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Louisville, Ky. 1844.

16 95 pp., incl. title (page 95 errata), plus 35 (should
be 36).

My copy is enclosed in paper wrapper with following title:
Parker's Narrative And History of Texas; To Which Is Appended
Mrs. Plummer's Narrative Of Her Capticity Of twenty-one
months among the Cumanche Indians. . . . (Copyright). Louis-
ville, Ky., 1845.

This is a famous episode in Texas History, and one of the cap-
tives, Cynthia Ann Parker, adopted into the tribe, became a kind
of legendary character. The fort was captured May 19, 1836, and
wandered over the country, crossed the plains and, as she says,
went as far as the headwaters of the Arkansas, where a number of
tribes of Indians in March, 1837, held a big council to get up a
combined war against the Texans.

She talks of being on the headwaters of the Columbia and even
in Sonora (not quite certain of this, however). Finally a Mexican
trader ransomed her north of the Rocky Mountains and in seven-
teen days she arrived in Santa Fe, where she was delivered to Col.
William Donoho, an American trader, who finally took her to In-
dependence about the beginning of 1838. Mrs. Plummer's narrative
is dated January, 1839, and she died February 19. It has a separate
title: Narrative of the Capture And Subsequent Sufferings of
Mrs. Rachel Plummer, During A Captivity of Twenty-One
Months Among the Cumanche Indians; With a Sketch Of Their
Manners, Customs, Laws, etc. With a Short Description of the
Country Over Which She Traveled Whilst With The Indians.
Written by herself. 1839.

In the preface dated Houston, Dec. 3, 1839, this is called the
second edition. 100



TIXIER, VICTOR

Voyage Aux Prairies Osages, Louisiane Et Missouri,
1839-40. Par Victor Tixier.

Clermont-Ferrand, chez Perol, Libraire-Editeur, etc. Et
A Paris, chez Roret, etc. 1844.

8 260 pp. including title and half title, two of vocab-
ulary, two of index. 5 plates after designs by Tixier.

Left France Nov. 23, 1839, and arrived at New Orleans Jan. 27,
1840, where he received an invitation from Major Chouteau to
visit the Osages and hunt buffalo with him. Arrived at St. Louis
12th of May and from there went to Independence; left Indepen-
dence May 20th for Papins trading post, called Nion-Chou. Ac-
companied the Osages on a buffalo hunt to the Grand Saline.

101



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 55



FREMONT, JOHN CHARLES

Report Of The Exploring Expeditions To The Rocky
Mountains In The Year 1842, And To Oregon And North
California In The Years 1843-'44. By Brevet Captain J. C.
Fremont, Of The Topographical Engineers, Under The
Orders of Col. J. J. Abert, Chief Of The Topographical
Bureau. Printed By Order Of The Senate Of The United
States.

Washington : Gales And Seaton . . . 1845.

8 693 pp., 22 plates, 4 maps, and 1 large folding map in
pocket.
Maps:

Map of Bear River.

Plan Great Salt Lake.

Map Rio de los Americanos.

Plan Beer Springs.
Plates :

13 plates scenery, 5 plates fossil shells, 4 plates botany.

Large Map:

Map of the Exploring Expedition To The Rocky Moun-
tains in the Year 1842 and to Oregon and California in the
Years 1843-4 by Capt. J. C. Fremont. . . . Lith. E. Weber
& Co., Bait.

(On top, Profile of the Route from the mouth of the
Kansas to the Pacific by Capt. J. C. Fremont in 1843).
Contents :

Pages 3-6, Notice to the Reader by Fremont; 7-79, Fre-
mont's Report 1842 expedition; 81-98, Cat. Plants; 99-101,
Ast. Obser. & Table of Lat. and Long. ; 103-294, Fremont's
Report, 1843-4 expedition dated Wash., March 1, 1845; 295-
310, Appendix A & B, Geology and fossils; 311-319, Appen-
dix C, Plants by John Torrey; 321-693, Observations and
Tables.

Same printed by order of the House of Representatives, by
Blair & Rives, in 583 pp. with same plates and maps, the astron-
omical observations being omitted.

The plates of the 1842 trip were probably re-engraved for this
edition, as the plates of Ft. Laramie and a view of the Wind
River Mountains, certainly were.

The maps were undoubtedly made by Charles Preuss who ac-
companied Fremont, and probably the sketches were made by him
also. 102



HASTINGS, LANSFORD W.

The Emigrants' Guide, to Oregon and California, Con-
taining Scenes and Incidents of a Party of Oregon Emi-



56 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES

grants; a description of Oregon; Scenes and Incidents of a
party of California Emigrants; and a Description of Cali-
fornia; With A Description of the Different Routes to
Those Countries ; and All Necessary Information Relative
To The Equipment, Supplies, And the Method of Travel-
ling. By Lansford W. Hastings, Leader of the California
Emigrants of 1842.

Cincinnati: Published By George Conclin . . . 1845.

8, Title 3-4, Preface, 5-152 pp. P. P. W. Ban. & McD.
Also by Conclin 1847 in 160 pp. Plate (Sab). Also by
Conclin 1849 in 168 pp. Front of an Eagle. Also by
Conclin 1848, Cine. (Lib. Cong.)

The 1849 edition same as first edition to page 152; 153-156 ac-
count of California by R. Semple. 157-160 The Oregon Treaty,
161-8 The Gold Region of California, which consists of Mason's
Letters. This Edition has a different title A New History of
Oregon and California. . . . Cincinnati : Geo. Conclin, 1849. Con-
tains a Front, of an Eagle with a Shield.

The party left Independence May 15, 1842 and Hastings was
elected Captain and Lovejoy 2nd Capt. Fitzpatrick guided the
party from Ft. Laramie to the Green River. Meek acted as guide
to Ft. Hall for the advance party with the wagons. Arrived at the
settlement in Lower Oregon October 5. This account occupies
pp. 5-22, then follows an account of Oregon (pp. 23-46). Hastings
left Oregon May 30, 1843, for California. Pages 64-69 contain an
account of the trip. Then follows a description of California, pp.
69-133. Pages 134-142 is an account of the different routes, and pp.
143-152 a sketch of the equipment, supplies needed, method of
traveling, Indians, etc., etc. *103

KEARNY, S. W.

Report of a summer campaign to the Rocky Mountains,
.... in 1845. Headquarters 1st Regiment Dragoons, St.
Louis, Mo., Sept. 15, 1845. Signed S. W. Kearny, Colonel
1st Dragoon.

Pages 210-220 of Sen. Ex. doc. No. 1, 29th Cong., 1st Ses-
sion.
Map:

Map Of The Route Pursued By The Late Expedition
under the command of Col. S. W. Kearny, U. S. 1st Dra-
goons. By W. B. Franklin, Lieut. Corps. Top. Eng

1845. Smith & McClelland Sc. Wash.

Pages 210-217 contain Journals (abstracts) kept by Lt. Turner,
adjutant, and Lt. Franklin, Top. Eng., during this expedition. The
expedition left Leavenworth May 1st; went up the North Fork
of the Platte to Ft. Laramie, and then over South Pass to Green
River returning via foothills in Colorado to Bent's Fort. Ar-
rived at Ft. Leavenworth August 24th. Fitzpatrick was the guide.



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 57



Pages 217-220 occupied by a report of E. V. Sumner, Capt. 1st
Dragoons, of a trip from Ft. Atkinson May 7th, to Traverse des
S'ioux and Devil's lake. His object was to stop the animal hunt
of the Red River halfbreeds into U. S. territory.

Niles Reg., Oct. 25, 1845, has an article, Sketches of the Great
West, from the Union, as a letter from Capt. Cooke of the Regi-
ment giving a long and very interesting account of the expedition.
Kearny's report was published also in Niles Register Jan. 10,
1846. For other references to this expedition see Niles Register,
1845, May 10, June 14, July 12, August 2, and Sept. 6. Boston Atlas,
October 25 (copied in N. Y. Weekly Tribune, November 1), ac-
count by one of the party. St. Louis Rep., September 1 (N. Y.
Weekly Tribune, September 20), another account. 104

ST. JOHN, PERCY B.

The Trapper's Bride : A Tale Of The Rocky Mountains.
With The Rose Of Ouisconsin. By Percy B. St. John.
Second Edition.

London : Hayward And Adam . . . 1845.

12 Half tit., 'tit, Leaf ded. and adv., half title, pp. 1-71.
Trapper's Bride, new half title, pp. 75-166, the Rose of
Ouisconsin.

This is probably the first edition in book form, the stories
having evidently appeared in some magazine. In the advertise-
ment St. John says he had lived some years in the backwoods of
Texas. This is a tale of Fort Bent. 105



WILKES, GEORGE

The History Of Oreg-on, Geographical And Political With
An Examination Of The Project Of A National Railroad,
From The Atlantic To The Pacific Ocean. By George
Wilkes. Also An Account Of The Characteristics And
Present Conditions Of The Oregon Territory, By A Mem-
ber Of The Recently Organized Oregon Legislature. Ac-
companied By A Map.

New York: William H. Coyler .... 1845.

(Cover title; regular title follows):

The History Of Oregon, Geographical And Political. By
George Wilkes. Embracing An Analysis Of The Old
Spanish Claims, The British Pretensions, The United States
Title; An Account Of The Present Condition And Char-
acter Of The Country, And A Thorough Examination Of
The Project Of A National Railroad, From The Atlantic
To The Pacific Ocean. To Which Is Added A Journal Of
The Events Of The Celebrated Emigrating Expedition Of
1843 ; Containing An Account Of The Route From Missouri
To Astoria, A Table Of Distances, And The Physical And



58 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES

Political Description Of The Territory, And Its Settlements,
By A Member Of The Recently Organized Oregon Legis-
lature. The Whole Concluding With An Appendix, Con-
taining The Treaties, Diplomatic Correspondence, And Ne-
gotiations Between Spain, Russia, Great Britain, And The
United States, In Relation To The North West Coast.

New York: William H. Colyer . . . 1845.

8 Title; pp. 3-4, Preface; 5-46, History of Oregon ; 47-62,
Wilkes' Proposal for a National Railroad; 63-114, Travels
across the Great Western Prairies and through Oregon;
115-127, Appendix; reverse 127, errata, Index (1).
Map:

Map has no title but embraces from 44 e to about 55
north latitude and 110 to 132 west latitude. In a note to
the preface Wilkes says the map is taken from an English
publication on the Oregon question.

The account of the 1843 expedition is by Peter Burnett and is
taken from letters by him published in the New York Herald,
with slight changes only, Dec. 28. 1844, Jan. 5, 6, 18, 1845. See also
Niles Register, Nov. 2, 1844. and St. Louis Reporter, Aug. 23, 1845,
for a letter by him dated Nov. 10, 1843. M. McCarver's letters on
same expedition, Ohio Statesman, Sept. 11, 1844, N. Y. Herald,
June 3, 1844, N. Y. Tribune, Aug. 5, 1844, also Niles Register,
April 19, 1844, from Peoria Register.

Doctored and republished in London as:

An Account And History of the Oregon Territory; To-
gether With A Journal of The Emigrating Party Across
The Western Prairies of America, And to The Mouth of
The Columbia River.

London: Printed and Published By William Lott . . .
1846.

16 Tit., 160 pp. (160 marked 169).

P. P. W. with same title.

The Burnett Journal appears in an abridged form except where
praise of the H. B. Co. appears. In place of Wilkes' Proposal for
a Nat'l R. R. appears a chapter, "The Capabilities and Prospects
of Oregon By a Three Years' Resident" [an Englishman].

The Introductory History is entirely distinct from Wilkes and
written to support the British pretentipns. A few of Wilkes'
documents were reprinted in the appendix.

The copy I saw in the N. Y. Hist Soc. had no map. 106

ABERT, J. W.

Message From The President Of The United States, In
Compliance With A Resolution Of The Senate, Communi-
cating a report of an expedition led by Lieutenant Abert, on



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 59

the Upper Arkansas and through the country of the Caman-
che Indians, in the fall of the year 1845, June 16, 1846.
Read and referred, July 11, ordered printed.

Journal of Lieutenant J. W. Abert from Bent's Fort to
St. Louis in 1845.

Washington: 1846. 29th Cong., 1st Sess. Senate doc.
438.

8, 75 pp. Map, 11 plates of scenery and 1 of a Day's
March (Colored plates in my copy).
Map:

Map Showing the Route pursued by the Exploring Ex-
pedition to New Mexico And The Southern Rocky Moun-
tains Made under the orders of Capt. J. C. Fremont, U. S.
Topographical Engineers, and reduced by Lieut. J. W.
Abert assisted by Lieut. W. G. Peck, U. S. T. E. during the
year 1845.

Abert's report begins Aug. 9, 1845, for the Survey of Purgatory-
Creek, Canadian and False Washita acting on orders received
from Col. Fremont. Started Aug. 12th with Fitzpatrick as guide,
who had just returned from South Pass, where he had guided
Col. Kearny and the Dragoons. Went West to Raton Mountains
and thence down the Canadian. Refers to a trip of a Mr. Stan-
ley, probably from Gregg, made in 1825. Returned through the
Creek Nation in the Indian Territory and arrived at Ft. Gibson
Oct. 21st.

Contains beautiful colored plates. Abert made the first astron-
omical observations through this unknown country and therefore
his map is of great importance. 107

JAMES, THOMAS

Three Years Among The Indians And Mexicans. By
General Thomas James of Monroe County, Illinois.

Waterloo, 111. Printed In The Office Of the "War
Eagle." 1846.

8, 130 pp.

James gives an account of his experiences on the Upper Mis-
souri, 1809-10, his expedition to Santa Fe in 1821-2, and his ex-
periences on the prairies in 1823-4.

The only copies I know of are in possession of the N. Y. State
Library, Albany, and the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis.

Reprinted in 1916 by the Mo. Hist. Society, with notes by
Walter B. Douglas. The notes give location of various later
printed journals, etc.

Journal of J. B. Trudeau among the Arikara Indians in 1795.
Am. Hist. Review, Vol. 19, First Part; Mo. Hist. Soc. Coll. Vol.
IV, No. 1, Second Part; Bradley's Journal Mont. Hist. Soc. Coll.
II, p. 152; Capt. Wm. Becknell's Journal, Mo. Hist. Soc. Coll.
Vol. II, No. 6; Col. Marmaduke's Journal Mo. Hist. Review, VI,
Columbia, 1911.



60 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



For another early trip to Santa Fe (in 1822) see Journal of
Jacob Fowler, edited with notes by Elliot Coues, N. Y., 1898.
also the appendix to the reprint of James. *108

JOHNSON, OVERTON, AND WINTER, WM. H.

Route Across The Rocky Mountains, With A Description
Of Oregon And California ; Their Geographical Features,
Their Resources, Soil, Climate, Productions, etc., etc. By
Overton Johnson And Wm. H. Winter, Of The Emigration
of 1843.

Lafayette, Ind. John B. Semans, Printer. 1846.

8 Title; pp. III-V (1), preface; VII-VIII, contents,
9-152, text.

Very rare book, not seen by Bancroft.

Preface states that the route to California, descriptive of that
country, and the return to Ft. Hall are from the notes of Winter.

Left Independence in the latter part of May (25th) and arrived
at Oregon City Nov. 13th. Johnson left Oregon City to return,
19th of April, 1845. Refers to Colonel Karney's trip to the South
Pass that year with 200 Dragoons. Reached Westport Aug. 29th.

109

[SAGE, RUFUS B.]

Scenes In The Rocky Mountains, And In Oregon, Cali-
fornia, New Mexico, Texas, And The Grand Prairies ; Or
Notes By The Way, During An Excursion Of Three Years,
With A Description Of The Countries Passed Through,
Including Their Geography, Geology, Resources, Present
Condition, And The Different Nations Inhabiting Them.
By A New Englander.

Philadelphia : Published by Carey & Hart. 1846.

12 XII, 13-303. Map.
Map:

Map of Oregon, California, New Mexico, N. W. Texas,
and the proposed Territory of Ne-Bras-Ka. By Rufus B.
Sage, 1846. F. Michelin's lith., N. Y.

Arrived in Westport in May, 1841, too late to accompany a
party to Oregon. Finally left Sept. 2nd with one of the return
fur trade parties. Returned to Independence July 21, 1842.
Started out again in early August for Ft. Lancaster and thence
to the Arkansas and while on Fountain Creek was passed by
Fitzpatrick and Van Dusen on their way to the States. Stopped
at the Pueblo & Taos and made an excursion to Uintah River
with Roubideau. After a short stay, continued to Ft. Hall and
arrived there Nov. 9th, returned in December by North Park and
Middle Park on the Platte River and wintered on the Platte be-
low Cherry Creek.

He says Captain Warfield, a Texan, came to Ft. Lancaster for



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 61



recruits for some expedition. Sage found the Texans on the
Arkansas River below the old Fort. He finally joined Warfield
between the Cimaron and the Arkansas. This was the Snively
expedition of which he gives a long account, including the sur-
render to Crook. He then returned to the Platte. He met Fre-
mont at Fort Lancaster in July, 1843. On the 17th of March,
1844, he started from Ft. Lancaster to the U. S. via Bent's Fort,
thence down to Van Buren, Arkansas, which he reached July 4th.
The second edition, revised and published by Carey & Hart, in
1847, contains the name of the author on the title page, but the
map was apparently not issued with it, and, in fact, very few
copies of the 1846 edition are found with the map. 110

SHIVELY, J. M.

Route And Distances To Oregon And California, With
A Description Of Watering-Places, Crossings, Dangerous
Indians, etc., etc. By J. M. Shively.

Washington, D. C. : Wm. Greer, Printer. 1846.

8, pp. 15 incl. title. P. P. W. with same title.

Shively was an Oregon pioneer and described the route from
personal experience.

At the end Shively says : In Preparation by the Author a Con-
cise Description of the Oregon and California Countries, climate,
soil, natural production, together with a Map of the same.

Query: Ever Published?

Shively left Oregon April 19, 1845 and arrived at Independence
just before August 14th. Niles Register, Aug. 30, 1845, page 416.
He afterward returned to Oregon in the government service.

Copy in Library of Congress. Ill

[STEWART, WILLIAM DRUMMOND]

Altowan ; Or Incidents Of Life And Adventure In The
Rocky Mountains. By An Amateur Traveller. Edited by
J. Watson Webb. In Two Volumes.

Harper & Brothers, Publishers . . . New York. 1846.

12 Tit. XXIX, 25-255 ; 240 pp.

Recently again catalogued as by Sir William Stuart, that is to
say, William Drummond Stewart, a noted character of the plains
in the 30*s. I see no resemblance between these tales and those in
Edward Warren undoubtedly written by Stewart.

Mr. Webb in the introduction gives some of his own personal
experiences in the army, including a trip from Chicago to Ft.
Armstrong on the Mississippi in the winter of 1821-2. He also
says the book itself was written by a half-pay officer of the
British army who first came to New York in 1832, and then went
to St. Louis and with General Ashley to the Rendezvous. He
then remained in the mountains, went to the Pacific, returned to-
the mountains and after 3% years in the mountains returned to-
St. Louis. After spending the winter of 1836-7 on Long Island
with Webb, he returned to the mountains, where he spent two



62 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



more summers and a winter. Then he went to Scotland, but re-
turned again in 1842. This of course indicates nobody but Stewart
as the author.

A. J. Miller accompanied Stewart on the 1837 expedition.
Stewart, according to Rose, returned to the river in the fall of
1837 and returned to the mountains in the summer of 1838. Rose
returned with him in the fall, arriving about November. See
Journal and Enquirer, N. Y., May 7, 1839, announcing opening of
an exhibit of pictures at the Apollo Gallery, painted at New Or-
leans by Miller, from sketches made in the Rocky Mountains, the
property of a baronet who had spent nearly seven years in the
mountains, and announcing a full description the following day,
but this did not appear on the 8th. The N. Y. Commercial Ad-
vertiser, May 14, 1839, says the paintings, 18 in all, belonged to
Stewart who was shortly leaving for England. Exhibit adver-
tised May 15-23.

Mr. Harry Walters has in hs possesson at Baltimore four large
portfolios filled with sketches by Miller of events, scenery, etc.,
made on his expedition with Stewart. Four of these paintings by
Miller were last summer in the possession of a dealer in Edin-
burgh. 112

BARNUM, JAMES H.

The Traveller's Guide, Or The Life of James H. Barnum.
Written By Himself.

Gt. Barrington: 1847.

8, 52 pp., including title. Green paper covers with
same title.

Green paper covers with same title.

This entertaining and very little known work of travel and ad-
venture is confined to wanderings about the Mississippi Valley.
Barnum makes one or two remarks about a journey to Oregon,
but I think this journey only existed in his imagination, as there
is absolutely nothing in the book to bear out any such claim. 113

BLANCHET, F. N.

Memoire Presente A La S. Congregation De La Propa-
gande Sur Le Territoire De L'Oregon, Par Mgr. F. N.
Blanchet, Eveque De Drasa. (In Rapport Sur Les Missions
Du Diocese De Quebec Et Autres Que En Ont Ci-Devant
Fait Partie. Juillet 1847, No. 7).

Quebec . . .1847.

This report occupies pp. 2-24 of this number and contains a
condensed account of the evangelization of both Californias and
Oregon, together with a brief account of the early colonization
and voyages, both by land and sea. This is followed by some
extracts of letters from Demers and Bolduc from Oregon City
and Willamette. Demers speaks of Warre and Vancouver, picking
out a site for a fortification on Cape Disappointment. 114



THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES 63

THE CONQUEST OF SANTA FE And Subjugation of New
Mexico, By The Military Forces Of The United States ;
With Documents Embracing The Opinion Of The Honro-
able Thomas H. Benton, Gen. Sam Houston, And Others,
In Reference To Annexation ; And A History of Colonel
Doniphan's Campaign in Chihuahua. By A. Captain of
Volunteers.

Philadelphia : A. Packer & Co. ... 1847.
8, 48 pp. including cover title and title. Cover title same
except omitting paragraph beginning "With Documents".

The Captain of Volunteers worked with the scissors only, most-
ly on government documents, but a few interesting ones from
newspapers and other sources are included. I understand there
were several issues of this with differences. 115

COYNER, DAVID H.

The Lost Trappers ; A Collection Of Interesting Scenes
And Events In The Rocky Mountains ; Together With A
Short Description Of California: Also, Some Account Of
The Fur Trade, Especially As Carried On About The
Sources Of The Missouri, Yellow Stone, And On The
Waters Of The Columbia, In The Rocky Mountains. By
David H. Coyner.

Cincinnati : J. A. & U. P. James . . . 1847.

12 XV, 17-255.

This contains an account of the trip of Capt. Ezekiel Williams
to the Mountains in 1807 to return the Mandan Chief. Also
the further adventures of Williams , Workman and Spencer. At
end is a lot of information about Astor's Co. and Oregon; none
original.

There has been much speculation regarding this book, but it
appears to me that the adventures of Williams, Workman and
Spencer are in the main authentic, although the years may be in-
correctly stated. For the true story of Williams, see Mo. Hist.
Soc. Coll., Vol IV, No. 2. 116

CUTTS, JAMES MADISON

The Conquest Of California And New Mexico, By The
Forces Of The United States, In The Years 1846 & 1847.
By James Madison Cutts. With Engravings, Plans Of
Battle, etc. *

Philadelphia: Published by Carey and Hart, 1847.

12, Port. Kearny, Eng. Title with Port, of Fremont,
264 pp. 1 Map and 3 Plans included in the pagination.
Pub. both in cloth and paper wrappers.

This contains Capt. Johnston's notes afterward published with



64 THE PLAINS AND THE ROCKIES



the Emory Report. Also some communications from Kearny in
California, together with a short account of the return of Kearny
and his party June to August, 1847, over the mountains, from the
notes of an officer, (Swords?), one of the party. Swords wrote a
journal of this expedition which I have occasionally seen quoted,
but which apparently was never published. The book was pub-
lished in the fall after the return of the Doniphan regiment to St.
Louis. 117



EDWARDS, FRANK S.

A Campaign in New Mexico With Colonel Doniphan. By
Frank S. Edwards, A Volunteer. With a Map of The
Route, And A Table Of the Distances Traversed.

Philadelphia : Carey And Hart. 1847.

12, XVI, inc. title & half title 17-184 pp. Map. [Table of
Distances pp. 180-184].
Map:

Map showing Col. A. W. Doniphan's Route through the
States of New Mexico, Chihuahua and Coahuila. (Eng.
by Thos. Sinclair, Phila. : Copy, by Carey & Hart).

This is the most entertaining account of the expedition.
London edition of 1848 in 134 pp. 12 is the commonest. 118

FITZPATRICK, THOMAS

Letter by Thomas Fitzpatrick dated Bent's Fork, Arkan-
sas River, Sept. 18, 1847. 30th Cong. 1 Session, Sen. Ex.


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