
humour : who while he lived was one of the moft free
and brave companions of the world. His Poenitentiall
Pfalmes are excellently compofed, and for piety are his

Nor muft I here forget our rare Countrey-man, Peter
Philips^ Organift to their Altex,z.a's at Bruxels, now one
of the greateft Mafters of Muficke in Europe. Hee hath
fent us over many excellent Songs, as well Motets as
Madrigals : he aiFedteth altogether the Italian veine.

There are many other Authors very excellent, as Bof-
chetto, and Claudio de Monte Verde, equall to any before
named j Giouannioni Ferretti, Stephana Felis, Giulio Rinaldi,
Philippo de Monte, Andrea Gahrieli, Cyprian de Rore, Pal-
laviceno, Geminiano, with others yet living ; whofe feverall
workes for me here to examine, would be over tedious
and needleflfe j and for me, pleafe your owne care and


Of Mujicke. ' 103

fancy. Thofe whom I have before mentioned, have been
ever (within thefe thirty or forty yeares) held for the

I willingly, to avoyde tedioufnefle, forbeare to fpeake
of the worth and excellency of the reft of oar Englifli
Compofers, Matter Doftor Douland, Thomas Morley^ M.
Alphonfo^ M. Wilhy^ M. Kirhy, M. Wilkes, Michael Eajl,
M. Batefon, M. Deering, with fundry others, inferiour to
none in the world (how much foever the Italian attri-
butes to himfelfe) for depth of skill and richnefle of

Infinite is the fweet variety that the Theorique of
Muficke exercifeth the mind withall, as the contempla-
tion of proportion, of Concords and Difcords, diverfity
of Moodes and Tones, infiniteneffe of Invention, &c.
But I dare affirme, there is no one Science in the
world, that fo affedleth the free and generous Spirit, with
a more delightful! and in-ofFenfive recreation, or better
difpofeth the minde to what is commendable and ver-

The Common-wealth of the Cynethenfes in Arcadia, Toiyb.Ub.^.c.T.
falling from the delight they formerly had in Muficke,
grew into feditious humours and civill warres, which
Polyiius tooke efpecially note of: and I fuppofe, hereupon
it was ordained in Arcadia, that every one fliould pradtife
Muficke by the fpace of thirty yeares.

The ancient Gaules in like manner (whom lulian ?«''■'<«■/'"/«-'«?.
tearmed barbarous) became moft curteous and tradable '_^„f;^'.
by the pradtife of Muficke.

Yea, in my opinion, no Rhetoricke more perfwadeth, Rhecoiique
orhathgreaterpoweroverthemind: nay, hath not Muficke and Muficke,
her figures, the fame which Rhetorique ? What is a Revert "" *"">'•
but her Antifirophe ? her reports, but fweet Anaphora's ?
her counterchangeof points, -<^»//»ze/4rio/e'j? herpaffionate
Aires but Profopopma's ? with infinite other of the fame


104 Of Antiquities.

How doth Muficke amaze us, when of found difcords
file maketh the fweeteft Harmony ? And who can fhew
us the reafon why two Bafons, Bowles, Braffe-pots, or
the like of the fame bignefle ; the one being ftiU, the
The ftraiiEe Other empty, fliall, ftriken, be a juft Diafafon in found
eSe&s and one to the other : or that there Ihould bee fuch fympathy
MXall pro- ^" founds, that two Lutes of equall fize being laid upon
portions. a Table, and tuned Vnifon, or alike in the Gamma^ Gfol

re vtj or any other ftring j the one ftricken, the other un-
touched fliall anfwer it ?

But to conclude, if all Arts hold their efteeme and
value according to their EiFedts, account this goodly
Science not among the number of thofe which Luciaa
placeth without the gates of Hell, as vaine and unprofit-
able: but of fuch which are wTjyal TuvKaX&v, the fountaines
of our lives good and happinefle : fince it is a principal!
meanes of glorifying our mercifull Creator, it heighthens
our devotion, it gives delight and eafe to our travailes,
it expelleth fadneffe and heavinefle of Spirit, preferveth
people in concord and amity, allayeth fiercenefle, and
anger ; and laftly, is the beft Phificke for many melan-
cholly difeafes.

Chap. XII.

Of Antiquities.

OVt of the Treafury and Storehoufe of venerable
Antiquities, I have fele&ed thefe three forts. Statues^
InfcriptionSj and Coynes ,• defiring you to take a fliort view
of them, ere you proceed any further.

The pleafure of them is beft knowne to fuch as have
feene them abroad in France^ Spaiae, and Itafy, where the
Gardens and Galleries of great men are beautified and fet
forth to admiration with thefe kinds of ornaments. And
indeed the poflefTion of fuch rarities, by reafon of their


of Antiquities. 10/

dead coftlineffe, doth properly belong to Princes, or rather
to princely minds. But the profitable neceflitie of feme
knowledge in them, will plainly appeare in the handling
of each particular. Sure I am, that he that will travell,
muft both heed them and underftand them, if he defire
to bee thought ingenious, and to bee welcome to the
owners. For next men and manners, there is nothing
fairely more delightfuU, nothing worthier obfervation,
than thefe Copies, and memorials of men and matters of
elder times ; whofe lively prefence is able to perfwade^
a man, that he now feeth two thoufand yeeres agoe. Such
as are skilled in them, are by the Italians tearmed yirtuoji,
as if others that either negledt or defpife them, were idiots
or rakehels. And to fay truth, they are fomewhat to be
excufed, if they have all LeefhehBers (as the Dutch call
them) in fo high eftimation, for they themfelves are fo
great lovers of them {& fimilis Jlmili gaudet) that they
purchafe them at any rate, and lay up mightie treafures
of money in them. Witnefle that Exchequer of mettals
in the Cabinets of the great Duke ofTufcany^ for number
and raritie abfolutely the beft in the world, and not
worth fo little as looooo. pound. For proofe whereof,
doe but confider the number of thofe which Feter de
Medicis loft at Florence upon his banifliment and de-
parture thence, namely, a hundred thoufand peeces of
gold, and filver, and brafle, as Fhllip de Commines re-
porteth, who mentioneth them as an infinite treafure.
And yet Feter was but a private man, and not to be any
way compared with the Dukes of his Houfe, that have
beenefince, all of them great and diligent gatherers of all
manner of Antiquities. And for Statues, the Diana of
Efhefus in the marble chamber at Farts , Laocoon and Nilus
in Beluedere at i?oz»e, and many more, are peeces of in-
eftimable value : but the matchlefle, and never too much
admired Toro in Cardinall Famefes garden out-ftrippeth
allother Statues in theworldfor greatnefle andworkeman-


io6 Of Antiquities.

fhip. It comprehendeth a great Bull, and (if my memory
faile mee not) feven or eight figures more as great as the
life, all of one entire peece of marble, covered with a houfe
made of purpofe, and eftimated at the wealth of a king-
dome, as the Italians {a.y, or all other Statues put together,
of Statues. And now to fpend a few lines on Statues in generall ;

I began with them, becaufe I fuppofe them of greater
ftanding & antiquitie, than either Infcriptions or Coines.
For, not to fpeake of Infcriptions, but of the GeKim of
them. Writing and Letters, they feeme to be fo much the
later invention of the two (I meane in regard of Statues)
as it was more obvious and eafier for man to figure and
reprefent his outward body than his inward minde. We
heare of Ladans idols, long before the two tables of the
commandements, and they are the firlt of either kind men-
tioned in the holy Scriptures. And in the Stories of the
Eaft and Weft Indies, we finde idols among thofe Savages
that had neither writing nor money. Coines I place in the
reare, becaufe they are made up of both the other. For
moft commonly they confift (I fpeake not of the materiall
but formall part) either of an Infcription, or an image, or
both J fo that the other two may juftly claime precedency
of Coines, feeing they are the ingredient fimples that
compound them. It is true that we reade in Genejis that
Abraham bought the field of Machpelah for 400 fliekels,
and that (you may fay) is long before we heare either of
Idols or writings : but withall it is faid there, not that he
told out fo much money to Ephron, but that {afpendtt) he
weighed it ; fo that 400 fhekels there are to be taken for
fo much in weight, not in coyne, pecunla numerata. At
Rome, Servim was the firft (as Remeus thinks, and Stiellius
is perfwaded) or Numa Pompilius (as Suidas out of Suetonius
alleadgeth,and Ifodore beleeveth)that firft ftamped money.
But their Penates were farre more ancient, which their
Poets (and particularly Firgil) fay, Mneas brought with
him from Troy. I will leave this point with this by-obfer-,


of Antiquities. 107

vation, that if that Story of Mneas be true ; the Coynes
that fome Antiquaries have of Priamus and Troy may
very well be fufpedted of forgery. For it is not likely that
they that had time enough to bring away their houfehold
Gods, fliould be (so) forgetfull as to leave all their money
behind them ; and fb negligent withall, as after their fet-
ling in Italy ^ never to put in pradtice a thing fo ufefull and
neceflary as coyned money is, till Servius or Nutria's time.
To returne to our Statues • they (I propound) are chiefly
Greeke and Romane, and both thefe either of Deities or
Mortals. And where fliould the Magazine of the befl: of
thefe be, but where the feat of the lafl: Empire was? even
at Rome : where though they be daily found and digged
for, yet are they fo extreamely affedted and fought after,
that it is (as with Gennets in Sfalne) fellony to convey
them thence without fpeciall licence. But in Greece and
other parts of the Grand Signiors Dominions (where
fometime there were more Statues {landing than men
living, fo much had Art out-ftripped Nature in thofe
dayes) they may be had for digging and carrying. For by
reafon of the barbarous religion of the Turks, which al-
loweth not the likenefle or reprefentation of any living
thing, they have been for the moft part buryed in mines
or broken to peeces ; fo that it is a hard matter to light
upon any there, that are not headlefle and lame, yet moft
of them venerable for their antiquitie and elegancy. And
here I cannot but with much reverence, mention the every
way Right honourable Thomas Ho-ward Lord high Mar-
fliall of England, as great for his noble Patronage of Arts
and ancient learning, as for his birth and place. To
whofe liberall charges and magnificence, this angle of
the world oweth the firft fight of Greeke and Romane
Statues, with whofe admired prefence he began to hon-
our the Gardens and Galleries of Arundel-Houfe about
twentie yeeres agoe, and hath ever fince continued to
tranfplant old Greece into England. King Charles also


1 o 8 Of Antiquities.

ever fince his comming to the Crowne, hath amply tefti-
fied a Royall liking of ancient ftatues, by caufing a whole
army of old fbrraine Emperours, Captaines, and Senators
all at once to land on his coafts, to come and doe him
homage, and attend him in his palaces of Saint lames ^ and
Sommerfet-houfe. A great part of thefe belonged to the
late Duke of Mantua -. and fome of the Old-greeke-marble-
bafes, columnes, and altars were brought from the ruines
of Apollo's Temple at Delos, by that noble and abfolutely
compleat Gentleman Sir Kenhelme Digby Knight. In
the Garden at S*. lames there are alfo halfe a dozen brafle
ftatues, rare ones, caft by Hubert le Sueur his Majefties
Servant now dwelling in Saint Bartholomewes London,
the moft induftrious and excellent Statuary in all ma-
terials that ever this Countrey enjoyed.

The bell of them is the Gladiator, molded from that
in Cardinall Borghefes Vtlla^ by the procurement and in-
duftry of ingenious Mailer Gage. And at this prefent
the faid Mailer Sueur hath divers other admirable molds
to caft in brafle for his Majeftie, and among the reft that
famous Diana of Ephefus above named. But the great
Horfe with his Majellie upon it, twice as great as the
life, and now well-nigh finiflied, will compare with that
of the New-bridge at PariSj or thofe others at Florence
and Madrid^ though made by Sueur his Mafter, lohn de
Bolonia that rare worke-man, who not long fince lived at
Florence. At Yorke-houfe alfo, the Galleries and Roomes
are ennobled with the poflefEon of thofe Romane Heads,
and Statues, which lately belonged to Sir Feter Faul
Ruhons Knight, that exquifit Painter oi uintiverp: and the
Garden will bee renowned fo long as lohn de Bologna's
Cain and Abel ftand erected there, a peece of wondrous
Art and Workemanfhip. The King oiSpaine gave it his
Majeftie at his being there, who beftowed it on the late
Duke of Buckingham, And thus have we of late yeeres
a good fample of this firft fort of Antiquities accom-

Of Antiquities. 109

panied with fome novelties, which nevertheleffe can
not but fall fhort of thofe in other Countries, where
the love and ftudy of them is farre ancienter, and the
meanes to come by them eafier.

It is not enough for an ingenuous Gentleman to behold
thefe with a vulgar eye : but he muft be able to diftin-
guifli them, and tell who and what they be. To doe this,
there be foure parts : Firft, by generall learning in Hif-
tory and Poetry. Whereby we are taught to know lupiter
by his thunder-bolt, Mars by his armour, Neptune by his
Trident, ApoUo by his harpe, Mercury by his winges on his
cap and feet, or by his Caduceus • Ceres by a handfuU of
corne. Flora by her flowers, Bacchus by his Vine-leaves,
Pomona by her Apples, Hercules by his club or Lyons skin,
Hercules infans by his grafping of Snakes. Comedy by a
vizard in her hand, Diana by a crefcent, Pallas by her hel-
met and fpeare, and fo generally of moft of the Deities.
Some mortals alfo are knowne by their cognifances, as
Laocoon by his Snakes ftinging him to death, Cleopatra
by a viper, Cicero by his wert, and a great many more.

But becaufe all ftatues have not fuch properties and
badges, there is a fecond way to difcerne them, and that
is by their coynes. For if you looke upon them fidewayes
and confider well their halfe-faces, as all coynes fhew
them, you will eafily know them. For this is certaine
(which alfo witnefleth the exquifit diligence of ancient
workes) that all the faces of any one perlbn, whether on
old coynes or ftones, in greater or lefler volume, are all
alike. Infomuch as if you bring an old rufty coyne to any
reafonable Antiquary : if he can fee but a nofe upon it,
or a peece of the face, he will give you a fhrewd guefle
at him, though none of the infcription be to be feene.

A third and very good way to diftinguifli them, is by
the booke of collection of all the principall ftatues that
are now to be feene at Rome : printed there with the
Title, Icones ftatuarum qua hodie vifuntitr Roma.


no Of Antiquities.

He that is well acquainted with this booke, will eafily
difcover at firft fight a great many of them. For there
are a number of ftatues of one and the fame perfon : and
he that knowes one of them knowes all the reft.

The fourth and laft helpe, and without which the reft
are weake, is to vifit them in company of fuch as are
learned in them, and by their helpe to grow familiar
with them, and fo pradiife their acquaintance.

Now befide the pleafure of feeing, and converfing with
thefe old Heroes^ (whofe meere prefence, without any
farther confideration, reared on their feverall Pedijiah,
and ranked decently, either /»^ dio, where they fhew beft,
or in a ftately Gallery, cannot but take any eye that can
but fee :) the profit of knowing them, redounds to all
Poets, Painters, Architedis, and generally to fuch as may
have occafion to imploy any of thefe, and by confequent
to all Gentlemen. To Poets for the prefentation of
Comedies, Tragedies, Maskes, Shewes, or any learned
fcene whatfoever ; the properties whereof can neither be
appointed nor judged of, but by fuch as are well feene in
ftatue-craft. To Painters, for the pifturing of fome
exquifit arme, leg, torfe or wreathing of the body, or any
other rare pofture, whether fmooth or forced.

Befides, Rounds (fo Painters call Statues and their frag-
ments) may be had, when the life cannot, and have the
patience to ftand when the life will not : and this is a
maxime among Artifts in this kind, that a Round is better
to draw by, and comes neerer the life, than any flat or
painting whatfoever. And if a Painter will meddle with
Hiftory, then are old Statues to him the onely life it felfe.
I call Heubens to witnefle, (the beft ftory-painter of thefe
times) whether his knowledge in this land hath not been
his onely making. But his Statues before named, and his
workes doe teftifie it for him : yea while he is at worke,
he ufeth to have fome good hiftorian or Poet read to him,
which is rare in men of his profeflion, yet abfolutely ne-

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