Henry Rowe Schoolcraft.

Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes on the American Frontiers online

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administration - Amusements of the winter - Peace policy among the
Indians - Revival at Mackinack - Money crisis - Idea of Lake tides - New
Indian code - Anti-masonry - Missions among the Indians - Copper mines - The
policy respecting them settled - Whisky among the Indians - Fur
trade - Legislative council - Mackinack mission - Officers of Wayne's
war - Historical Society of Michigan - Improved diurnal press.


The new administration - Intellectual contest in the Senate - Sharp
contest for mayoralty of Detroit - Things shaping at Washington - Perilous
trip on the ice - Medical effects of this exposure - Legislative
Council - Visit to Niagara Falls - A visitor of note - History - -Character
of the Chippewas - Ish-ko-da-wau-bo - Rotary sails - Hostilities between
the Chippewas and Sioux - Friendship and badinage - Social
intercourse - Sanillac - Gossip - Expedition to Lake Superior - Winter
Session of the Council - Historical disclosure - Historical Society of
Rhode Island - Domestic - French Revolution.


Lecture before the Lyceum - Temperature in the North - Rum and taxes - A
mild winter adverse to Indians - Death of a friend - Christian
atonement - Threats of a Caliban, or an Indianized white man - Indian
emporium - Bringing up children - Youth gone astray - Mount Hope
Institution - Expedition into the Indian country - Natural History of the
United States - A reminiscence - Voyage inland.


Lake Superior - Its shores and character - Geology - Brigade of boats - Dog
and porcupine - Burrowing birds - Otter - Keweena Point - Unfledged
ducks - Minerals - Canadian resource in a tempest of rain - Tramp in search
of the picturesque - Search for native copper - Isle Royal
descried - Indian precaution - Their ingenuity - Lake action - Nebungunowin
River - Eagles - Indian tomb - Kaug Wudju.


Lake shores - Sub-Indian agency - Indian transactions - Old fort, site of a
tragedy - Maskigo River; its rapids and character - Great Wunnegum
Portage - Botany - Length of the Mauvais - Indian carriers - Lake
Kagenogumaug - Portage lakes - Namakagun River, its character, rapids,
pine lands, &c. - Pukwaéwa village - A new species of native
fruit - Incidents on the Namakagun; its birds, plants, &c.


Council with the Indians at Yellow Lake - Policy of the Treaty of Prairie
du Chien of 1825 - Speech of Shaiwunegunaibee - Mounds of Yellow
River - Indian manners and customs - Pictography - Natural history - Nude
Indians - Geology - Portage to Lac Courtorielle - Lake of the Isles - Ottawa
Lake - Council - War party - Mozojeed's speech - Tecumseh - Mozojeed's
lodge - Indian movements - Trip to the Red Cedar Fork - Ca Ta - Lake
Chetac - Indian manners.


Betula Lake - Larch Lake - A war party surprised - Indian manners - Rice
Lake - Indian council - Red Cedar Lake - Speeches of Wabezhais and
Neenaba - Equal division of goods - Orifice for treading out rice - A live
beaver - Notices of natural history - Value of the Follavoine Valley - A
medal of the third President - War dance - Ornithology - A prairie country,
fertile and abounding in game - Saw mills - Chippewa River - Snake - La
Garde Mountain - Descent of the Mississippi - Sioux village - General
impression of the Mississippi - Arrival at Prairie du Chien.


Death of Mr. Monroe - Affair of the massacre of the Menomonies by the
Foxes - Descent to Galena - Trip in the lead mine country to Fort
Winnebago - Gratiot's Grove - Sac and Fox disturbances - Black Hawk - Irish
Diggings - Willow Springs - Vanmater's lead - An escape from falling into
a pit - Mineral Point - Ansley's copper mine - Gen. Dodge's - Mr.
Brigham's - Sugar Creek - Four Lakes - Seven Mile Prairie - A night in the
woods - Reach Port Winnebago - Return to the Sault - Political changes in
the cabinet - Gov. Cass called to Washington - Religious changes - G.B.
Porter appointed Governor - Natural history - Character of the new
governor - Arrival of the Rev. Jeremiah Porter - Organization of a church.


Revival of St. Mary's - Rejection of Mr. Van Buren as Minister to
England - Botany and Natural History of the North-west - Project of a new
expedition to find the Sources of the Mississippi - Algic
Society - Consolidation of the Agencies of St. Mary's and
Michilimackinack - Good effects of the American Home Missionary
Society - Organization of a new inland exploring expedition committed to
me - Its objects and composition of the corps of observers.


Expedition to, and discovery of, Itasca Lake, the source of the
Mississippi River - Brief notice of the journey to the point of former
geographical discovery in the basin of Upper Red Cedar, or Cass
Lake - Ascent and portage to Queen Anne's Lake - Lake Pemetascodiac - The
Ten, or Metoswa Rapids - Pemidgegomag, or Cross-water Lake - Lake
Irving - Lake Marquette - Lake La Salle - Lake Plantagenet - Ascent of the
Plantagenian Pork - Naiwa, or Copper-snake River - Agate Rapids and
portage - Assawa Lake - Portage over the Hauteur des Terres - Itasca
Lake - Its picturesque character - Geographical and astronomical
position - Historical data.


Descent of the Mississippi River, from Itasca Lake to Cass Lake - Traits
of its bank - Kabika Falls - Upsetting of a canoe - River descends by
steps, and through narrow rocky passes - Portage to the source of the
Crow-Wing River - Moss Lake - Shiba Lake - Leech Lake - Warpool Lake - Long
Lake Mountain portage - Kaginogomanug - Vermilion Lake - Ossawa Lake - Shell
River - Leaf River - Long Prairie River - Kioskk, or Gull River - Arrival at
its mouth - Descent to the Falls of St. Anthony, and St. Peter's - Return
to St. Mary's.


Letter from a mother - Cholera - Indian war - Royal Geographical
Society - Determine to leave the Sault - Death of Miss Cass - Death of Rev.
Mr. Richard - Notice of the establishment of a Methodist Mission at the
Sault - The Sault a religions place - Botany and Natural History - New
York University organized - Algic Society - Canadian boat song - Chaplains
in the army - Letter from a missionary - Affairs at Mackinack - Hazards of
lake commerce - Question of the temperance reform - Dr. D. Houghton - South
Carolina resists - Gen. Jackson re-elected President.


An Indian woman builds a church - Conchology - South Carolina prepares to
resist the revenue laws - Moral affairs - Geography - Botany - Chippewas and
Sioux - A native evangelist in John Sunday - His letter in English; its
philological value - The plural pronoun _we_ - An Indian battle - Political
affairs - South Carolina affairs - Tariff compromise of Mr. Clay - Algic
Society; it employs native evangelists - Plan of visiting
Europe - President's tour - History of Detroit - Fresh-water shells - Lake
tides - Prairie - Country - Reminiscence.


Earliest point of French occupancy in the area of the Upper
Lakes - Removal of my residence from the Sault St. Marie to the island of
Michilimackinack - Trip to New York - Its objects - American Philosophical
Society - Michilimackinack; its etymology - The rage for investment in
western lands begins - Traditions of Saganosh - Of Porlier - Of
Perrault - Of Captain Thorn - Of the chief, Old Wing - Of Mudjekewis, of
Thunder Bay - Character of Indian tradition respecting the massacre at
old Fort Mackinack in 1763.


Anniversary of the Algic Society - Traditions of Chusco and Mukudapenais
respecting Gen. Wayne's treaty - Saliferous column in American
geology - Fact in lake commerce - Traditions of Mrs. Dousman and Mr.
Abbott respecting the first occupation of the Island of
Michilimackinack - Question of the substantive verb in the Chippewa
language - Meteoric phenomena during the month of December - Historical
fact - Minor incidents.


Population of Michilimackinack - Notices of the weather - Indian name of
the Wolverine - Harbor closed - Intensity of temperature which can be
borne - Domestic incidents - State of the weather - Fort Mackinack
unsuccessfully attacked in 1814 - Ossiganoc - Death of an Indian
woman - Death of my sister - Harbor open - Indian name of the Sabbath
day - Horticultural amusement - Tradition of the old church door - Turpid
conduct of Thomas Shepard, and his fate - Wind, tempests, sleet, snow - A
vessel beached in the harbor - Attempt of the American Fur Company to
force ardent spirits into the country, against the authority of
the agent.


Visit to Isle Bond - Site of an ancient Indian village - Ossarie - Indian
prophet - Traditions of Chusco and Yon respecting the ancient village and
bone deposit - Indian speech - Tradition of Mrs. La Fromboise respecting
Chicago - Etymology of the name - Origin of the Bonga family among the
Chippewas - Traditions of Viancour - Of Nolan - Of the chief
Aishquagonaibe, and of Sagitondowa - Evidences of antique cultivation on
the Island of Mackinack - View of affairs at Washington - The Senate an
area of intellectual excitement - A road directed to be cut through the
wilderness from Saginaw - Traditions of Ossaganac and of Little Bear Skin
respecting the Lake Tribes.


Trip to Detroit - American Fur Company; its history and
organization - American Lyceum; its objects - Desire to write books on
Indian subjects by persons not having the information to render them
valuable - Reappearance of cholera - Mission of Mackinack; its history and
condition - Visit of a Russian officer of the Imperial Guards - Chicago;
its prime position for a great _entrepôt_ - Area and destiny of the
Mississippi Valley.


Philology - Structure of the Indian languages - Letter from Mr.
Duponceau - Question of the philosophy of the Chippewa syntax - Letter
from a Russian officer on his travels in the West - Queries on the
physical history of the North - Leslie Duncan, a maniac - Arwin on the
force of dissipation - Missionary life on the sources of the
Mississippi - Letter from Mr. Boutwell - Theological Review - The Territory
of Michigan, tired of a long delay, determines to organize a State


Indications of a moral revolution in the place - Political movements at
Detroit - Review of the state of society at Michilimackinack, arising
from its being the great central power of the north-west fur trade - A
letter from Dr. Greene - Prerequisites of the missionary
function - Discouragements - The state of the Mackinack Mission - Problem
of employing native teachers and evangelists - Letter of Mr.
Duponceau - Ethnological gossip - Translation of the Bible into
Algonquin - Don M. Najera - Premium offered by the French
Institute - Persistent Satanic influence among the Indian
tribes - Boundary dispute with Ohio - Character of the State Convention.


Requirements of a missionary laborer - Otwin - American
quadrupeds - Geological question - Taste of an Indian chief for
horticulture - Swiss missionaries to the Indians - Secretary of War visits
the island - Frivolous literary, diurnal, and periodical press - Letter of
Dr. Ives on this topic - Lost boxes of minerals and fresh-water
shells - Geological visit of Mr. Featherstonehaugh and Lieut. Mather - Mr.
Hastings - A theological graduate.


Rage for investment in western lands - -Habits of the common
deer - Question of the punishment of Indian murders committed in the
Indian country - A chief calls to have his authority recognized on the
death of a predecessor - Dr. Julius, of Prussia - Gen. Robert
Patterson - Pressure of emigration - Otwin - Dr. Gilman and Mr.
Hoffman - Picturesque trip to Lake Superior - Indians desire to cede
territory - G.W. Featherstonehaugh - Sketch of his geological
reconnoissance of the St. Peter's River - Dr. Thomas H. Webb - Question of
inscriptions on American rocks - Antiquities - Embark for Washington, and
come down the lakes in the great tempest of 1835.


Florida war - Startling news of the Massacre of Dade - Peoria on the
Illinois - Abanaki language - Oregon - Things shaping for a territorial
claim - Responsibility of claim in an enemy's country - A true
soldier - Southern Literary Messenger - Missionary cause - Resources of
Missouri - Indian portfolio of Lewis - Literary gossip - Sir Francis
Head - The Crane and Addik totem - Treaty of March 28th, 1836, with the
Ottawas and Chippewas - Treaty with the Saginaws of May 20th - Treaty with
the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewas of May 9th - Return to
Michilimackinack - Death of Charlotte, the daughter of Songageezhig.


Home matters - Massachusetts Historical Society - Question of the U.S.
Senate's action on certain treaties of the Lake Indians - Hugh L.
White - Dr. Morton's Crania Americana - Letter from Mozojeed - State of the
pillagers - Visit of Dr. Follen and Miss Martineau - Treaty
movements - Young Lord Selkirk - Character and value of Upper
Michigan - Hon. John Norvell's letter - Literary items - Execution of the
treaty of March 28th - Amount of money paid - Effects of the
treaty - Baron de Behr-Ornithology.


Value of the equivalent territory granted to Michigan, by
Congress, for the disputed Ohio boundary - Rapid improvement of
Michigan - Allegan - Indian legend - Baptism and death of Kagcosh, a very
aged chief at St. Mary's - New system of writing Indian, proposed by Mr.
Nash - Indian names for new towns - A Bishop's notion of the reason for
applying to Government for education funds under Indian treaties - Mr.
Gallatin's paper on the Indians - The temperance movement.


Difficulties resulting from a false impression of the Indian
character - Treaty with the Saginaws - Ottawas of Grand River
establish themselves in a colony in Barry County - Payments
to the Ottawas of Maumee, Ohio - Temperance - Assassination of
young Aitkin by an Indian at Leech Lake - Mackinack mission
abandoned - Wyandots complain of a trespass from a mill-dam - Mohegans
of Green Bay apply for aid on their way to visit Stockbridge,
Mass. - Mohegan traditions - Historical Society - Programme of a tour in
the East - Parental disobedience - Indian treaties - Dr. Warren's
Collection of Crania - Hebrew language - Geology - "Goods offer" - Mrs.
Jameson - Mastodon's tooth in Michigan - Captain Marryatt - The Icelandic
language - Munsees - Speech of Little Bear Skin chief, or Mukónsewyán.


Notions of foreigners about America - Mrs. Jameson - Appraisements of
Indian property - Le Jeune's early publication on the Iroquois - Troops
for Florida - A question of Indian genealogy - Annuity payments - Indians
present a claim of salvage - Death of the Prophet Chusco - Indian
sufferings - Gen. Dodge's treaty - Additional debt claims - Gazetteer of
Michigan - Stone's Life of Brant - University of Michigan - Christian
Keepsake - Indian etymology - Small-pox breaks out on the
Missouri - Missionary operations in the north-west - Treaty of Flint River
with the Saginaws.


Tradition of Pontiac's conspiracy and death - Patriot war - Expedition of
a body of 250 men to Boisblanc - Question of schools and missions among
the Indians - Indian affairs - Storm at Michilimackinack - Life of
Brant - Interpreterships and Indian language - A Mohegan - Affair of the
"Caroline" - Makons - Plan of names for new towns - Indian legends - Florida
war - Patriot war - Arrival of Gen. Scott on the frontiers - Résumé of the
difficulties of the Florida war - Natural history and climate of
Florida - Death of Dr. Lutner.


Indians tampered with at Grand River - Small-pox in the Missouri
Valley - Living history at home - Sunday schools - Agriculture - Indian
names - Murder of the Glass family - Dr. Morton's inquiries respecting
Indian crania - Necessity of one's writing his name plain - Michigan
Gazetteer in preparation - Attempt to make the Indian a political
pack-horse - Return to the Agency of Michilimackinack - Indian skulls
phrenologically examined - J. Toulmin Smith - Cherokee question - Trip to
Grand River - Treaty and annuity payments - The department accused of
injustice to the Indians.


Missions - Hard times, consequent on over-speculation - Question
of the rise of the lakes - Scientific theory - Trip to Washington - Trip
to Lake Superior and the Straits of St. Mary - John Tanner - Indian
improvements north of Michilimackinack - Great cave - Isle
Nabiquon - Superstitious ideas of the Indians connected with
females - Scotch royals - McKenzie - Climate of the United States - Foreign
coins and natural history - Antique fort in Adams County, Ohio - Royal
Society of Northern Antiquaries - Statistics of lands purchased from
the Indians - Sun's eclipse - Government payments.


Descendant of one spared at the massacre of St. Bartholomew's - Death of
Gen. Clarke - Massacre of Peurifoy's family in Florida - Gen. Harrison's
historical discourse - Death of an emigrant on board a steamboat - Murder
of an Indian - History of Mackinack - Incidents of the treaty of 29th
July, 1837 - Mr. Fleming's account of the missionaries leaving
Georgia, and of the improvements of the Indians west - Death
of Black Hawk - Incidents of his life and character - Dreadful
cruelty of the Pawnees in burning a female captive - Cherokee
emigration - Phrenology - Return to Detroit - University - Indian
affairs - Cherokee removal - Indians shot at Fort Snelling.


Embark for New York - A glimpse of Texan affairs - Toltecan
monuments - Indian population of Texas - Horrible effects of drinking
ardent spirits among the Indians - Mr. Gallatin - His opinions
on various subjects of philosophy and history - Visit to the
South - Philadelphia - Washington - Indian affairs - Debt claim - Leave to
visit Europe - Question of neutrality - Mr. Van Buren - American
imaginative literature - Knickerbocker - Résumé of the Indian question of


Sentiments of loyalty - Northern Antiquarian Society - Indian statistics -
Rhode Island Historical Society - Gen. Macomb - Lines in the Odjibwa
language by a mother on placing her children at school - Mehemet
Ali - Mrs. Jameson's opinion on publishers and publishing - Her opinion of
my Indian legends - False report of a new Indian language - Indian
compound words - Delafield's Antiquities - American Fur Company - State of
Indian disturbances in Texas and Florida - Causes of the failure of the
war in Florida, by an officer - Death of an Indian chief - Mr. Bancroft's
opinion on the Dighton Rook inscription - Skroellings not in New
England - Mr. Gallatin's opinion on points of Esquimaux language,
connected with our knowledge of our archaeology.


Workings of unshackled mind - Comity of the American Addison - Lake
periodical fluctuations - American antiquities - Indian doings in Florida
and Texas - Wood's New England's Prospect - Philological and historical
comments - Death of Ningwegon - Creeks - Brothertons made citizens - Charles
Fenno Hoffman - Indian names for places on the Hudson - Christians
Indians - Etymology - Theodoric - Appraisements of Indian property - Algic
researches - Plan and object.


American antiquities - Michilimackinack a summer resort - Death
of Ogimau Keegido - Brothertons - An Indian election - Cherokee
murders - Board of Regents of the Michigan University - Archaeological
facts and rumors - Woman of the Green Valley - A new variety of
fish - Visits of the Austrian and Sardinian Ministers to the
U.S. - Mr. Gallup - Sioux murders - A remarkable display of aurora
borealis - Ottawas of Maumee - Extent of auroral phenomena - Potawattomie
cruelty - Mineralogy - Death of Ondiaka - Chippewa tradition - Fruit
trees - Stone's preparation of the Life and Times of Sir William
Johnson - Dialectic difference between the language of the Ottawas
and the Chippewas - Philological remarks on the Indian languages - Mr.
T. Hulbert.


Popular error respecting the Indian character and history - Remarkable
superstition - Theodoric - A missionary choosing a wild flower - Piety
and money - A fiscal collapse in Michigan - Mission of Grand
Traverse - Simplicity of the school-girl's hopes - Singular theory of the
Indians respecting story-telling - Oldest allegory on record - Political
aspects - Seneca treaty - Mineralogy - Farming and mission station on
Lake Michigan.


Death of Col. Lawrence Schoolcraft - Perils of the revolutionary
era - Otwin - Mr. Bancroft's history in the feature of its Indian
relations - A tradition of a noted chief on Lake Michigan - The collection
of information for a historical volume - Opinions of Mr. Paulding, Dr.
Webster, Mr. Duer, John Quincy Adams - Holyon and Alholyon - Family
monument - Mr. Stevenson, American Minister at London - Joanna
Baillie - Wisconsin - Ireland - Detroit - Michilimackinack.


Philology of the Indian tongues - Its difficulties - Belles
lettres and money - Michigan and Georgia - Number of species
in natural history - Etymology - Nebahquam's dream - Trait in Indian
legends - Pictography - Numeration of the races of Polynesia and the Upper
Lakes - Love of one's native tongue - Death of Gen. Harrison - Rush for
office on his inauguration - Ornamental and shade trees - Historical
collections - Mission of "Old Wing".


Popular common school education - Iroquois name for Mackinack - Its
scenic beauties poetically considered - Phenomenon of two currents
of adverse wind meeting - Audubon's proposed work on American
quadrupeds - Adario - Geographical range of the mocking-bird - Removal from
the West to the city of New York - An era accomplished - Visit to Europe.




* * * * *

The early period at which Mr. Schoolcraft entered the field of
observation in the United States as a naturalist; the enterprise he has
from the outset manifested in exploring the geography and geology of the
Great West; and his subsequent researches as an ethnologist, in
investigating the Indian languages and history, are well known to the
public, and may be appropriately referred to as the grounds of the
present design, in furnishing some brief and connected sketches of his
life, family, studies, and literary labors. He is an example of what
early and continued zeal, talent, and diligence, united with energy of
character and consistent moral habits, may accomplish in the cause of
letters and science, by the force of solitary application, without the
advantage of hereditary wealth, the impulse of patronage, or the
_prestige_ of early academic honors. Ardent in the pursuit of whatever
engaged his attention, quick in the observation of natural phenomena,
and assiduous in the accumulation of facts; with an ever present sense
of their practical and useful bearing - few men, in our modern history,
have accomplished so much, in the lines of research he has chosen, to
render science popular and letters honorable. To him we are indebted for
our first accounts of the geological constitution, and the mineral
wealth and resources of the great valley beyond the Alleghanies, and he
is the discoverer of the actual source of the Mississippi River in
Itasca Lake. For many years, beginning with 1817, he stirred up a zeal
for natural history from one end of the land to the other, and, after
his settlement in the West, he was a point of approach for
correspondents, as his personal memoirs denote, not only on these
topics, but for all that relates to the Indian tribes, in consequence of
which he has been emphatically pronounced "The Red Man's FRIEND."

Mr. Schoolcraft is a native of New York, and is the descendant in the
third generation, by the paternal line, of an Englishman. James Calcraft
had served with reputation in the armies of the Duke of Marlborough
during the reign of Queen Anne, and was present in that general's
celebrated triumphs on the continent, in one of which he lost an eye,
from the premature explosion of the priming of a cannon. Owing to these
military services he enjoyed and cherished a high reputation for bravery
and loyalty.

He was a descendant of a family of that name, who came to England with
William the Conqueror - and settled under grants from the crown in
Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire - three separate branches of the family
having received the honor of knighthood for their military services.

In the reign of George the Second, consequently after 1727, he embarked
at Liverpool in a detachment of veteran troops, intended to act against
Canada. He was present in the operations connected with the building of
Forts Anne and Edwards, on the North River, and Fort William Henry on
Lake George.

At the conclusion of these campaigns he settled in Albany county, N.Y.,
which has continued to be the residence of the family for more than a
century. Being a man of education, he at first devoted himself to the
business of a land surveyor, in which capacity he was employed by Col.
Vroman, to survey the boundaries of his tract of land in the then

Online LibraryHenry Rowe SchoolcraftPersonal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes on the American Frontiers → online text (page 2 of 66)