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Scientific Reports. Part II, Botanical Report, J. G. Cooper, 1860,
76 pp., 6 plates. Part III, Zoological Report, 1860, Leconte,
Suckley, Cooper & Gibbs, VIII, (2), 399 pp., 46 plates (2 insects,
5 mammals. 8 birds, 11 reptiles, 20 fishes; all the list calls for, but
some different numbers from the list).

The collation of plates in the Govt. edition agrees with Hasse
except that she includes plate 43 of fishes, which Suckley & Coop-
er say was not published in this edition, nor does the list call
for it.

In 1860 this material was printed in New York by Bailliere
Bros, as the "Natural History of Washington Territory and Ore-
gon; Edited By Geo. Suckley, M. D., and J. G. Cooper, M. D.,
Naturalists of the Late N. P. Railroad Exploration, .... In
Quarto. Some plates published in this were not included in the
Government edition. 218


Report of Exploration Of A Route For The Pacific Rail-
road, Near The 38th And 39th Parallels of Latitude, From
The Mouth Of The Kansas To Sevier River, In The Great
Basin. By Lieut. E. G. Beckwith, Third Artillery.

[Washington: Nicholson, 1855.] (In 33rd Cong., 1st
Sess., House Ex. Doc. 129).

8 Title, Cont. 2 pp., 149 pp. Map (from Westport to
Sacramento Valley) and sheet Profile (from Westport to
Salt Lake Valley).
Contents :

Pp. 1-87, Journal; pp. 88-98, Summary; pp. 98-103, Note
on Methods ; pp. 105-149, Barometric and Meteorological

Report dated Washington, Nov. 25, 1854. This is a revised re-
port, the first one having been sent by Beckwith from Salt Lake
Feb. 1, 1854. The party set out June 23rd from the mouth of Kan-
sas River, under command of Capt. J. W. Gunnison who was after-
wards killed in Utah (Oct. 26th). Besides Gunnison, the party
consisted of Beckwith, R. H. Kern, topographer and artist, Shep-


part Homans, astronomer, Dr. James Schiel, surgeon and geologist,
F. Creutzfeldt, botanist, J. A. Snyder, assistant topographer. Es-
cort under command of Capt. R, M. Morris and Lieut. L- S.
Baker, John Moses, an Indian as guide and James Sanders, inter-
preter. The journal was kept by Beckwith. The party proceeded
via Bent's Fort, Fort Massachusetts (at Taos they obtained An-
toine Leroux as guide), up San Luis Valley, Sawatch Valley,
Coochetopa Pass, the Uncompahgre Valley, to the Grand (Gunni-
son) River (Roubidou's old fort at the junction) and through
Wahsatch Pass. Struck the old Spanish trail near Green River.
Crossed the river at the ford and followed the trail a short dis-
tance. Later followed it through Wahsatch Pass over the moun-
tains to near Seven Lakes and back to Cedar Springs. Gunnison,
Kern and Creutzfeldt were killed by Indians near there. The
party arrived at Salt Lake Nov. 8th.

Homans made a map from Kern's sketches but the map accom-
panying the report was made from the same notes by F. W.
Egloffstein in Washington. The report was reprinted in the 4
edition of the Pacific Railroad Report, vol. II, 1855, 118 pp., to
which were added: Appendix A, pp. 119-124, Letters from Gun-
nison and Beckwith to Secretary of War during the expedition;
Appendix B, pp. 125-128, Explanation of the map and illustrations;
map (in Vol. XI) in 4 sections, 13 colored lith. plates, 3 by Kern,
1 by Egloffstein and 9 by J. M. Stanley, after sketches by Kern.
The profiles are on the same sheet as those of the other Beckwith

The 1857 edition of Capt. Gunnison's book on the Mormons con-
tains a letter from W. W. Drummond, dated Chicago, April 27,
1857, purporting to be a narrative of the death of Gunnison.

A sketch of the portion between the 104th and 110th Meridian
appeared in Report of Secretary of War, 29th Cong., 1st Sess. Sen.
Ex. Doc. 29. 219


Report of Explorations For The Pacific Railroad, On The
Line Of The Forty-First Parallel Of North Latitude. By
Lt. E. G. Beckwith, Third Artillery. 1854.

[Washington: Nicholson, 1855.] (In 33rd Cong., 1st
Sess., House Ex. Doc. 129).

8 136 pp.

Contents :

Pages 5-67, Journal; 67-77, Summary; 77-81, Tables dis-
tances; 82, Geographical positions; 83-119, Meterological
data; 120-136, Geology by J. Schiel. This geological article
covers both expeditions beginning at Westport, Mo.

Map in four sections in vol. XI of the 4 edition. The
profiles are combined with those of the other expedition on
one sheet.

This geological article covers both expeditions beginning at
Westport, Mo.

According to Warren's Memoir (Pacific Railroad Report, Vol.


XI, pp. 75) this report was accompanied by a preliminary map,
but I conclude that only one map was published at the time cov-
ering both the Beckwith expeditions. The only map covering
these routes published in this edition covers the entire territory
to the Pacific and was made by Egloffstein, as Beckwith states in
his letter of transmittal to Secretary of War of Dec. 30, 1854.
Apparently no profiles were made, as Warren does not mention

This was reprinted in the quarto edition Pacific R. R. Surveys,
vol. II, in 132 pp., sheet errata, 4 plates of geology and 10 of
botany and 13 fine engravings of scenery issued in vol. XI. These
plates were after sketches of F. W. Egloffstein. There were added
to this edition, pp. 115-132, a Botanical Report on both expeditions
by John Torrey and Asa Gray on plants collected by F. Creutz-
feldt in the first expedition and J. A. Snyder in the second. Schiel's
Geology, pp. 96-112.

The party left Salt Lake April 4, 1854, for Fort Bridger and re-
turned to Salt Lake by Weber River. Left Salt Lake May 5th,
on orders from Secretary of War, to proceed to the coast. Went
via Fish Springs, Valley of the Humboldt, over the Medelin Pass
to Fort Reading. They also reconnoitered Noble Pass. Dr.
Schiel accompanied the party and the same escort and others, ex-
cept the ones killed. Egloffstein apparently joined the party at
Salt Lake.

S. F. Baird, Chas. Girard, and J. L. Leconte made a report on
the zoology of both the Beckwith expedition (vol. X of the 4
edition) in 27 pp. plus 1 of Index, 3 plates mammals, 7 birds, 4
reptiles, 6 fishes, (article on insects omitted). According to Hasse
only 4 of birds, although list calls for 5. My copy contains 7
which are all described, and no more. 220


Report of Explorations For A Railway Route, Near The
Thirty-Fifth Parallel Of Latitude, From The Mississippi
River To The Pacific Ocean. By Lieut. A. W. Whipple,
Corps of Topographical Engineers.

[Washington : Nicholson, 1855.] (In 33rd Cong., 1st
Sess., House Ex. Doc. 129).

8 154 pp., VI Index, II Errata, 1 map in 2 sheets, sheet
profiles (2).

This report dated Washington, July 31, 1854, contains no journal,
but a condensed statement by Whipple in first 87 pages, Appendix
A, pp. 87-100, and tables and Appendix B and C (tables), pp.

The party started from Napoleon, at the mouth of the Arkansas
River, and proceeded via Little Rock, Fort Smith, crossed the
Canadian, Cross Timbers, Anton Chico, past Tucumcari to Albu-
querque, Central New Mexico, Mojave Villages, up the Mojave
River, over the Cajon Pass to Los Angeles and concluded at San
Pedro. The party consisted of Lieut. J. C. Ives, Asst.; A. H.
Campbell, Asst. R. R. Engineer; Jules Marcou, geologist; H. B.
Mollhausen, topg. and artist; Dr. C. B. R. Kennerly, doctor and


naturalist; Dr. J. M. Bigelow, surgeon and botanist, and several

There are chapters written by Campbell, Marcou, Kennerly and
Bigelow. D. S. Stanley of the 2nd Dragoons commanded the
escort. According to Whipple, L. Blod,get in Washington com-
piled a climatological map from observations made during the
survey, which accompanied the report but was not printed.

Antoine Leroux was the guide from Albuquerque to the coast.
As this route was to be the government route in case the territory
south of the Gila could not be obtained from the Mexican govern-
ment, it received a large share of official attention. The report
was republished in vol. Ill of the 4 edition of the Pacific R. R.

The contents of the revised report follows: X VII, (1) pp.
Part I, Journal not previously printed, 136 pp., 10 plates of scen-
ery (five by Mollhausen, 1 by Campbell, 3 by J. C. Tidbale, and 1
without name, probably by Mollhausen), colored and lithographed
by Sarony. Part II, Report of Topographical Features. Wash.,
1856. 77 pp., 2 colored plates and 8 plates of diagrams (not pre-
viously published, probably by Campbell). Part III, Report on
the Indian Tribes by Whipple, Thomas Ewbank, and Prof. W. W.
Turner, 1855. Front, colored view of Colorado near Mojave
Village, by Campbell, (probably belongs in Part II), 127 pp., 7
colored plates by Mollhausen. Part IV, Report of the Geology of
the Route, by W. P. Blake, 1856. VII (1) pp., 2 sheets errata,
general report (2), 164 pp., resume of a geological reconnaisance
from Napoleon to Los Angeles, by Jules Marcou, pp. 165-175, 3
plates, (1 scenery, 2 fossls), 3 geological maps. In vol. XI are the
2 general maps and sheet of profiles. Part V (vol. IV), Botany
of the Expedition, Wash., 1856, by Dr. J. M. Bigelow, John Tor-
rey, Dr. Gep. Engelmann and W. S. Sullivant. VII, 193 pp., large
sheet botanical profile (colored), by Dr. Bigelow. 24 sheets cact-
aceae, 25 plates plants (no. X, should be XI), 10 plates mosses, by
Ackerman. Part VI (in vol. IV), Report on The Zoology of the
Expedition. Washington, 1856. Field notes and explanation by
C. B. R. Kennerly. 17 pp. Appendices Observations, 288 pp.
Part VI, No. 2 (in vol. X), Zoological Report. Washington, 1859.
64 pp. 6 plates mammals, 11 colored birds, 3 reptiles, 14 fishes.
(All called for and described in list; no. XIII of mammals in
place of VIII, probably misprint in the list).

It will be seen that Marcou did not write the geological report.
The reason for this he gives in his Geology of North America.
Zurich, 1858. 4 VI (2), 144 pp., Geological map U. S., Geological
map New Mexico. 7 plates, map of United States (copy of one
by Maclure, printed in Paris in 1811). In this Marcou reprints his
preliminary report in the 8 edition with extensive notes : A Report
on Pope's Exploration made at the request of Pope from observa-
tions, and a general description of fossils and geology in the
West from his observations while with Lieut. Whipple. The book
also contains an exhaustive history of American geology with a

Mr. Mollhausen also published a book on this expedition after
his return to Germany. 221


Report Of Exploration Of A Route For The Pacific


Railroad, Near The Thirty-Second Parallel Of Latitude,
From The Red River To The Rio Grande. By Brevet Cap-
tain John Pope, Corps of Topographical Engineers.

[Washington: Nicholson, 1855.] (In 33rd Cong., 1st
Sess., House Ex. Doc. 129).

8 324 pp. General map with profile on same sheet.

Contents :

Pages 1-4, Title and Contents; 5-64, Report by Pope;
66-122, Diary by J. H. Byrne ; 123-4, Tables of Camps ;
125-8, Letters by Jules Marcou with Geology; 129-31, Let-
ters by Baird & Booth; 132-306, Tables; 307-324, Cata-
logues of Plants by Dr. Torrey.

Report dated Wash., Oct. 17, 1854.

The expedition left Dona Ana Feb. 12, 1854, consisting of Cap-
tain Pope, Lieut. K. Garrard, assistant engineer, Capt. C. S. Tap-
lin, mineralogist, Dr. W. S. Diffendorfer, surgeon and naturalist,
John Byrne, computer, and Lieut. L. H. Marshall in command of
the escort. Reached Preston, Texas, May 15. Byrne says they
could obtain no one as guide who had been over the route.

Reprinted in Vol. II of the 4 edition of the Pacific R- R. Sur-
veys. IV, (2), 185 pp., 10 plates botany. (Report by Torrey &
Gray, pp. 157-178, index 179-185). Geology of the route by W. P.
Blake. Leaf explanation, 44 pp., index 45-50, geological map and
geological section. In vol. XI, large map with profile at the

No extended scientific reports on this expedition seem to have
been made, at least none were printed^. Probably what notes were
made were used in the compilaton of the general scentific re-
ports on the whole explorations. 222


Report of Explorations For That Portion Of A Railway
Route, Near The Thirty-Second Parallel Of Latitude, Lying
Between Dona Ana, On The Rio Grande, And Pimas Val-
lages, On The Gila. By Lieut. Jno. G. Parke, U. S. A.,
Corps Topographical Engineers.

[Washington: Nicholson, 1855.] (In 33rd Cong., 1st
Sess., House Ex. Doc. 129).

8 Title, 53 pp. Map of survey and sheet of profiles.

Contents :

Pages 3-24, Journal ; 24-32, Barometric measurements ;
33-53, Extracts from Report of Lt. Col. Emory of a Military
Reconnaisance made in 1846 and 1847.

Party started from San Diego January 24, 1854, consisting of
Parke, Henry Custer, assistant and topographer, Dr. A. Heermann,
physician and naturalist, Lieut. George Stoneman, in command of
the escort. Went by Warner's Ranch to Fort Yuma and up the


Gila. From the Pimas Villages to Tucson and thence over the
southern route to Ft. Fillmore.

Republished in the quarto edition, Pacific R. R. Surveys, vol.
II in 28 pp. and the Emory extract separately in 22 pp. No maps
published in this edition with this report.

Drs. Heermann and Hallowell submitted a report on birds and
reptiles, printed in 1859 in vol. X of the 4 edition in 24 pp. with
3 colored plates of birds and 1 of reptiles. Bird plates No. 1, IV,
VI; reptiles No. II. According to Hasse, however, there should
be 6 of birds, although the list only calls for 3, which are all that
are described

In 1854 Parke made another survey from San Jose, Calif., via
the coast route to Los Angeles. Started again from San Diego
May 26th and followed the emigrant road to Ft. Yuma and went
over most of the ground of the 1854 survey to Ft. Fillmore. No
journal with this report, which occurs in the 4 edition, vol. VII.
22 (2), 42 pp. (Part I), 8 colored plates of scenery by A. H.
Campbell. (Lith. by A. Hoen, Baltimore, Wash., 1856).

Part II, Geology by Dr. Thomas Antisell, 204 pp. Antisell's
report to page 188; T. A. Conrad on palaeontology, 189-196; 10
plates fossils. Order of strata and explanation of plate, 197-204;
14 plates geological sections. (Colored) geological map San
Francisco to Los Angeles, along route of Parke to accompany
Thos. Antisell's Report. (Colored) geological plan and section
from Rio Grande to Pimas Villages, route of Parke. Part III,
Botany by John Torrey, Wash., 1856. 28 pp., 8 plates. Appendix
A, Meteorology Remarks on meteorology by A. H. Compbell ;
14 pp., 11 plates. Appendix B, Engineer Charles H. Poole's Re-
port, pp. 15-28. Appendix C, pp. 29-30, Trans, of a Document from
the Spanish archives. Appendix D, pp. 31-116, tables. 2 maps and
sheet of profile (vol. XI). This last report of Parke's was printed
in 1857. 223


Synopsis Of A Report Of The Reconnaisance Of A Rail-
road Route From Puget Sound Via South Pass To The
Mississippi River. By Fred W. Lander, Civil Engineer.

Washington, D. C., 1856. (In 33rd Cong., 1st Sess.,
House Ex. Doc. 129).

Vol. II of the Pacific R. R. Surveys 4 edition.

4 45 pp.

This expedition was a volunteer enterprise of Lander who after
going to 'the coast with the Stevens expedition evidently wished
the government to pay his expenses back. He got the Washington
legislature to endorse him and tried to get Congress to pay the
bill. This report is stated to be revised since first transmitted to
the War Department. It was first printed as a part of House
Doc. 129, 33rd Cong., 1st Sess.

Lander took 24 pages to expound his views of how best to con-
struct a transcontinental railroad from both a financial and engi-
neering standpoint ; then follow pp. 25-28 as to why the northern
route is not acceptable, and finally pp. 29-45 mentions briefly his
movements, but on the whole in reading this which purports to


be a reconnaisance, one gains the impression that Lander re-
turned to the East by water. His maps were never published.

I have never seen the original Lander report published in
octavo as part of Doc. 129, the bound volume of documents con-
taining it being missing in the public institutions here.

Feb. 13, 1858 Lander addressed a letter to the Secretary of
the Interior, enclosing a report on the "Practicability of Railroads
Through The South Pass," published, as a letter of the Secretary
of the Interior, 35th Cong., 1st Sess. House Ex. Doc. No. 70. 8"
20 pp. Lander also published, Remarks on the Construction of a
Firt-Class, Double Track Railway to the Pacific and the Diffi-
culties attending its Solution, etc. Washington, 1854. 8 14 pp.,
including title. P. P. W. 224


The Fur Hunters Of The Far West ; A Narrative Of Ad-
ventures In The Oregon And Rocky Mountains. By Alex-
ander Ross, .... In 2 Volumes.

London : Smith, Elder & Co., .... 1855.

8 pp. XV, 333 ; VIII, 262 ; Port. Ross, Plate and Map.

Map Of The Oregon to illustrate Ross's Fur Hunters Of
the Far West. Eng. by Ford & West.

Ross was with the Astor Company but joined the Northwest
Co. on the breaking up of the Astor enterprise.

Left the Pacific in 1825 and went to Red River Settlement, hav-
ing received the grant of 100 acres there from Gov. Simpson.
Gives a good account of his overland journey.

In 1856 Ross Published: The Red River Settlement; Its Rise,
Progress, And Present State. With Some Account of The Native
Races And Its General History, To The Present Day. By Alex-
ander Ross, .... London : Smith, Elder & Co., .... 1856. 8
Front. (Upper Ft. Garry) XVI, 416 pp.

This brings the history down to about 1850. 225


Hudson's Bay; Or, A Missionary Tour In The Territory
Of The Hon. Hudson's Bay Company, By The Rev. John
Ryerson, Co-Delegate, and Deputation To The Wesleyan
Missions In Hudson's Bay : With Brief Missionary Mem-
orials and Illustrations.

Toronto: Published By G. R. Sanderson 1855.

18 XXIV (incl. title); 190 pp. Port, of Ryerson and 9
other plates.

Ryerson went in from Ft. William to Red River and thence to
Norway House and Rossville, thence to York Factory on his way
to England. Occupied the summer of 1854. 226



The Life And Adventures Of James P. Beckwourth,
Mountaineer, Scout, And Pioneer, And Chief Of The Crow
Nation Of Indians. With Illustrations. Written From His
Own Dictation, By T. D. Bonner.

New York: Harpers, .... 1856.

12 XII, 13-537 pp., Port. Beckwourth, 12 other plates.

The essential truth of this narrative is corroborated by refer-
ence to other writers who frequently mention Beckwourth and his
exploits. He embarked on mountain life in 1822 with Ashley's
company. Party left St. Louis Oct. llth but this time he did not
reach the mountains, haying to return with Harris. Next May,
however, he started again with Ashley, was on the Green River
with him and returned with him via the Yellowstone in 1825.
Found Major Pilcher in charge at Ft. Lookout. Speaks of Stewart
visiting him with Harrison and Fitzpatrick and a Mr. Brotherton.
Relates an experience with Stewart, pp. 278-282.

In 1840 went to New Mexico and began trading on his own
account and in 1842 settled at Pueblo, which with some other fur
trappers, he built.

Claimed to have arrived in Los Angeles, Calif., in January. 1844,
but returned to Pueblo in 1846. Afterward lived in California in
Beckwourth Valley. Bancroft says he died in the North Platte
country in 1867, aged about 70. 227


Incidents Of Travel And Adventure In The Far West:
With Col. Fremont's Last Expedition Across The Rocky
Mountains : Including Three Months' Residence In Utah,
And A Perilous Trip Across The Great American Desert,
To The Pacific. By S. N. Carvalho, Artist to the Expedi-

New York: Derby & Jackson. London: Sampson
Low, Son & Co. 1856.

12 Title and half title, VII-XV, 17-380 pp.

I think this should have a front, as all the American printed
copies I have seen which bear date of 1857 have a plate.

Went as artist with Fremont's expedition of 1853. Left N. Y.
Sept. 5th and Westport about the 23rd. Traveled by Bent's Fort
at Big Timber and arrived at Parowan, Salt Lake Valley Feb.
8th, having traveled principally over Beale's and Gunnison's track.
At Parowan Carvalho and Egloffstein left Fremont, who continued
to California. May 5, 1854, via the southern route. Crossed Cajon
Pass to San Bernardino, where he arrived June 9th and thence to
Los Angeles.

Carvalho was an artist, but I have not seen any sketches made
by him on this expedition. 228


Scenes And Adventures In The Army; Or, Romance Of


Military Life. By P. St. G. Cooke, Colonel Second
Dragoons, U. S. A.

Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston. 1856.

12 XII, 13-342 pp.

Cooke started his prairie life in 1829 as lieutenant in the expe-
dition to the boundary to escort the Santa Fe traders. In 1831
he made a trip overland to the Platte and to the Missouri at
Cabanne's a few miles below old Ft. Atkinson at Council Bluffs.
Gives a long account of Hugh Glass's adventures.

In 1843 was on a western trip to escort caravan to Santa Fe.

In 1845 (May 23rd), started from Ft. Leavenworth to escort the
Oregon emigrants. Arrived at Ft. Laramie June 14th, Colonel
Kearny in command. Crossed the South Pass and on July 1st
started to return, Fitzpatrick as guide. July 8th met Walker on
his way to California. Says he was married to a squaw or squaws,
but of much natural ability. July 29th arrived at Bent's Fort and
Aug. 24th at Ft. Leavenworth. Book ends with his arrival there.

In spite of the copyright of 1856, I have seen this book cata-
logued as of 1847, but have never seen any edition earlier than
1857. 229


Mormonism Unveiled : Or a Peep into the Practices of
the Latter Day Saints, by a Deluded Brother of the Sect,
.... By J. Davis.

Bristol [Eng.] 1856.

12 48 pp.

Gives an account of his trip to Louisiana and across the plains
to Utah. (Not seen). *230


The Mormons At Home ; With some Incidents of Travel
from Missouri To California, 1852-3. In a Series Of Letters.
By Mrs. B. G. Ferris (wife of the late U. S. Secretary for

New York: Dix & Edwards, .... 1856.
12 VIII, 299 pp.

Left Independence Aug. 23, 1852, and arrived at Salt Lake be-
fore Oct. 30th. May 5th, 1853, left for California via the Hum-
boldt and Carson Valley and apparently Lassen Pass. 231


Survey Of A Route For The Southern Pacific R. R. On
the 32nd Parallel, By A. B. Gray, For The Texas Western
R. R. Company.

Cincinnati, O. : Wrightson & Co 1856.


8 110 pp. slip errata, 3 maps, 32 views of scenery.

Preliminary Map to accompany Report of A. B. Gray of
the Route of the Texas Western Railroad In Connection
With The Line Of The Southern Pacific, 1856. Lith. by
Middleton, Wallace & Co., Cine., who also lithographed
the Plates and the Map of the World.

The World, Illustrating the Courses of Trade.

Port of San Diego. Lith. by J. Bien, N. Y.

Plates after drawings by Chas. Schuchard, a Texan. They are
very good.

Gray's report is dated N. Y., Feb., 1855, but it was not printed
until after May 10th (see R. R. Record, Oct. 18).

The views of Ft. Yuma and ruins of Mission of Tumacacari
and Calabazas appeared also in the Report of the Sonora Explor-
ing and Mining Co., Cine., 1856. The mining company was backed
by the same interests as the railroad. Major Heintzelman, Poston,
Ehrenberg, Brunckow being the active operators of the mining
operations and indeed -the promoters thereof. (See the Sonora
Go's, report for 1856 for Charles D. Poston's account of his jour-
ney in the summer of 1856 from Ft. Thorn to Tubac). 232


The Kansas Region : Forest, Prairie, Desert, Mountain,
Vale, and River. Descriptions Of Scenery, Climate, Wild
Productions, Capabilities of Soil, And Commercial Re-
sources ; Interspersed With Incidents Of Travel, And Anec-
dotes Illustrative of the Character of the Traders and Red
Men ; To Which Are Added Directions As To Routes, Out-
fit For The Pioneer, and Sketches of Desirable Localities
for Present Settlement. By Max Greene.

New York : Fowler and Wells, .... 1856.

12 VIII, 9-192. 2 maps.


[As front.] [Map of Kansas and adjacent regions] (HO
title). Marked: Aerography. J. H. Colton & Co., New

East Kansas (occupies pages 169-70 in the pagination).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 15 16 17

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