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the Indian Record without name.

The chart is a geological one showing 2 Sections on the
35th and 41st Parallels.

1. War dance in the interior of a Konza lodge;

2. Oto Council;

3. View of the Rocky Mountains on the Platte, 50 miles
from their base ;

4. View of the Castle Rock, etc. ;

5. Moveable skin lodges of the Kaskaias ;

6. Oto Encampment;

7. Indian Record of a battle between the Pawnees and
Konzas delineated on a bison robe;

8. View of the insulated table lands at the foot of the
Rocky Mountains.

The Atlas is dated 1822 and the Appendix to Vol. II has a new
title, "Astronomical and meteorological records, and vocabularies
of Indian Languages, Taken on the Expedition for Exploring the
Mississippi and Its Western Waters, Under the Command of
Major S. H. Long, of the United States' Topographical Engineers,
In 1819 and 1820. Philadelphia, 1822."

In the London edition published the same year, most, if not
all, of the plates were re-engraved, and the two maps combined in
one. The Oto Encampment was replaced by the Pawnee Council.
A new plate, Distant View of the Rocky Mts., replaces No. 3.
Three new plates appear, the Kiowa Council, a plate with three
Indian portraits, and View of the Chasm through which the
Platte issues from the Rocky Mountains, Nos. 1, 2, and 7 remain.
No. 5 appears as wood cut in the text. All the new plates were
after sketches of S. Seymour. A note on page 188, Vol. Ill, states
that Seymour made 150 views of which 60 were finished.

The expedition was planned to go to the Yellowstone and
when it started was called the Yellowstone Expedition, having at
its command the famous "Western Engineer," the first steamboat
to ascend the Missouri.

The party spent the winter of 1819-20 near Ft. Lisa, five miles
below Council Bluffs. Long went to Washington during the
winter, returning to the encampment in May accompanied by
Capt. John R. Bell and Edwin James. The war department had
meantime changed the destination of the expedition to an excur-
sion by land to the sourse of the Platte and thence by the Arkan-
sas and Red rivers to the Mississippi. Up to this point Thomas
Say, who kept a journal of the expedition seems to have furnished
the narrative as he did a later part, that of Capt. Bell's expedition
down the Arkansas. Capt. John R. Bell kept a journal of the
expedition from this point, which James says he did not consult, as
it had been submitted to the Secretary of War. Nevertheless Rev.
Jedediah Morse consulted it, (see his Report to the Secretary



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 15



of War on Indian Affairs. New Haven, 1822, page 240 et. seq.) and
it has been referred to by later writers.

Major Long's own report or part of it occupies pp. 331-383 of
Vol. II, followed by the geological report, pp. 384-442, written also
by Long. A note on page 271, Vol. Ill, of the London edition
says these last observations are extracted from a report drawn up
by Long at Smithland, Ky., 1820 [1821]. 22

BENTON, THOMAS H.

In Senate of the U. S. March 18, 1824, Mr. Benton from
the Committee on Indian Affairs Communicated the Fol-
lowing Documents.

18th Cong. 1st Sess. Sen. Doc. 56.

8 20 pp.

This committee had under consideration the advisability of
placing a military post either at the mouth of the Yellowstone
River or the Falls of the Missouri or the mouth of Marias River.

It contains a letter from Calhoun in answer to a query by the
Committee in which he refers to his reports in State papers, 15th
Cong. 2nd Sess.. Vol. I, No. 25, and State papers, 16th Cong. 1st
Sess., Vol. 10, No. 24; letter of Thomas S. Jessup on expense of
moving a detachment of troops to the site of the proposed fort ;
an answer to the queries by R. Graham, Indian agent to the
Blackfopt Indians on the trapping expeditions to the Rocky
Mountains and the attack on Ashley by the Aricaras.

The bulk of the report consists, however, of Major Pitcher's
answer. He had been four years connected with the Missouri Fur
Company, but his personal knowledge only extended to the Man-
da villages. There had been no traders to the Blackfoot Indians
between 1810 and '11 up to the Immel-Jones expedition of the
Missouri Fur Company in 1822. The greater part of Pilcher's
answer is devoted to the history of the Aricara troubles and his
views as to the methods of handling the various Indians in the
Northwest.

On April 26 of the same session, Benton's committee laid on the
table further documents (document 71, 8 8pp), containing among
other documents, a letter from R. T. Holliday, clerk of the Co-
lumbia Fur Co., dated at Lake Traverse, on some reported killings
by the Aricara Indians. *23



STORRS, AUGUSTUS

Trade between Missouri and Mexico. Presented to the
Senate, Jan'y 3 by Mr. Benton. Answers of Augustus
Storrs to queries addressed to him by the Hon. Thomas H.

Benton, on the origin, present state, and future

prospect of trade and intercourse between Missouri and the
internal provinces of Mexico.

Niles Reg. Jan'y 15, 1825.

Storrs had gone on a trading expedition to Santa Fe the previ-
ous summer and describes the route, character of the country, the



16 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



trade, condition of New Mexico and Indian depredations on the
traders. It is dated Franklin, (Mo.), Nov. 1824, and is an extreme-
ly valuable, interesting document. About this time began the agi-
tation for a road to Santa Fe and military protection for the
caravans. 24



BAYLIES, FRANCIS

Northwest Coast of America. May 15, 1826. Referred,
.... Mr. Baylies from the Select Committee, .... made
the following Report: [Baylies 2nd Report].
19th Cong. 1st Sess. H. Rep. 213.
8, 22 pp.

The report gives an account of a journey by Samuel Adams
Ruddock in 1821 from Council Bluffs to the mouth of the Colum-
bia. The trading party left after May 12th. The route was up'
the Platte, which they crossed just below the forks, and thence
southwest 410 miles to Santa Fe, arriving there January 8th and
on the 9th they left, up the Chama River, on to Lake Trinidad,
and thence to Lake Timpanogos, which he says is intersected by
the 42nd degree, thence he followed down the Multnomah, flowing
out of this lake, to its junction with the Columbia, and reached
the mouth of the Columbia August 1st.

After a resume of the history of discovery on the West Coast
follow extracts from the log book of the ship Columbia, Captain
Robert Gray, 1792, and a further examination of the discoveries of
Drake, Vancouver, etc. 25*



[EXPEDITION UP THE MISSOURI]

Letter from the Secretary of War transmitting informa-
tion requested by a resolution of the House of Rep. of the
1st inst. Reporting the Movements of the Expedition which
lately ascended the Missouri River, .... March 6, 1826.
Read, ....

Washington: Gales and Seaton. 1826. (19 Cong. 1 Ses.
H. R. Doc. 117).

8, 16 pp.

H. Atkinson's report to Major General Brown, dated Nov.
23, 1825.

There is a very slight account of the expedition, the report
being chifly devoted to the Indian tribes, fur trade, etc. The
expedition left Council Bluffs May 14 and reached the mouth of
the Yellowstone Aug. 6. Ashley met the party at this point on his
return from the mountains with an immense supply of furs and
returned with them.

Atkinson and O'Fallon were the commissioners to make
treaties with the Indians and their report to the Secretary of War
contains a history of the expedition, the treaties made, etc. It
occurs 19 Cong., 1 Sess. Sen. Ex. Doc. (Reprinted in Am. State
Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. 2, pp. 595-609). *26



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 17

[DISCOVERY OF YELLOWSTONE PARK]

From The West. Sweet Lake, July 8, 1827.

Niles Register, Oct. 6, 1827, (from the Phila. Gazette).

This letter contains an account of a journey by a trapper prob-
ably from rendezvouz to what is now known as Yellowstone Park
some time in the summer or fall of 1826. It describes briefly the
lake, hot springs and geysers and mentions the explosions every
day. From the last sentence, in which he says "tomorrow I depart
for the west," it might be inferred that the writer accompanied
J. S. Smith to California who left the camp on Bear Lake July
13.

For Jim Bridger's story of the park see General Dodge's Biog-
raphical Sketch of James Bridger, N. Y., 1905, a truly appreciative
work. 27

FRANKLIN, JOHN

Narrative Of A Second Expedition to the Shores Of The
Polar Sea, In The Years 1825, 1826, And 1827, By John
Franklin, Captain R. N., F. R. S., . . . Commander Of The
Expedition, Including- the Account Of The Progress Of A
Detachment to The Eastward, By John Richardson, M. D.,
F. R. S., F. L. S., . .. . . Surgeon and Naturalist To The
Expedition. Illustrated By Numerous Plates and Maps.

Published by Authority of the Right Honorable The Sec-
retary of State For Colonial Affairs. London: John Mur-
ray ..... MDCCCXXVIII.

4 XXIV, 320, CLVII, Leaf Err. 6 Maps, 21 Plates.
Maps:

Route of the Expedition A. D. 1825 From Ft. Williams
to the Saskatchewan.

Route of the Expedition from York Factory to Cumber-
land House, .... in 1819-20.

Route of the expedition from Isle La Crosse to Ft. Provi-
dence, .... in 1819-20.

Route of the Land Arctic Expedition Great Slave Lake
to Gt. Bear Lake, 1825.

Discoveries of the Expedition, 1825-26.

Map showing the Discoveries made by British Officers
in the Arctic Region, 1818-1826.

The plates are very fine engravings by Ed. Finden, after
sketches by Capt. Back and E. N. Kendall. I have a note to the
effect that Thomas Drummond's journal kept of the Rocky
Mountains was printed in volume 1 of the Botanical Miscel-
lany in London, 1820, but I have not been able to locate a copy of
the book. Drummond was in Texas in 1834 and some very inter-
esting letters from him are published in Vol. 1, pp. 39-46 of the
Companion to the Botanical Magazine. He died in Hawaii March,
1835.



18 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



Besides Franklin's and Richardson's accounts including the
Athabasca district and the voyage back, pp. 308-13 contain Thomas
Drummond's account of his exploration in the Rocky Mountains,
1825- March, 1827. 28

SMITH, JED. S.

Excursion A L'Ouest Des Monts Rocky, Evtrait d'une
lettre de M. Jedidiah Smith .... Saint Louis .... 11
Oct. 1827.

In Nouvelles Annales de Voyages. Paris, 1828, Vol. 37,
(also numbered vol. 7 of the 2nd series), pp. 208-12.

The letter was addressed to General Clark and published in the
Missouri Republican of October 11, 1827. It is the only
published writing of Smith which we can positively identify,
and describes his route from Salt Lake past Little Salt
Lake and apparently to the junction of the Virgin with the
Colorado; thence parallel to the Colorado to the Mohave and by
that river over the mountains to Los Angeles.

Smith's route is discussed in Bancroft's Hist. California, Vol.
II, pp. 152; Hist. Soc. South Cal. Ill, 1896 by J. M. Guinn; Pioneer
Mag. S. F. Nov., 1855, by J. W. in an article on American Pioneers
of California; and lately by Dale in his book on Smith.

There are very few contemporary notices of Smith. Mr. H. C.
Dale has collected about all the information to be found, in his
book entitled "The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery
of a Central Route to the Pacific, 1822-29," published in Cleve-
land in 1918. Shortly after Smith's death, however, a eulogy of
him was printed in the Illinois Magazine (June, 1832) by an
unknown author but who was, as he states, one of Smith's latest
friends, but it does not give much information regarding his
career. The St. Louis Beacon of Oct. 7, 1830, (Niles Reg. Nov. 6,
1830) notices the return of Smith and Jackson, stating that Smith
had been out five years and had explored the country from the
Gulf of California to the mouth of the Columbia.

Curiously enough, Capt. Beachey seems to have met Smith
while he was in Monterey. He refers to the captain of a band
of American beaver trappers as very intelligent, stating that he
had received from him considerable valuable information
in regard to the character of the country beyond the Tulares.

In 1836 the Hon. Albert Gallatin published in the Archaeologia
Americana Vol. II, his "Synopsis of the Indian Tribes Within the
U. S., Etc." On pp. 140-142 occur the observations obtained from
General Ashley relating to the travels of Smith. Gallotin pub-
lished a map, the best of the western country to date of publi-
cation, and which remained the best for some time. This map
shows Smith's route to California, no doubt taken from a manu-
script map of Smith. There are several references to the map
of Smith which was in existence in the forties. Miss Drumm of
the Mo. Hist. Soc. informed me that they finally located the
family of the man who had owned it. only to learn that all his
papers had been lost in the fire at St. Louis in 1849. I am certain
that one of the departments at Washington received a map from
Smith or a copy of one of his, and it may yet be found in the
archives. 29*



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 19



BENTON, THOMAS H.

In Senate Of The United States. December 23, 1828.
Resolved, That the Committee of Indian Affairs be in-
structed to inquire into the present conditions of the fur
trade within the limits of the United States, etc., etc.

In Senate Of The United States. February 9, 1829. Read
and ordered printed. Mr. Benton Made The Following
Report.

20 Congress, 2nd Sess. [Sen.] Doc. 67.

8 19 pp.

Contains among other documents an interesting letter from W.
H. Ashley, St. Louis, November 12, 1827, and another by him Jan.
20, 1829, relating to movements and deaths of trappers in the
Rocky Mountains. Ashley refers to Peter Skeene Ogden. The
report also contains the letter of C. C. Cambreling of Jan. 12,
1829 and J. J. Astor's of Jan. 29, 1829.

There is a long account of Ashley's expedition of 1826 in Niles
Reg., Dec. 9, 1826, from the Missouri Herald. 30



RICHARDSON, JOHN

Fauna Boreali Americana ; or The Zoology of the
Northern Parts of British America: containing descriptions
of the objects of Natural History collected on the late
Northern Land Expeditions under command of Captain Sir

John Franklin, R. N. By John Richardson, M. D

Assisted by William Swanson, Esq., and the Reverend
William Kirby, M. A.

London : John Murray, MDCCCXXIX.

4 pp. XLVI (2), 300. 28 uncolored plates by Landseer,
numbered 1-24. Some signed by him. (This is Part 1,
The quadrupeds).

Plate 1, 1 B, 2-12, 12 B, 13-18, 18 B, 18 C, 19-24. 28
plates in all.

In the Introduction Richardson says he had spent seven sum-
mers and five winters in this country and gives a short account
of both expeditions. This introduction contains numerous refer-
ences to the exploration in the Rockies of Thos. Drummond, who
was ass't naturalist to the 2nd expedition and was left at Cumber-
land House in July, 1825. He spent the winter in the mountains
after crossing the Columbian portage road in April, 1826, again
revisited it and remained west of the mountains until August 10.
Visited the headwaters of Peace River. Wintered at Edmonton
and in 1827 returned to England via York Factory in company
with David Douglass who came over from the Columbia in the
spring. The descriptions of the animals in the H. B. Go's, terri-



20 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



tory are also largely from Drummond and many of his experiences
are related in describing them.

For Drummond's journal see Botanical Miscellany, Vol. 1.
(Probably 2nd series), 1830. 31*



RILEY, B.

Report of four companies of the sixth regiment of the
United States infantry, which left Jefferson Barracks, on
the 5th of May 1829 under the command of Brevet. Major
Riley, of the United States Army, for the protection of the
trade to Santa Fe. Cantonment Leavenworth Nov. 27, 1829.

Am. State Papers, Military Affairs, Vol. IV.

Pages 277-280. Signed, B. Riley. Probably separately printed
with some documents in Feb., 1830, as J. H. Eaton (Secy, of War)
communicates this to the President under date of Feb. 5, 1830, in
response to a resolution of the Senate of Feb. 2. Details of the
expedition in 1829 with an account of the attack by the Indians on
the caravan Aug. 1. They went as far as Chouteau's Island in the
Arkansas where they met the return caravan from Santa Fe under
escort of Col. Viscarra.

General Macomb's report on this expedition in a letter to Sec-
retary of War Eaton, dated Wash., Nov., 1829, in Niles Reg. Jan-
uary 9, 1830. 32



JAMES, EDWIN

A Narrative Of The Captivity And Adventures Of John
Tanner, (U. S. Interpreter At The Saut De Ste. Marie,)
During Thirty Years Residence Among The Indians In The
Interior Of North America. Prepared For The Press By
Edwin James, M. D. Editor of an Account of Major Long's
Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains.

New York : G. & C. & A. Carvill 1830.

8 426 pp. includ. title. Port of Tanner after a painting
by A. Inman.

Part II, pp. 233 end, contains comments on the Indians, their
language, catalogue of plants and animals, etc.

Tanner spent a part of his life in the Red River country and
the book contains a long account of the H. B. and Northwest
Companies. He spent much time on the Assiniboine at Turtle
Mountain and the Mandan Village. E. Coues, in his book on
Aleaxnder Henry, has checked up a good deal of Tanner's narra-
tive from Henry's Journal and thus been able to supply dates
which are totally lacking in the narrative. 33



COX, ROSS

Adventures On The Columbia River, Including The
Narrative Of A Residence Of Six Years On The Western



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 21



Side Of The Rocky Mountains, Among Various Tribes of
Indians Hitherto Unknown: Together With A Journey
Across The American Continent. By Ross Cox. 2 Vols.

London: Henry Colburn And Richard Bentley, 1831.

8 XXIV (Incl. Tit. & Hlf. Tit.), 368 pp.; VIII, (Incl.
Tit., Hlf. Tit.), 400 pp.

Arrived in Oregon via Sandwich Islands in the Beaver, May 9,
1812. Sketch of Hunt's overland trip. On dissolving of the
Pacific Fur Company, Cox joined the -Northwest Co. April 16, 1813.
He left for the East via the Columbia, crossed the mountains
January 1. down the Athabasca to Rocky Mountain House. Met
Peter Ogden at Fort Isle la Crosse, then to Cumberland House
on the Saskatchewan, then to the Winnipeg, then to Ft. William,
arriving there August 16.

The book gives a good account of the rivalry between the
Hudson Bay and Northwest Co. in the Northwest. 34

MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
STATES, In answer to a resolution of the Senate relative
to the British Establishments on the Columbia, and the
state of the fur trade, etc.

21 Cong. 2nd Sess. (Sen.) Doc. 39. Message dated Jan.
24, 1831.

8 36 pp.

Contains communications to J. H. Eaton by Ashley, Joshua
Pilcher, J. S. Smith, David E. Jackson and W. L. Sublette.

Pilcher gives an account of his expedition from Council Bluffs
September, 1827, to Bear Lake ; thence in July, 1828, to Lewis
River and Clark's Fork; wintered on Flathead Lake; February,
1829, went to Ft. Colville and returned with the Brigade via
Boat Encampment to the Athabasca; thence to Jasper's House, to
Ft. Assinaboine, to Edmonton, Ft. Pitt, Carlton House, Cumber-
land House and Red River Settlement; thence to Brandon House
and arrived at the Mandan Villages April 5, 1830. There met
Prince Paul of Wurtemberg.

Smith, Jackson and Sublette give an account of their trip
leaving St. Louis April 10, 1829, to the head of the Wind River
and return to St. Louis October 10. Also some account of
Smith's visit to Vancouver in 1828. This letter dated St. Louis,
October 30, 1830.

This is the most valuable account of movements in the Rocky
Mountains during this period. 35

PATTIE, JAMES OHIO

The Personal Narrative Of James O. Pattie, Of Ken-
tucky, During An Expedition From St. Louis, Through
The Vast Regions Between That Place And The Pacific
Ocean, And Thence Back Through The City Of Mexico To
Vera Cruz, During Juorneyings Of Six Years; In Which



22 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES

He And His Father, Who Accompanied Him, Suffered Un-
heard Of Hardships And Dangers, Had Various Conflicts
With The Indians, And Were Made Captives, In Which
Captivity His Father Died: Together With a Description
Of The Country, And The Various Nations Through
Which They Passed. Edited By Timothy Flint.

Cincinnati : Printed And Published by John H. Wood,
1831.

8 Title; III-VI (1), Editor's Preface; VII-XI (1) Int.;
13-300 pp. Plates (Copyrighted by Wood, Oct. 18, 1831).

Plates engraved by W. Woodruff, an early Western en-
graver, as follows:

Plates :

Rescue of an Indian Child.

Mr. Pattie Wounded by an Indian arrow.

Shooting Mr. Pattie's horse.

Messrs. Pattie and Stover rescued from famish.

Burial of Mr. Pattie.

The Pattie Narrative ends on page 253; on the reverse of this is
a note regarding Dr. Willard; 255-288 is an account of Willard's
tour entitled "Inland Trade with New Mexico"; and pp. 289-300
the "Downfall of the Fredonian Republic." Both these items were
reprinted from Flint's Western Monthly Review. From the ex-
tract from Willard's journal apparently his narrative was as inter-
esting as Pattie's, and more reliable.

Some doubt has been manifested as to the truth of the some-
what remarkable wanderings of Pattie through the mountains, but
probably in the main the story can be accepted as true, due al-
lowance being made for the lapse of time making occurrences
seem closer together than they really were. Possibly also some
allowance should be made for Flint's imagination.

Pattie really existed as Bancroft has demonstrated from the
California archives and, what is more, was in California at the
time, so it is fair to assume the rest of the narrative is at least
substantially true.

This book was copyrighted by Wood, who seems to have sold
very few copies, as only a few exist outside of the Cincinnati
Public Library and Cine. Hist. Society. In 1833 Flint's nephew,
who had started a bookstore in Cincinnati, evidently came into
possession of the unsold copies and printed a new title page and
for some unknown reason copyrighted the book again in his
own name. For this reason the 1833 imprint has been sup-
posed by most people to be first and is always quoted as the first
edition. In reality, as explained, it is not a new edition exactly,
but the same book with a different title page, bearing Flint's name
instead of that of Wood.

I have seen four variations of the copyright in the 1833 edition,
first copyrighted by Wood in 1831, second copyrighted by Wood in
1833, third copyrighted by Flint in 1831 and fourth copyrighted by
Flint in 1833. I have also seen a title printed in smaller letters
than the usual type employed, with the Wood 1833 copyright. 36



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 23



MESSAGES FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED
STATES In Compliance With a Resolution of the Senate
concerning the Fur Trade, and Inland Trade to Mexico.

Washington, Feb. 8, 1832. 22nd Cong. 1st Sess. Sen.
Ex. 90.

8 86 pp.

Contains Letter from Clark; Joshua Pilcher's Report, St. Louis,
Dec. 1, 1831, on the rise and present condition of the fur trade;
Communications from Andrew S. Hughes, and William Gordon of
Oct. 31, 1831, with an account of the Immel-Jones' outfit; Alphonso
Wetmore on the Santa Fe trade Oct. 11, 1831, with extracts from
his diary on the Santa Fe trail to New Mexico beginning May 28,
1828; Schoolcraft's Report, Oct. 24, 1831; John Dougherty's state-
ment; B. Riley's report on travelers killed on the Santa Fe trail
July 11, 1823 [1829?]; Thomas Forsyth's letter of Oct. 24, 1831,
with a slight history of the fur trade from 1800. *37



WYETH, JOHN B.

Oregon; Or A Short History Of A Long Journey From
The Atlantic Ocean To The Region Of The Pacific, By
Land; Drawn Up From The Notes And Oral Information
Of John B. Wyeth, One Of The Party Who Left Mr.
Nathaniel J. Wyeth, July 28th, 1832, Four Days' March
Beyond The Ridge Of The Rocky Mountains, And The
Only One Who Has Returned To New England.

Cambridge: Printed For John B. Wyeth, 1833.

12 Title and Half Title, 87 pp.

Cover Title: Wyeth's Oregon Expedition.

Left Boston March 1, 1832, and got back to Boston via St.
Louis and New Orleans Jan. 2, 1833.

The original journals of Capt. N. J. Wyeth, 1831-6, have been
printed by the Eugene, Or., University Press in 1899.

Mr. S. P. Sharpless printed an address on Capt. Wyeth in
Cambridge in 1907.

In Schoolcraft's Archives, Vol. I, pp. 205-228, N. J. Wyeth has
furnished a very valuable memoir on the Western Indians, char-
acter of country, etc.

The first account of the famous battle at Pierre's Hole, July
12, was brought back in the fall by Capt. Sublette and appeared


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