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but a recital of her woes. However, she says she got back to
New Orleans in less than three weeks after leaving New Mexico,
which leads us to suppose the story is a romance.

Perry & Cooke, in 1838, also published the Harris narrative in
8, 24 pp. and Plate. The title is History of the Captivity and
Provident Release therefrom of Mrs. Caroline Harris, etc. (Sim-
ilar to the Plummer narrative) .... redeemed therefrom by two
of their countrymen attached to a company of Santa Fe Fur
Traders. This is the same narrative with a different title. 62



ROGERS, CORNELIUS

The Journey To The Rocky Mountains.
The Oregonian and Indians' Advocate for December,
1838.

Letter from C. Rogers, dated July 3, 1838, from Camp of the
American Fur Co., in rendezvous eastern base of Wind River
Mountains, and junction of Popo Agie and Wind River.

Rogers was one of the Missionaries of the A. B. C. F. M. He
left Westport April 23 with Capt. Drip's company of the Am. Fur
Co. Went up the Blue and crossed over to the Platte in one day
26 miles. Reached the forks about the middle of May, crossed
the South Fork and then crossed to the North Fork. Left Ft.
Laramie, then called Ft. Williams, June 2, up the Sweetwater to
within 50 miles of the Wind River Mountain and then crossed to
the Popo Agie and arrived at rendezvous June 21. Two of Gov.
Clarke's sons from St. Louis, Stewart and several fur trappers
with the party. Saw no Indians except Pawnees and Kansas.
No Indians at the rendezvous except trappers and a village of
Snakes some slight distance away. Gives an interesting account
of the rendezvous. One of the officers of the H. B. Co. came from
Ft. Hall to assist the party to best place. 63

DRAGOON EXPEDITION. Fort Leavenworth, Oct. 3,
1839.

Pages 285-6 of Army and Navy Chronicle, New Series,
Vol. 9, 1839.

A short account of an expedition of two squadrons of the
dragoons under command of Colonel Kearny from Fort Leaven-
worth to the Otoe village on the Platte. 64



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 35



[HOUSE, E.]

A narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Horn and her two
children, with Mrs. Harris, by the Commanche Indians,
after they had murdered their husbands and travelling
Companions; with a brief account of the Manners and
Customs of that nation of savages, of whom so little is
generally known.

St. Louis : C. Keemle, Printer 1839.

2 p. 1. [5] 60 p. Sig. in sixes.

I have not seen this edition, apparently the first, collation being
from Newberry Library list of Narratives of Captivity, etc., which
attributes the authorship to E. House.

Mrs. Horn was with a party of settlers proceeding to central
Texas in April, 1836, when the tragedy of capture took place. She
was ransomed in the New Mexican settlement in the' autumn of
1837, spending about five months with an American trader named
Smith, near San Miguel, and finally was sent to Independence by
Workman and Rowland, traders at Taos. 65

LEONARD, ZENAS

Narrative Of The Adventures Of Zenas Leonard, A
Native Of Clearfield County, Pa. Who Spent Five Years In
Trapping For Furs, Trading With The Indians, ....
Of The Rocky Mountains: Written By himself.

Printed and Published By D. W. Moore, Clearfield, Pa.
1839.

8 Title; Preface III-IV; pp. 5-87.

Reprinted in 1904 by Burrows, with notes by W. F. Wagner.

Leonard went out in the spring of 1831 as a member of Gant
and Blackwell's party. He afterward became an independent
trapper and as such joined Walker's famous expedition to Cali-
fornia of which he gives a long account. He came back to the
settlement in August, 1835.

One of the principal sources of reliable information regarding
this interesting period is : Journal Of A Trapper, Or Nine Years
In The Rocky Mountains, 1834-1843. Being a General Description
of the Country, Climate, Rivers, Lakes, Mountains, etc. and a
View of the Life Led by a Hunter in Those Regions by Osborne

Russell Published by Syms-York Co., Inc., Boise, Idaho,

1914. From the Original Manuscript. 8 105 pp.

A limited edition of 100 copies, only, printed for private distri-
bution. I have seen the original manuscript of this journal which
belongs to L. A. York of Boise, Idaho. There is nothing to indi-
cate when it was written but it was apparently intended for pub-
lication as it is not the original journal but bears evidence of
having been written up. There is added an Appendix describ-
ing the various animals found in the mountains, which Mr. York
did not publish.

There has recently been unearthed another book bearing on this
period: Four Years In The Rockies; Or, The Adventures Of



36 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



Isaac P. Rose, Of Shenango Township, Lawrence County Penn-
sylvania; Giving His Experiences As A Hunter And Trapper In
That Remote Region, And Containing Numerous Interesting and
Thrilling Incidents Connected With His Calling. Also Including
His Skirmishes And Battles With The Indians His Capture,
Adoption and Escape Being One of The Most Thrilling Nar-
ratives Ever Published. By James B. Marsh. Printed by W. B.
Thomas, New Castle, Pa., 1884. Port. 262 pp., including title. 66



MAXMILIAN, PRINZ ZU WIED

Reise in das Innere Nord-America in den Jahren 1832 bis
1834, von Prinz Zu Wied Maxmilian, Mit 48 Kupfern, 33
Vignetten, vielen Holzschnitten und einer Charte.

Coblentz, 1839 bei J. Holscher. 2 Vols.

4 pp. XVI, 653, (1) Vol. II (1841) pp. XXII (2)
687 (1).

33 small, 48 large Plates, Key-plate, Plan, Table and
Map. Also on large paper Drawings by Charles Bodmer.

Maps:

Reise Charte des Prinzen Maximilian zu Wied im innern
Nord Amerika von Boston nach dem Obern Missouri, etc,
In 1832, 33 and 34. (Also in French and English.)

In English in 1843, by Ackerman & Co. 4 pp. X (2) 520, map
81 colored plates in folio. Also in French, 1840-3. Also issued
with black plates, and copies occur in which the costume plates
only are colored, those of scenery being left uncolored. One Atlas
was issued in Paris for the three editions, the plates bearing in-
scriptions in French, German and English. Collations from Sabin
as I have not seen any edition for some six years.

Maximilian spent the summer of 1833 on a trip up the Missouri
River on the American Fur Go's, steamer, Yellowstone, leaving St.
Louis April 10. At Ft. Pierre, he transferred to the Assiniboine.
June 18 he reached Ft. Union and on the 24th went on a keel
boat to Ft. Mackenzie on Maria's River, where he remained two
months. The party spent the winter at Ft. Clark among the Man-
dans whose peculiar customs very much attracted Maximilian's
attention. He returned to St. Louis in May, 1834. *67



MURRAY, CHARLES AUGUSTUS

Travels In North America During The Years, 1834,
1835 and 1836. Including A Summer Residence With the
Pawnee Tribe Of Indians, In The Remote Prairies Of Mis-
souri, And A Visit To Cuba And the Azore Islands. By
The Hon. Charles Augustus Murray

London: Richard Bentley 1839. 2 Vols.

8 pp. XVI, 473; X, 372, 2 Plates.

*6S



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 37



ASSOCIATION DE LA PROPOGATION DE LA FOI

Notice Sur Les Missions Du Diocese De Quebec, Qui
Sont Secourues Par L'Association De La Propogation De
La Foi.

Quebec: De LTmprimerie De Frechette & Cie. Irnpri-
meurs Et Libraires, No. 8, Rue LaMontagne. Avec Appro-
bation Des Superieurs. [1839-18741.

8 21 vols.

This association for the propagation of the faith was estab-
lished in the Diocese of Quebec in 1837 under a Brief of Pope
Gregory XVI, dated Feb. 28, 1836. The Association published an
annual report until June, 1843, subsequent to which it published
one every two years until No. 15, 1863. No. XVI was published in
March, 1864, and the following ones every two years until May,
1874, No. 21, the last. They contain an immense amount of infor-
mation regarding British Northwest America, British Columbia
and the old Oregon territory. In 1839 this Association organized
the Oregon Mission, sending out Francois Norbert Blanchet and
Modeste Demers. Blanchet became successively Bishop and
Archbishop of Oregon and Demers Bishop of Vancouver. The
Oregon Mission passed out of the hands of this Association later,
but it continued its work among the Indians in British North
America until 1874, although in later years its efforts were more
concentrated in the North and Northeast. The last report from
Vancouver appears in No. XVII of April, 1866.

After the first number, except number four, it is called Repport,
instead of Notice.

No. 1 contains a short history of the Red River Mission
founded in 1818 (pp. 1-21), and a notice of the establishment of the
Oregon Mission and the departures of Blanchet and, Demers. 69

TOWNSEND, JOHN K.

Narrative Of A Journey Across The Rocky Mountains,
To The Columbia River, And A Visit To The Sandwich
Islands, Chili, etc., With a Scientific Appendix. By John
K. Townsend.

Philadelphia : Henry Perkins, 1839.

8 VIII, 9-352.

Reprinted and more common as :

Sporting Excursion In The Rocky Mountians, etc.

London : Henry Colburn, 1840. 2 Vols.

12 XII, 310; XI (1), 312.. 2 plates.

Nuttall and Jason Lee went out with this expedition in 1834,
of which Capt. Wyeth was the leader ; Nuttall's Pacific Coast
researches being embodied in the North American Sylva.

Left Independence April 28, 1834; arrived Vancouver Sept. 16.
At the rendezvous on the Green, Capt. Stewart joined the
party, also Ashworth and another Englishman. Townsend says
Stewart had been in the mountains a year and accompanied the



38 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



party to Oregon to take passage, probably for England. He gives
an account of the construction of Ft. Hall in July. Bonneville's
party was at the rendezvous and left for Oregon ahead of Wyeth,
but he caught up with them at Grande Ronde.

See Niles Reg. March 16, 1839. Audubon says Nuttall arrived at
Phila. August, 1836. Townsend returned in 1838. Each gave a re-
port to Audubon who finally embodied their researches in Vol. IV
of the Orinthological Biography. 70



McCOY, ISAAC

History of Baptist Indian Missions Embracing Remarks
on the former and present conditions of the Aboriginal
Tribes ; Their Settlement Within The Indian Territory and
their future prospects. By Isaac McCoy.

Washington : William M. Morrison ; New York, [etc.]
1840.

8 Title, Leaf Ded. 2 leaves of Testimonials, Leaf of
Preface dated Shawnoe Baptist Mission, Ind. Terr., Dec.,
1839; pp. 3-8 contents; pp. 9-611.

McCoy made his first tour to the prairies in the summer of
1828, his second in 1829, a third in 1830, a fourth in 1831. In Dec.,

1831, he settled at the Shawnee Mission, which had been founded
by Lykins that year. From that date to 1840 McCoy traveled ex-
tensively over the western country and made frequent trips to
Washington.

In the fall of 1833 Meeker brought a printing press to the Mis-
sion on which many books in Indian language were printed, be-
ginning in March, 1834. In the early part of January, 1835, McCoy
issued from this press the first number of "The Annual Register
of Indian Affairs in the Indian Territory." Four in all were pub-
lished as follows: No. 1, Shawanoe Mission, 1835, 48 pp. P. P. W. ;
No. 2 Shawanoe Mission (Jany. 1), 1836, 88 pp., P. P. W. ; No. 3,
Shawanoe Mission, (July 1), 1837, 81 pp. P. P. W.; No. 4, Wash-
ington, 1838, (about Jany. 1, 1839) 95 (1) pp.

In June, 1837, McCoy also published at the mission, Periodical
Account of Baptist Missions within the Indian Territory for the
year ending December 31, 1836, 52 pp. 8. My copy has only cap-
tion title. No other copy seen. Only one issue published*

McCoy also published Remarks on the Practicability of Indian
Reform Embracing their Colonization. Boston : 1827, 8 47 pp.
Same with an appendix, N. Y., 1829, 8 72 pp. [Report on Indian
Territory] January 30, 1829, (18 pp.) appended to the Report of the
Committee on Indian Affairs H. Rep., McLean's Committee. (Not
seen). Address to philanthropists in the United States generally
and to Christians in particular, on the Condition and prospects for
the American Indians. Wash. [1832] 8 8 pp. (Reprinted in His-
tory of Baptist Missions). Report to Secretary of War. Feb. 1,

1832, 8 14 pp. Map. (Not seen). Report to Commissioner of
Indian affairs [fall of 1832]. Indian Advocate, Louisville, 1846.
No. 1 probably Jan'y, 3 numbers printed by McCoy, who died in
June, 1846. 71



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 39



BLANCHET, [F. N.]

Mission De La Columbie.

Published in the Rapport Sur Les Missions Du Diocese
De Quebec, Propogation De La Foi. No. 2. Quebec, Jan-
uary, 1840. Pages 11-41.

This article contains an account of the journey of Blanchet and
Demers in 1838, with the annual brigade of the Hudson Bay Com-
pany. They left Red River July 10 and arrived at Vancouver
Nov. 24. An account is given of the drowning at the Dalles des
Morts of Banks, Mr. and Mrs. Wallace, LeBlanc and others, all
members of the same party as Blanchet and Demers. 72



WIZLIZENUS, F. A.

Ein Ausflung nach den Felsen-Gebirgen im Jahre 1839,
von F. A. Wizlizenus, M. D.

St. Louis, Mo., Gedruckt bei Wilh. Weber 1840.

12 122 pp., Postscript, 1 Contents and 1 Errata. Map.

Map:

Map (without title), of the Rocky Mountain Region and
to the Pacific, engraved by Rassau & Michaud, St. Louis.

A very rare book and one covering a very interesting period of
western history. The author left Westport early in May with
some free traders and three Missourians and proceeded by the
Oregon roads via Ft. Laramie to the rendezvous on Green River
above Horse Creek. He arrived at Ft. Hall July 26 and started
on his return Aug. 10, in company with Paul Richardson. They
passed over to the Green at Ft. Crockett and Brown's Hole where
they found Oakley and four others of the Farnham's party. Oak-
ley and Wood joined them and thence they proceeded through
Northern Colorado to North Park, over the divide to the Cache
la Poudre, and down that stream to the Platte, meeting Capt.
Walker on the way. From here they proceeded south to Bent's
Fort and home by the ordinary road, arriving at Westport Oct.
14.

Copies in Bancroft Library, Mo. Hist. Soc., and'N. Y. Hist. Soc.
Translated by F. A. Wizlizenus, the doctor's son, and printed by
the Missouri Historical Society in 1912, with a portrait of the
author and reproduction of the map. 73



CATLIN, GEORGE

Letters And Notes On The Manners, Customs, And Con-
ditions Of The North American Indians. By George Catlin.
Written During Eight Years' Travel, Amongst The Wild-
est Tribes of Indians in North America. In 1832, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37, 38, And 39. In Two Volumes.

London : Published By The Author 1841.



40 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES

Royal 8 VIII, 264; VIII, 266 pp., 312 Plates and 3
Maps. Small slip Errata Vol. I.
Maps:

Outline Map of Indian Localities in 1833.

U. States Indian Frontier in 1840.

Chart Showing the Moves of the Mandans & the place of
their Extinction.

All by G. Catlin and Engraved by Tosswill & Myers.

There are really not 312 plates in the book because some of
the plates have several scenes or figures on them with numbers;
I do not find any plate No. II and conclude that the map in Vol.
I was supposed to be Plate II. No plates Nos. 23, 137. 142, 149,
159, 246, 247, but three without numbers and Nos. 101^, 210^. The
plates not included are not described and therefore according to
Catlin's Preface were not published with the book. With eight
out and five extra, there are really only 309.

Some copies have imprint London Wiley & Putnam. In 1848
Bohn printed the 7th edition of this, the same, except with different
title. Some few of these were colored by hand. All editions have
the same plates as the original.

Catlin's initial experience in the west was his trip up the Mis-
souri to the Yellowstone in 1832, the whole of Vol. I being
devoted to his observations. He accompanied the Leavenworth-
Dodge expedition to the Pawnee Pict Village in 1834 and wrote
an extended account of the campaign. For Catlin's visit to the
Upper Missouri, see South Dakota Hist. Coll., Vol. I, page 344, a
bibliography of Catlin's works was made by W. H. Miner and
published in Geo. D. Smith's "Literary Collector." 74

FARNHAM, THOMAS J.

Travels In The Great Western Prairies, The Anahuac
And Rocky Mountains, And In The Oregon Territory. By
Thomas J. Farnham.

Poughkeepsie : Killey And Lossing, Printers. 1841.

12 197 pp.

Ordinarily this is seen with the date 1843. Preface dated Tre-
mont, 111., Oct. 1, 1840, and copyrighted in 1841.

The party left Peoria May 1, 1839, and Independence May 30,
following the Santa Fe trail to Ft. Bent, where they arrived July
5. Here the party divided, the larger number, 11 in all, pro-
ceeding up the Platte River, but Farnham, with four others, name-
ly Kelly as guide, Blair, Wood and Oakley, went up the Arkansas
to South Park. They then crossed over to the Grand River and
over the divide to the North Fork of the Platte. From there they
crossed over to Craig and Thompson's Fort in Brown's Hole.
This Fort was called Ft. Davy Crockett and was in charge of
St. Clair. August 17 Paul Richardson arrived from Ft. Hall, on
his return from guiding Munger and Griffith and some emigrants
to Ft. Hall. From here Oakley and Wood returned and Farnham
proceeded with Blair and Smith and a Snake Indian guide up the
Green River to Ham's Fork. On Bear River they met Meek.



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 41



They arrived at Ft. Hall September 1 and found Joe Walker in
charge. From here they went on with a Walla Walla Indian as a
guide and reached Whitman's Mission September 23. Farnham
only remained a short time in Oregon, leaving December 3 for
the Sandwich Islands.

When Oakley got back to Peoria, he published his experiences
in the Peoria Register (about January, 1840). These have been re-
printed in New York, 1914, in 19 pp. as "The Oregon Expedition
of Obadiah Oakly."

Notice of the departure of this company in Niles Reg., May
25, 1839, from the Peoria Register of May 4. For Farnham see
Niles Register. June 20 and August 29, 1840. The latter is an extract
from the Louisiana Advertiser after his return there. Evidently
he wrote an article on arrival entitled "Oregon Bubble Burst."
The extract in June 20 is from the Peoria Register, letter from
Farnham from Sandwich Islands.

It seems that Farnham was an agent for the U. S. Government
and it appears that he afterwards returned to California, either in
1846 or early in 1847. In No. 4, Vol. II of the "Californian," San
Francisco, 1847, is an extract from the "El Noticioso Del Istmo
Americano, Panama" copying a petition of T. J. F. to the govern-
ment of New Granada for permission to colonize part of the
isthmus with American citizens. No. 26 of the same volume of
the "Californian" contains a notice of suit for defamation of char-
acter brought by W. R. Garner against Farnham who claimed to
be living at the time in San Jose. Farnham died in San Francisco
September, 1848. 75



SANTA FE AND THE FAR WEST

Niles National Register, Dec. 4, 1841, Vol. LXI, pp.
209. Extracted from the Evansville (Indiana) Journal. One
page letter dated Santa Fe, July 29, 1841, and unsigned.

The writer says he left Vincennes April 23 and went to
Independence via St. Louis. There he found three parties, Bartle-
son's with whom De Smet was going to travel; another of 100
men, 30 women and children, for California; and the Santa Fe
caravan. Boggs was to accompany him to California and they
decided to go via Santa Fe as they understood a party was to
leave there for California to join the one via the Columbia.
They raised a party of ten men to go to Santa Fe but Boggs' wife
was taken sick and he could not go. Finally after the main cara-
van had left between May 8 and 10, the writer, with 8 others
and 3 wagons, left May 19 and caught up with the Santa Fe
Caravan at the Arkansas. A short account of the trip to Santa
Fe where they arrived without accident, July 2, the quickest trip
ever made over the desert, he says, is followed by a considerable
account of the city itself. At the end he says he is leaving for
California in a few days with a party of about 200 Americans and
Spaniards to co-operate on January first, 1842 with the Columbian
caravan at Monterey. They expected the governor to concede
them lands for settlement.

I think this letter was probably written by B. Lyman, from the
fact that Lyman went out to Santa Fe this summer also from his



42 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



communication to Farnham regarding the route from Santa Fe
to California. He undoubtedly accompanied this party to Cali-
fornia. 76



SMET, PIERRE JEAN DE

The Indian Missions In The United States of America,
Under The Care Of The Missouri Province Of The Society
of Jesus.

Philadelphia: King and Baird, Printers 1841.

12 pp. 34.

Letter dated Feb. 4, 1841, gives a brief account of Father De
Smet's trip to the Flathead Country in 1840, leaving Westport
April 30 and returning in the fall to St. Louis by way of the
Crow country, Ft. Union and the Missouri River country, going
by land via. the Mandan villages and Ft. Pierre, taking to a canoe
at Ft. Vermillion. Also contains a letter from him while mis-
sionary to the Pottowatomie Indians in 1838.

The Pottowatomie Mission and. the events to the spring of
1841, including the above letters are chronicled in the Annales de
la Propogation de la Foi, Lyons, Vol. XI. Pp. 467, Letter of F.
Verhaegen, St. Louis, June 20, 1838, with an account of his visit
with Father De Smet. Id. 479, Letter of De Smet from the Potto-
watomie village (fall of 1838). Another (extract) of Aug. 10,
1838, from same place. Vol. XII, Letter of Mgr. Rosate, St. Louis,
Oct. 20, 1839, with an account of the visits of Canadian Indians
from the Flatheads. Vol. XIII, pp. 50, Letter of De Smet, Council
Bluffs, Dec. 16, 1839, with an account of his voyage up the Mis-
souri in an Am. Fur Go's, steamer. Id. pp. 60, Letter of Father
Hoccken, Dec. 27, 1839, from the Pottowatomies. Id. pp. 487, Let-
ter of De Smet, Feb. 4, 1841 (the one reprinted in "Indian Mis-
sions). Vol. XIV, pp. 38, Letter of Feb. 7, from De Smet with
further details of his 1840 trip.

The Missionary activities of the Catholics to the Western In-
dians were undertaken by the Jesuits from the Missouri province
in 1827 and are described in various letters and, reports printed in
the Annales de la Propogation de la Foi, printed at Lyons. This
association was founded in Lyons. May 3, 1822, and 41 volumes
of "Annales" were published between 1823 and 1869. The first and
second numbers appeared in 1823, the third and fourth in 1824,
fifth and sixth in 1825. The early references to operations
west of the Missouri are as follows: Vol. Ill, 512, Letter of Van
Quickenborne, No. 16. 1827, relating a visit to the Osage Indians;
Id. 553, Letter from M. Lutz, missionary to the Kansas Indians,
Sept. 28, 1828 (mission founded same year) ; Vol. IV, 572, Letter
of Van Quickenbone, March 10, 1829, with an account of a second
visit to the Osage Indians; Vol. V, Letter from Mgr. Rosate, St.
Louis, Dec. 31, 1831, with an account of the arrival several months
before of four Indians from the other side of the Rocky Moun-
tains and what had happened to them; Vol. VII, 135, Letter signed
De S. (no doubt De Smet), Feb. 18. 1834, with an account of the
State of Catholic Missions to the U. S. (De Smet was in Europe
at the time) ; Vol. IX, Relation of a voyage among the Indian
tribes west of the Missouri by Father Van Quickenborne, Sept.
24, 1835. Extract of letter from Father De Theux from Missouri



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 43



with an account of the arrival of an Iroquois Indian with two
sons brought to be baptised. The Iroquois had lived sixteen years
with the Flatheads. Vol. X, Letter from Father Van Quicken-
borne from the Kickapoo Village, Oct. 14, 1836. 77

BIDWELL, JOHN

[Preface]. The publisher of this Journal, being aware,
that a great many persons, in Missouri, .... (not signed
nor dated). On Reverse (page 2) begins the Journal
headed A Journey To California. Bodega, Port of The Rus-
sians, Upper California, March 30th, 1842.

8 32 pp. in all. Signed John Bidwell.

From remarks made by Bidwell in "His Recollections," it
seems evident that in 1841 the only press north of the Missouri
was at Liberty, Clay County, Missouri, and unless one was estab-
lished at Weston by 1842, this journal was probably printed at
Liberty, where a newspaper press was in existence at the time.

This is the earliest published account by an intending settler
of an overland trip to California, Bidwell being a member of
the Bartleson party. He refers to Williams, the Methodist


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