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in the Mo. Intelligencer, copied in Niles Reg. for Oct. 27, 1832,
page 130. 38



EVERETT, H.

Regulating The Indian Department. (To accompany
bills H. R. Nos. 488, 489, & 490). May 20, 1834. Mr. H.



24 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



Everett, from the Committee on Indian Affairs made the
following Report:

23 Cong. 1st Sess. H. R. Rep. No. 474.

8 131 pp. Map of the Western Territory.

Contains copies of the bills and many documents including
protest of Mr. Stokes, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and copy
of treaty made by Ellsworth at Ft. Leavenworth in 1833. Full
Report by Commissioner Henry L. Ellsworth, J. T. Schemerhorn
and Mr. Stokes. Letter from Wm. P. May, Aug. 25, 1833, on the
fur trade. The map is almost certainly by Isaac McCoy. 39



WHEELOCK, T. B.

[Journal of Colonel Dodge's expedition from Fort Gib-
son to the Pawnee Pict village.]

Printed in the Rept. of the Secy, of War attached to
President's Message of Dec. 2, 1834. Occupies pp. 73-93,
Sen. Ex. Doc. 1, 23 Cong. 2 Sess. Also in Am. State Papers
Military Affairs, Vol. V, pp. 373-382.

Signed by T. B. Wheelock, First Lieut. Dragoons. Dated Fort
Gibson, August 27, 1834. Contains an account of the expedition
to the Toyash village, the council with the Indians, etc. 40

EDWARDS, P. L.

Rocky Mountains Correspondence, From the Missouri
Engineer [Liberty].

In Niles Register, Oct. 11, 1834, Vol. 47, pp. 92.

Letter signed P. L. Edwards and dated Waters of the Colorado
of the West, June 23, 1834. Edwards went over with the Lees,
Nuttall & Townsend, the last two being mentioned. He says they
left Liberty April 25 and arrived at place of writing June 20.
Speaks well of Capt. Wyeth with whom they were traveling.
There is very little on the route, but an interesting description of
mountain men. The editor says Edwards was 21 or 22 years of
age and well known in Liberty. 41

PIKE, ALBERT

Prose Sketches And Poems, Written in the Western
Country, By Albert Pike.

Boston : Light & Horton. 1834.
12 VIII, pp. 9-200.

Preface is dated Ark. Territory 1 May, 1833.

Contains 80 pp. of a journey over the prairies to Santa Fe and
an account of Santa Fe and his residence there, the first published
account after Lieut. Pike's except that contained in the President's
Message of 1818.

Pike begins by recounting the experiences of one Aaron B.



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 25



Lewis, who left Fort Towson in Sept., 1831, for Santa Fe, quoting
from Lewis' Journal. He passed over from the False Wichita to
the Canadian and up that stream and after terrible suffering from
cold and hunger reached the settlements in early December. Next
summer Lewis went on a trapping expedition to the Colorado
Mountains. In the fall Pike joined Lewis and Irwin and others
on a return trip. They went down the Pecos and crossed over to
one of the headwaters of the Brazos and then northeast to Red
River. Reached Ft. Smith Dec. 10th. Bill Williams accompanied
them part of the way.

Pike himself, it seems, went out to Santa Fe by the trail in the
fall of 1831. 42



ARMIJO, ANTONIO

Itineraire Du Nord-Mexico A La Haute Californie,
Parcouru en 1829, et 1830 par soixante Mexicains.

In Bulletin De la Societe De Geographic. Deuxieme
Serie, Tome III, pp. 316-23, Mai. 1835.

Account of an expedition under command of Antonio Armijo
which left Abiquiu Nov. 7. 1829, and arrived at San Gabriel Jan.
31, 1830. Went by Arroyo de Chelli and Canon de San Bernardino.
On return left March 1 and arrived in Xemes, 25 April. Possibly
the opening of this route.

Translated from "Registro Oficial del Gobierno de los Estados-
Unidos Mexicanos, 1830." 43



BALL, JOHN

Remarks upon the Geology, and physical features of the
Country west of the Rocky Mountains, with Miscellaneous
facts ; by John Ball, of Troy, N. Y.

In The American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol.
XXVIII, No. 1, April, 1835.

Ball gives a short account of his trip to Oregon made in 1832.
He traveled from Lexington, Mo., along the Oregon trail via
South Pass to the Snake and then followed a course considerably
south of that river, but finally reached the river again to leave it
when the trail went west through the Grande Ronde to Walla
Walla. He traveled part of the way with Wm. Sublette but finally
reached Oregon with twelve companions. Ball spent the winter of
1832-3 teaching school at Ft. Vancouver and left on the H. B. Go's,
boat in Oct., 1833, for the Sandwich Islands via San Francisco
about which, however, he only says a few words. Finally reached
home in July, 1834, via Cape Horn.

In the same journal for January, 1834, Vol. XXV, No. 2, occurs
some preliminary remarks by Amos Eaton obtained from a letter
from Ball written at Ft. Vancouver, March 3, 1833.

See an interesting letter from John Ball dated Grand Rapids,
Mich., Oct. 14, 1874, in Contributions to the Historical Society
of Montana, Vol. I. 44



26 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



DUNBAR, JOHN

Extracts from the journal of Mr. Dunbar.

In Missionary Herald for 1835, Vol. 31, pp. 343, 376, 417.

John Dunbar and Samuel Allis were appointed missionaries to
the Pawnee Indians in 1834 and arrived at Leavenworth June 26,
1834. The extract from Dunbar's journal commences here, but the
principal portion printed refers to the Pawnee Indians, their
customs, location, hunts, character, etc., together with an account
of his own movements.

Some extracts from Allis' journal published in the Herald for
1836, Vol. 32, pp. 68. See Herald for 1838, Vol. 34, pp. 383 for Dun-
bar's account of a human sacrifice by the Pawnees. Dr. Benedict
Satterlee communicated to the Board an account of his journey
from Bellevue to .the Pawnee villages with Dunbar in June 1836.
Miss. Herald for 1837, Vol. 33, pp. 74. Doctor Satterlee went on
an expedition to the Cheyenne Indians and was killed probably by
white men. See Miss. Herald, Vol. 33, pp. 348, and Vol. 34, pp. 385.

45

IRVING, JOHN T, JR.

Indian Sketches, Taken During- An Expedition To The
Pawnee Tribes. By John T. Irving, Jr. In Two Vol.

Philadelphia : Carey, Lea & Blanchard, 1835.

12 Title leaf, ded., 9-232 pp. ; Title, 5-296 pp. [No. con-
tents in this edition].

A government party, under charge of Mr. Ellsworth as Com-
missioner, in 1833, made a trip to the Otoe Pawnee villages. Irv-
ing accompanied the party, also Major Dougherty from Fort
Leavenworth. He tells the story of the council at the Pawnee
village, the signing of peace and incidentally tells the tale of the
"human sacrifice" afterward so famous. 46



IRVING, WASHINGTON

The Crayon Miscellany. By The Author Of the Sketch
Book No. 1. Containing A Tour on the Prairies.
Philadelphia: Carey, Lea, & Blanchard, 1835.
12 XV, 17-274 pp.

Accompanied Ellsworth, the Indian Commissioner, on his tour
in the fall of 1832. Went up the Missouri with Ellsworth, to the
Osage Agency at Ft. Gibson and then for a few weeks to the
Pawnee Hunting Grounds, returning to Ft. Gibson. Latrobe also
accompanied this party. See Irving's letter regarding the trip
Dec. 18, 1832, Washington, originally printed in the London
Athenaeum and reprinted in Missouri Hist. Rev. Oct., 1910. 47

LATROBE, CHAS. JOSEPH

The Rambler in North America; MDCCCXXXII-MDCC
CXXXIII. By Chas. Joseph Latrobe.



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 27

Published By R. B. Seeley And W. Burnside ; London,
MDCCCXXXV.

12 pp. (6) inc. title and half title, VII-X1, 321 ; (4) and
title and half title, V-VIII, 326 pp. ; map.

My copy original bds. contains no map, nor have I seen a copy
with one.

Accompanied Washington Irving in his tour on the prairies.

A much fuller and more entertaining account of this trip with
Ellsworth in 1832 than Irving's. Colonel Chouteau, Ellsworth,
Irving and Count Pourtales comprised the party. After returning
from his trip to the Canadian, Latrobe went down the Arkansas
in a canoe and arrived at Little Rock Dec. 9, where he took a
steamboat. In 1833 Latrobe made an overland journey to Prairie
du Chien, thence to St. Peters, Ft. Snelling and back by river to
St. Louis. 48



PAUL WILHELM, HERZOG von WURTEMBURG

Erste Reise nach dem nordlichen Amerika in den Jahren
1822 bis 1824 von Paul Wilhelm, Herzog von Wurtemburg.

Stuttgart und Tubingen, J. G. Cotta .... 1835.

8 VI, 394 pp. Leaf Errata, Map.
Map:

Louisiana Verlag, J. G. Cotta.

Visited the Osages and made a trip up the Missouri to Council
Bluffs, afterward visiting the Pawnees and Otoes. A considerable
part of this book is devoted to this expedition and his remarks on
the Indians.

In 1830 Prince Paul made a second trip, this time to the Yel-
lowstone. Beyond a few notes referring to this second expedi-
tion in 1830 attached to the above, I have seen nothing published
about it. 49



HOOKER, W. J.

A Brief Memoir of the Life of Mr. David Douglas, with
Extracts from his Letters.

This occupies pages 79 to 182 of Vol. II of the Com-
panion to the Botanical Magazine and the frontispiece to
the Volume is a steel portrait of Douglas. The Companion
to the Botanical Magazine was published in London for
the proprietor, Samuel Curtis, 1835-6.

Douglas made two trips to the Pacific coast and the journal
of the first trip was in possession of the Horticultural Society of
London under whose auspices he was sent on the botanizing ex-
pedition. Hooker prints what he infers are extracts from this
journal, but it is the most extensive account of the Northwest
that has been published to that date.

Douglas reached the mouth of the Columbia April 7, 1825, in



28 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



company with Dr. Scouler and made various journeys into the
Interior. He visited the upper Columbia and the Umpqua River in
Oregon. On March 27, 1828, he started overland with Dr.
McLaughlin, passed Boat Encampment April 27, Jasper, May
8 and Ft. Edmunton, May 21. He spent some time at the Red
River settlements and proceeded thence to England by York
Factory, arriving in Portsmouth on October 11. In the fall of
1829, Douglas again left England and arrived at Columbia on
January 3, 1830, leaving in December for California. He arrived
at Monterey on December 22 but no journal exists of his stay
in California, nor in the Northwest on this expedition. Supposed-
ly his journal was lost in an accident on the upper Fraser River
in 1833. He did, however, write two letters from Monterey to
Hooker, one in October and the other dated November 23, 1831.
The second one, which is almost entirely devoted to botany, was
printed by Hooker but the first, which Douglas states in a subse-
quent letter, details his travels in California and gave a brief
notice of the country, was not published. He left California in
August, 1832, and arrived at the Columbia about October 23, via
Sandwich Islands. In 1833 he made another trip into the Interior
after visiting Puget Sound. He left the Columbia October 18,
1834, and after touching at San Francisco arrived at the Sandwich
Islands December 23. His journal from October 18 to January
29 is printed. In July he was killed by falling into a cattle
pit, being trampled to death by a wild bull which had previously
fallen in.

Dr. W. J. Hooker, the author of the memoir, edited Douglas'
journals. 50



[HILDRETH, JAMES]

Dragoon Campaigns To The Rocky Mountains ; Being A
History Of The Enlistment, Organization, and First Cam-
paigns Of The Regiment Of United States Dragoons; To-
gether With Incidents Of A Soldier's Life And Sketches
Of Scenery And Indian Character, By A Dragoon.

New York: Wiley & Long, 1836.

8 pp. 288 inc. title.

Relates to Col. Dodge's Expedition to the Pawnee Villages in
1834. (See Dodge account annexed to Pres. Message, 28 Cong. 2
Sess. Senate Doc. 2, pp. 60.)

Expedition left Camp Burbees near Jefferson Barracks Nov. 20,
1833, for Fort Gibson, which they passed Dec. 16 or 17. April
26. 1834, orders came from Ft. Towson appointing Gen'l Leaven-
worth commander of all the troops on the frontier. C'apt. Whar-
ton's troops left Camp Jackson May 5, 1834, to escort the Santa
Fe traders to Santa Fe. Geo. Catlin accompanied the troops on
the Pawnee campaign and there is included a letter of his dated
Ft. Gibson, Jan. 12, 1834, about the time the expedition started.
Also another letter from Catlin, dated Ft. Gibson, September 8.
Page 236 gives a story about Mike Fink.

The Dragoons were organized in 1833 and headquarters estab-
lished at Jefferson Barracks. This was their first prairie cam-
paign. The headquarters during the winter of 1833 were at Ft.



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 29



Gibson; for distribution see Niles Reg. Aug. 2, 1834, from army
and navy chronicle.

On this expedition Gen. Leavenworth died, as well as Lieut.
McClure. For notices see Niles Reg., Aug. 30, Sept. 3, Sept. 6, Oct.
4. This last consists of a long letter from S. C. Stambaugh to the
Arkansas Gazette of Sept. 9. The letter is dated Fort Gibson,
Aug. 26, the expedition having returned Aug 15. Stambaugh ob-
tained his information from the returned officers and it is very
full. Kearny only got back with the sick from the post on the
Washita Aug. 25. There is another interesting account of the
expedition by an officer of the expedition from the Illinois Reg-
ister, reprinted in Niles, Aug. 8, 1835. The documents attached to
the report of the Secretary of War of Nov. 27, 1834, also contain
an account. Another unfavorable newspaper account from the
Missouri Republican, in Niles, Feb. 7, 1835. Stambaugh mentions
the return of Capt. Wharton and his company who had accom-
panied the Santa Fe traders some four weeks before. For this
expedition see Wharton's letter of Aug. 4 from Ft. Gibson, in
Niles Reg. Sept. 20, 1834, page 38.

The movements of the Dragoons are chronicled in Louis
Pelzer's "Marches of the Dragoons in the Missippi Valley." Iowa
City, 1917. 51

IRVING, WASHINGTON

Astoria, Or Anecdotes Of An Enterprise Beyond The
Rocky Mountains. By Washington Irving. In Two
Volumes.

Philadelphia : Carey, Lea & Blanchard, 1836.

8 pp. 6, VII-XII, 13-285; VIII, 9-279. Map.
Map:

Sketch of the Routes of Hunt & Stuart.

Vol. I, pp. 131 to Vol. II, pp. 77 contains an account of Hunt's
and Crooks' journey across the mountains from journals in the
possession of Mr. Astor, being part of Irving's history of Astor's
attempt to embark in the Northwest fur trade. Robt. Stuart
started back from Walla Walla July 31, 1812 and arrived next
year at St. Louis, April 30, by way of the Platte. Crooks and
McLellan in the party. (Occupies pp. 110-184 of Vol. II).

The Appendix to Vol. II, pp. 263-279 contains some documents
of great interest including some extracts from a manuscript by
Captain' Bonneville on the Western Indians, and notices of the
present state of the fur trade, chiefly extracted from an article
published in Silliman's Journal for January, 1834. See an able
review of this book by Caleb Gushing, N. A., Rev. Oct. 1837. 52

KING, RICHARD

Narratives of a Journey To the Shores of the Arctic
Ocean, in 1833, 1834 and 1835 ; under the command of Capt.
Back, R. N. By Richard King, R. N. 2 Vols.

London: Richard Bentley .... 1836.

8 pp. XV, 312, (1); VIII, 321, (1); 7 Plates.



30 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



See Niles Reg. Aug. 22, 1835, for an account from the Montreal
Gazette of their trip, Back having but recently returned.

Not seen, collation from Sabin. *53



[KINGSBURY, LIEUT. G.]

Journal of the Expedition of Dragoons, under the Com-
mand of Col. Henry Dodge, to the Rocky Mountains during
the Summer of 1835.

Washington, 1836. (24 Cong. 1st Sess. Sen. Ex. Doc.
209).

8 pp. 38. 2 maps.
Maps:

The maps which are of great rarity are :

Map showing Distribution of the Indians West of Mis-
souri and Arkansas and showing Dodge's route.

Map showing the lands assigned to the Emigrant Indians
West of Arkansas and Missouri. Prepared by the Bureau
Feb. 20, 1836.

This was reprinted with the maps in Am. State Papers,
Military Affairs, Vol. VI, pp. 130.

Left Ft. Leavenworth May 29, 1835, proceeded up the South
Platte to near the point where the river leaves the mountains;
thence to Fountain Creek up to Manitou, to Bent's Ft., returning
down the Arkansas to the Santa Fe Trail and thence to Ft.
Leavenworth, arriving there September 16. Lieut. Kingsbury kept
the journal.

See Niles Register Oct. 17, 1835, for extracts from letter from
R. B. Mason Sept. 6, from another Sept. 17 at Ft. Leavenworth
with some references to the expedition (Mason's letter in army
and navy chronicles). 54

PARKER, SAMUEL

Rocky Mountain Indians. Letter from Mr. Parker, Green
River, Aug. 17, 1835.

Missionary Herald for 1836, Vol. 32, pp. 70.

Some further communications from him in id. pp. 264, 445. Also
in Vol. 37 for 1837, pp. 123, 348, 369. 55

CORTAMBERT, LOUIS

Voyage Au Pays Des Osages. Un Tour En Sicile. Par
Louis Cortambert.

Paris, Chez Arthus Bertrand, MDCCCXXXVII.

8 94 pp. incl. half title and title. Colored wrappers,
same title.

Trip in 1835 to St. Louis, Independence, Osage Agency and



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 31



Union Mission where he said they had a press to print in
Cherokee and Greek, also Osage. 56

SPALDING, H. H.

Indians West of the Rocky Mountains.
Missionary Herald, Vol. 33, Boston, 1837.

In 1836 Dr. Whitman, Mr. Spalding and Mr. Gray went out to
Oregon. Several of Mr. Spalding's letters were printed in the
Missionary Herald of 1837 under the above caption. They give
an account of his experiences on his overland trip and they will
be found in the above volume, pp. 122, 421-428 and 497. A short
account of the return journey of W. H. Gray will be found on
page 476.

Vol. 34, pp. 92, same title, extracts from a letter by W. H.
Gray of January 10, 1838, with an extended account of the various
tribes of Indians in the Rocky Mountains and Oregon.

Mrs. Spalding kept a diary of this journey which has been
published in "Memoirs of the West. The Spaldings, By Eliza
Spalding Warren," Printed by the Marsh Printing Co., Portland,
Oregon, in 1917.

Spalding's original letters to the American Board of Commis-
sioners for Foreign Missions are still extant in their archives "and
extracts therefrom have been printed in Marshall's Acquisition of
Oregon. 57

IRVING, JOHN T.

The Hawk Chief. A Tale of the Indian Country. By
John T. Irving.

Philadelphia: Carey, Lea and Blanchard, 1837.
2 Vols. 12 pp. VIII, 13-246; (2) 8-254. (Sab.)

Not seen. 55*

IRVING, WASHINGTON

The Rocky Mountains : Or, Scenes, Incidents, And Ad-
ventures In The Far West ; Digested From The Journal Of
Capt B. L. E. Bonneville, Of The Army Of The United
States, And Illustrated From Various Other Sources. By
Washington Irving. In Two Volumes.

Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Blanchard. 1837.

12 pp. 9, XI-XVI, 17-248, Map; VII, 9-248, Map.
Maps:

Map of the Sources of the Colorado and Big Salt Lake,
Platte, Yellow-Stone, Muscle-Shell, Missouri ; and Salmon
and Snake Rivers, branches of the Columbia River. Eng.
by S. Stiles, N. Y.

Map of the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains.
Eng. by S. Stiles.



32 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



This book contains an account of the famous Walker expedi-
tion, presumably furnished by Bonneville himself. The account
does not agree entirely with other independent sources of infor-
mation from participants therein. The original accounts of this
expedition besides Irving' s account are as follows: Leonard,
Narrative 1839. Meek, in Mrs. Victor's River of the West.
Ruxton, Life in the Far West (probably by Mark Head).
Article in the Lewiston Morning Tribune, Mar. 3, 1918, entitled
"Recollections of William Craig, written by Thomas J. Beale."
Stephen H. L. Meek, in the Jonesborough, Tennessee, Sentinel of
March 8, 1837, re-printed in Niles Register, same year, vol. 52,
page 50 (March 25). Life and Adventures of George Nidever
Manuscript in Bancroft Library. Walker's own account, Sonoma
Democrat, November 25, 1876, and San Jose Pioneer, Sept. 1. 1877.

Niles Reg., Sept. 3, 1836, contains an extract from the St. Louis
Observer, announcing the return of Bonneville from the Rocky
Mountains and what he contemplated in conjunction with Irving
compiling a narration of his travels.

Lieut. Warren's Memoir to accompany the map of the territory
of the U. S., published in 1859, as part of an exploration of rail-
road routes to the Pacific, on page 33, gives a letter from Col.
Bonneville, in which he refers to the discovery of Salt Lake,
Walker's expedition and 3 maps, which he claims were the orig-
inals of those printed by Mr. Irving. On page 35 of the same
Memoir accurs a letter from Robert Campbell, dated St. Louis,
April 4, 1857, in which he tells the story of the discovery of Salt
Lake by James Bridger. 59



WETMORE, ALPHONSO

Gazetteer of the State of Missouri, With A Map of the
State, From the Office of the Surveyor-General, Including
the Latest Addition and Surveys To Which is Added An
Appendix, Containing Frontier Sketches, and Illustrations
of Indian Character. With a Frontispiece, Engraved on
Steel. Compiled By Alphonso Wetmore, of Missouri.
. St. Louis: Published By C. Keemle. 1837.

8 Front. XVI, 17-382 pp. Map of Missouri.

The appendix, pp. 307-334, contains Sketch of Mountain Life By
A Trapper. Also The Pawnee Sacrifice, pp. 341-350, probably
written by Major Dougherty. 60



PARKER, SAMUEL

Journal Of An Exploring Tour Beyond The Rocky
Mountains, Under The Direction Of The A. B. C. F. M.
Performed In The Years 1835, '36 and '37; Containing A
Description Of The Geography, Geology, Climate, And
Productions ; And The Number, Manners, And Customs Of
The Natives. With A Map Of Oregon Territory. By Rev.
Samuel Parker, A. M.



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 33

Ithaca, N. Y. Published By The Author. Mack, An-
drus & Woodruff, Printers. 1838.

12 XII, 13-371. 1 map, 1 plate.
Map:

Map of Oregon Territory, By Samuel Parker. 1838. Eng.
by M. Peabody, Utica, N. Y.
Plate:

Basaltic Formations on the Columbia River. Drawn by
H. W. Parker. (Page 208).

Many later editions of this common book, which is one of the
best of the early books.

Parker went out in 1835 with Fontennelle's American Fur Go's,
party, starting- from Council Bluffs, but from the Black Hills
Fitzpatrick took charge. Dr. Whitman was with him but returned
from near the rendezvous on Green River. Arrived at Walla
Walla Oct. 6th. Returned via the Sandwich Islands in 1837.

The map was the earliest to obtain any circulation which con-
tains any reliable information as to the interior of the Oregon
Territory, Gallatin's map having apparently passed unnoticed.

Considerable extracts from Parker's journal appeared in the
Missionary Herald for 1837, p. 369, a previous notice of his itin-
erary having appeared in the August number of the same mag-
azine, p. 348.

See the North American Review for January, 1840, for an
article by Caleb Gushing containing an extended resume of
overland expeditions beginning with that of Carver and with
special reference to Parker's journal and Townsend's narrative.

Parker's map was republished in the Oregpnian and Indians'
Advocate for February, 1839, with a note that it was copied from
a copy of Vancouver's chart at Vancouver, The Middle part after
Parker's own observations, The North from sketches of a Mr.
Black and the south from those of Smith (Jed. S.). 61



PLUMMER, MRS. CLARISSA

Narrative Of The Captivity And Extreme Sufferings Of
Mrs. Clarissa Plummer, Wife of the late Mr. James Plum-
mer, of Franklin County, State of New York; who, with
Mrs. Caroline Harris, wife of the late Mr. Richard Harris,
were in the Spring of 1835, with their unfortunate families,
surprised and taken prisoners by a party of the Camanche
Indian tribe of Indians, while emigrating from said Frank-
lin County (N. Y.) to Texas; and after having been held
nearly two years in captivity, and witnessed the deaths of
their husbands, were fortunately redeemed from the hands
of the savages by an American Fur Trader, a native of
Georgia, (vignette) Mrs. Plummer was made prisoner and
held in bondage at the same time with the unfortunate



34 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES

Mrs. Harris, with whose narrative the public have been
recently presented.

New York : Perry and Cooke 1838.

goFront Title, pp. 5-32 (1).

The last page contains a certificate from one Ebenezer C.
Elfort, a native of Georgia, that while in Santa Fe in the fall of
1837 he learned that the Indians had two white women as prison-
ers and went to the Indians and redeemed them.

Mrs. Plummer says they started for Texas overland from New
Orleans and were captured several days out. How she got to
New Mexico is not apparent from the narrative which is nothing


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