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displacement, 215; energy, con-

version of into heat, 286; field

and lines of force, 155 ; heating,

290 ; intensity, effect of the die-

lectric on, 168; pressure, 238;

strain, 211; transfer in closed

circuits, 215; welding, 291.

Electrical, efficiency of a motor,

408; potential, 188; resonance,

424; units, 341.

Electricity, and electrification,

150; thermal, 293; three divis-

ions of, 15 1 -

440

INDEX.

Electrification, by influence, 171 ;

effect of, on condensation, 225;

two kinds of, 153; with like

charges by influence, 173.

Electro-chemical equivalents, 250.

Electrode, positive, 236; negative,

236.

Electrodes, 255.

Electrodynamics, 343.

Electrodynamometer, 347, 413.

Electrolysis, 255 ; in the arts, 270 ;

quantitative laws of, 258 ; of

copper sulphate, 257; of lead

acetate, 258; of sodium sul-

phate, 257; of water, 256;

theory of, 268 ; with and with-

out polarization, 265.

Electrolyte, 237.

Electrolytes, 255.

Electrolytic cell, polarization of,

264.

Electromagnetic, rotations, 346;

systems, motion in, 369; theory

of light, Maxwell's, 426 ; waves,

425.

Electromagnets, 353.

Electrometer, 194 ; attracted disk,

195; theory and use of, 195;

quadrant, 197.

Electromotive force, 238 ; and po-

tential difference, 237 ; counter,

in motor, 406; direction and

value of induced, 374 ; law of,

375, 398.

Electrophorus, 176.

Electroscope, 157; gold-leaf, 158.

Electrostatics, second law of, 163.

Element, voltaic, 236.

Energy, chemical action in rela-

tion to, 244 ; expended in charg-

ing condenser, 209 ; heat a form

of, 1 ; in a current, division of

the, 289; lost in dividing a

charge, 209; of similar con-

densers in parallel, 210; of suc-

cessive charges, 178; stored in

magnetic field, 386; total molec-

ular, 147.

Equal charges of opposite sign,

156."

Equation, Helmholtz's, 385.

Equator, magnetic, 327.

Equilibrium of a conductor, 191.

Equipotential surfaces, 189.

Equivalents, electro -chemical,

259.

Erman, 57.

Euler, 362.

Evaporation, 65; cold due to, 76;

in a closed space, 66.

Swing's theory of magnetism,

323.

Exchanges, Prevost's theory of,

116.

Expansion, 11; linear, 25; of

liquids and gases, 12.

Expression for force in terms of

potential, 190.

External charge, 158.

Extra current, 382.

Farad, 341.

Faraday, 83, 155, 159, 218, 258,

350, 362, 426; discovery, 372;

experiment, 175 ; ice-pail experi-

ment, 175; magneto-optic rota-

tions, 430; ring, 377.

Fahrenheit, 56.

Field, electric, 155; magnet, 401;

rotatory, 418.

Filament, the carbon, 292.

Fizeau, 24.

441

Fleming, 2!7.

Forbes, 109, 114.

Force, electromotive, 238; ex-

pression for, in terms of poten-

tial. 190: magnetomotive, 366;

near a charged plane conductor,

outside a charged sphere,

If,:, -. very near a charged sphere,

U57: within a helix, 366.

Franklin, 208, 224.

Fraunhofer lines, 110.

Fusing point, 54.

Fusion, 54 ; change of volume

during, 56; latent heat of,

61.

Galileo, 19.

Galvanometer, 3o5 ; astatic mir-

ror, 337; d'Arsonval, 338; po-

tential. 330; tangent, 335.

Gas, and vapor, distinction be-

tween, 86; battery, 266; coefii-

cient of elasticity of, 131 ;

volume proportional to absolute

temperature, 38.

Gases, dilatation of, 35 ; law of,

146; liquefaction of, 83; spe-

cific heat of, 52 ; theory of the

pressure of, 143.

Gay-Lussac, -">', ; law of, 146.

Geissler tubes, 391 ; stria? in,

991.

Gilbert, 155; electroscope, 157.

Gramme ring, 403.

Gravity cell, 243.

Gray, 155.

Grove's gas battery. 266.

Growth of current in inductive

circuits, 384.

Hall etlect, 351.

Heat absorbed in solution, 63;

effect of on resistance, 276;

equivalent of a current, 2-7:

laws of development of, 2-7:

modes of transmission, 90; po-

larization of, 109.

Helix, force within, 366.

Helmholtz, 252 ; equation, 385.

Henry, 215, 342, 3*82, 425 ; the, 342.

Hertz, 394, 426; researches, 428.

Holtz influence machine, 180.

Hooke, 14.

Hopkinson, 212.

Horse-shoe magnet, 353.

Humidity, relative, 78.

Hydrogen, convection in, 102 ;

mean square of the velocity of,

145.

Hygrometer, Regnault's, 80.

Hysteresis, 213, 360.

Ice-pail experiment, Faraday's,

175.

Inclination, magnetic, 327.

Induced, and inducing charges,

relation between, 174; electro-

motive force, 372.

Inductance, 383.

Induction, attraction due to, 173 ;

by magnets, 373 ; coefficient of

mutual, 381 ; coeflicient of self,

383; coil, 388; magnetic, and

magnetic force, 359; motor,

42o: self, 382.

Inductive, capacity, specific, 217:

circuits, growth of current in,

: system. 378.

Influence, charging by, 172; elec-

trification by, 171 ; electrification

with like charges by, 173;

machine, the Holtz, 180.

442

INDEX.

Ingenhausz, experiment of, 92.

Instability, condition of, 55.

Insulators and conductors, 154 ;

distinction between, 214.

Intensity of field at centre of

circular coil, 333.

Inverse squares, law of, 107, 162 ;

proof of law, 164.

Ions, 237.

Iron, effect of introducing, 353;

hysteresis in, 360.

Isoclinic lines, 327.

Isodynamic lines, 327.

Isogonic lines, 325.

Isothermal lines, 133.

J and R, relation between, 130.

Jolly, 39.

Joule, 341, 362.

Joule's experiment, 127.

L

Kelvin, 141, 194, 198; balances,

349; water-dropping apparatus,

179.

Kerr, 212.

Kohlrausch, 212.

Lag, of current behind E.M.F.,

411 ; of induction behind mag-

netizing force, 361.

Langley, 7, 110, 111.

Latent heat, of fusion, 61; of

vaporization, 74.

Law, Lenz's, 379, 380; of devel-

opment of heat, 287; of inverse

squares, 107 ; of magnetic cir-

cuit, 368; of magnetic force,

306, 316; of resistance, 275;

Ohm's, 273.

Laws of Boyle and Charles com-

bined, 38.

Leclanche" cell, 248; chemical

action in, 249.

Lemstrom, 232.

Lenard, 395.

Lenz's law, 379, 380.

Leslie's experiment, 117.

Leyden jar, 206, 211, 228, 370;

residual charge of, 207 ; seat of

the charge in, 208.

Light, Maxwell's electromagnetic

theory of, 426.

Lightning, an electrical phenom-

enon, 224; flashes, 226; pro-

tectors, 229.

Linear expansion, 25 ; measure-

ment of, 28.

Lines, isoclinic, 327 ; isodynamic,

327; isogouic, 325; isothermal,

133 ; of force and electric field,

155.

Liquefaction of gases, 82; of oxy-

gen and nitrogen, 87.

Liquid and gaseous states, con-

tinuity of , 84.

Liquids, convection in, 99 ; dia-

thermancy of, 114 ; dilatation of,

30.

Local action and amalgamation,

247.

Machine, Holtz influence, 180;

Toepler, 182; Wimshnrst, 184.

Magne-crystallic action, 358.

Magnetic, circuit, law of, 362, 368 ;

equator, 327; field, 308; field

about a wire, 331 ; field about

current through circular con-

ductor, 332 ; field, energy stored

in, 386 ; fields about parallel cur-

rents, 343; figures, 310; force

due to straight current, 365;

443

force, first law of, 306; second

law of, 317; forces by method

of deflections, 318; by method

of oscillations, 319 ; inclination,

326; induction, 307; induction

and magnetic force, 359 ; mo-

ment, 316 ; permeability, 355 ;

shielding, 311; substances, 311;

>u-ceptibility, 355.

Magnetic relations, Ampere's rule,

330 ; Moreland's rule, 330 ; Max-

well's rule, 330; of a current,

Magnetism, and mechanical stress,

320; eflects of heat on, 313;

Ewing's theory of, 323; molec-

ular, 322.

Magnetization, by electric dis-

charges, 370; curves of, 359.

Magneto-optic rotations, 430 ; ex-

planation of, 432.

Magnets, 305; artificial, 306; horse-

shoe, 354; induction by, 313;

permanent and temporary, 308.

Mascart, 230.

Material bodies, heat in, 2.

Maxwell, 155, 214, 350, 362, 426.

Maxwell's rule, 330.

McAdie, 231.

Mechanical stress and magnetism,

320.

Melloni, 108, 112, 114.

Melting point, influence of press-

ure on, 58.

Mendenhall, 232.

Mercury, 13, 346, 347.

Metals and liquids, thermo-electro-

niotive force between, 302.

Michelson, 28, 427.

Molecular hypothesis, 142.

Moreland's rule, 330.

Morley's comparator, 29.

Motor, counter E.M.F. in, 406;

direction of rotation as a, 405 ;

electrical efficiency of, 408 ; in-

duction, 420; work done by,

407.

Motors and dynamos, 397.

Negative, electricity, 154; elec-

trode, 236.

Neutral temperature, 294.

Newton, 114.

Newton's law of cooling, 124.

Nobili's astatic pair, 337.

Oersted's discovery, 329.

Ohm, 274, 341.

Ohm's law, 273.

Oscillation, period of, 423.

Oscillations, comparison of pole-

strengths by, 320; magnetic

forces by method of, 318.

Oscillator, Hertz's, 428.

Oscillatory discharges, 422.

Osmotic pressure, 243.

Oxygen and nitrogen, liquefaction

of, 87.

Parallel, and oblique currents, 345 ;

plates, capacity of two, 205.

Paramagnetic and diarnagnetic

substances compared, 356.

Peltier effect, 299; experiment to

show, 300.

Person, 55.

Petit and Dulong, experiment, 47,

50, 124.

Phosphorus, dilatation of, 58.

Pile, the dry, 234 ; Yolta's, 233.

Plane, conductor, force near a

charged, 168.

444

INDEX,

Plante's storage cell, 267.

Polarization, 240; dielectric, 213;

of electrolytic cell, 264 ; of heat,

109.

Pole, unit, 315.

Poles, consequent, 312; strength

of, 315.

Pole-strengths by oscillations,

comparison of, 320.

Polyphase currents, 417.

Positive, electricity, 154; elec-

trode, 236.

Potential, difference of, 189 ; dif-

ference of, and E.M.F., 239;

electrical, definition of, 188 ; ex-

pression of force in terms of,

190; high, of thunder clouds,

224 ; loss of, proportional to re-

sistance, 278 ; of the air, method

of measuring, 230 ; of a sphere?

193; results of observation, 231.

Practical electrical units, 341.

Pressure, influence of on boiling

point, 69 ; influence of on melt-

ing point, 58 ; of a gas, theory

of, 143.

Preston, 47.

Prevost's theory of exchanges,

116; extension of, 120.

Primary cells, 233.

Production of a current, theory

of, 243.

Quadrant electrometer, 197; used

heterostatically, 199; used idio-

statically, 199.

Quantity, unit, of electricity, 164;

of heat, 42.

Radiant energy, heat the measure

of, 110.

Radiant heat, 6; and light identi-

cal, 7 ; refraction of, 108.

Radiation, 6; appliances for the

study of, 104 ; invisible, reflected

like light, 105.

Ratio of the two specific heats,

148.

Rayleigh, 225, 390, 431.

Rays, cathode, 394; Rontgen,

394.

Reactions in field of dynamo and

motor, 403.

Redistribution of charge, 160.

Refraction of radiant heat, 108.

Regelation, 59.

Regnault, 33, 37; conclusions re-

specting specific heat of gases,

52 ; hygrometer, 80.

Relation between induced and in-

ducing charges, 174; between

/a and K, 355.

Reluctance, 367.

Remanence and coercive force,

362.

Researches, Hertz's, 428.

Residual, charge of Leyden jar,

207; magnetism, 353.

Resinous electricity, 154.

Resistance, 274; effect of heat on,

276; laws of, 275; specific, 275;

variation of internal, with cur-

rent, 283.

Resonance, electrical, 424.

Resonator, Hertz's, 429.

Reversibility of Daniell cell, 262.

Richmann, 224.

Ring, Faraday's, 377.

Rontgen, 394.

Rogers' comparator, 28.

Ross, 324.

Rotation, direction of as a motor,

445

4n.->; Faraday's magneto-optic,

430, 432; in a magnetic field,

363.

Rotations, Arago's, 379.

Rotatory field, 418.

Rowland, 50, 363; experiments,

120. 350.

Rumford's experiment, 3.

Safety fuses, 290.

Scale, centigrade, 16; Fahren-

heit's, 16; Reaumur's, 16.

Schwatke, 324.

Second law of electrostatics, 163.

Seebeck, 293, 299.

Self-induction, 382.

Siemens, 212.

Silver, chloride cell, 250 ; voltame-

ter, 260.

Similar condensers in parallel,

210.

Simple, bodies, atomic heat of,

50; voltaic element, 235, 237.

Solenoids, 352 ; effect of introduc-

ing iron in, 353.

Solids, conduction by, 91.

Solution, heat absorbed in, 63 ;

tension, 243.

Specific heat, at constant volume

147; by method of mixtures,

44 ; of carbon, 48 ; of gases, 51 ;

of water, 49 ; ratio of the two,

148 ; table of Dulong and Petit,

47 : variation of, with tempera-

ture, 47.

Speed, 407.

Sphere, capacity of an insulated,

201 ; capacity of two concentric,

204; force outside a charged,

165 ; force very near a charged,

167 ; potential of, 193.

Spheroidal state, Go. 72.

Steady strain, discharge with, 227.

Stewart, 114, 122.

Strength of pole, 315.

Sublimation, 65, 73.

Successive charges, energy of,

178.

Surface density, 159.

Surfaces, equipotential, 189.

System, the inductive, 378.

Tait, 96.

Telephone, the, 395.

Temperature, definition of, 9 ; neu-

tral, 294.

Theory, of electrolysis, 268; of

magnetism, 322.

Thermal, capacity, 45; electricity,

293; E.M.F., variation with

temperature, 295.

Thermodynamics, first law of,

126; second law of, 141.

Thermo-electric, diagram, 296 ;

series, 298.

Thermo E.M.F., between metals

and liquids, 302 ; in diagram, 297.

Thermometer, air, 19; alcohol,

18; Boyle's, 19; constant vol-

ume air, 39 ; fixed points on, 14 ;

Galileo's, 19; mercurial, 13;

scales, 15, 16.

Thermopile, 105, 298.

Thomson, 58, 350, 392 ; effect, 301-

Thunder clouds, high potential,

224.

Toepler machine, 182.

Torque, 407.

Torsion balance, 161.

Total molecular energy, 147.

Transfer, electric, in closed cir-

cuits, 215.

Transformers, 415.

Transmission, erlicieucy .

: of heat, modes of, 90.

Trowbridge. 42

Tyndall, 115, 119, 858.

Unit, capacity, 341 ; electromag-

netic, 340; magnetic pole, 314:

of current, the electromagnetic,

; of electromagnetic quan-

tity, 340; of tatic quan-

tity. 104: potential difference,

: practical electrical, 341;

quantity of heat, 4 : ance,

341 ; strength of current, 340.

Vacua, dlfl _ - in high.

discharges in partioi 390.

Value, of alternating curlefft/tl'2.

Vaporization, 65; latent heat of,

Variation of internal resistance

with current, L -

Velocity, of hydrogen, mean square

of. 145.

Verdet's cunstaut, 431.

\fillari ?1: 1 er-

Virtual \ .it? a;iu ;.ai} civ . 41, .

Vitreous electricity, 154.

Volt, 341: virtual, 413.

Volta. 170: pile.

Voltaic cells, effect of heat m.

: element, simple, L

Voltameter, copper.

L .

Volume of :ias proportional to

temperature.

Water, el

cific heat of.

Watt, 342.

Wattmeters, 414.

Waves, electromagnetic, 425

Weber, 322.

-Veils' explanation of dev.

Wheatstone's bridge.

Wiedemann, 321.

Wimshurst machine, 1 3

Wollaston's cryophorus. 77.

Zero, absolute, i : change of , 17.

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY

version of into heat, 286; field

and lines of force, 155 ; heating,

290 ; intensity, effect of the die-

lectric on, 168; pressure, 238;

strain, 211; transfer in closed

circuits, 215; welding, 291.

Electrical, efficiency of a motor,

408; potential, 188; resonance,

424; units, 341.

Electricity, and electrification,

150; thermal, 293; three divis-

ions of, 15 1 -

440

INDEX.

Electrification, by influence, 171 ;

effect of, on condensation, 225;

two kinds of, 153; with like

charges by influence, 173.

Electro-chemical equivalents, 250.

Electrode, positive, 236; negative,

236.

Electrodes, 255.

Electrodynamics, 343.

Electrodynamometer, 347, 413.

Electrolysis, 255 ; in the arts, 270 ;

quantitative laws of, 258 ; of

copper sulphate, 257; of lead

acetate, 258; of sodium sul-

phate, 257; of water, 256;

theory of, 268 ; with and with-

out polarization, 265.

Electrolyte, 237.

Electrolytes, 255.

Electrolytic cell, polarization of,

264.

Electromagnetic, rotations, 346;

systems, motion in, 369; theory

of light, Maxwell's, 426 ; waves,

425.

Electromagnets, 353.

Electrometer, 194 ; attracted disk,

195; theory and use of, 195;

quadrant, 197.

Electromotive force, 238 ; and po-

tential difference, 237 ; counter,

in motor, 406; direction and

value of induced, 374 ; law of,

375, 398.

Electrophorus, 176.

Electroscope, 157; gold-leaf, 158.

Electrostatics, second law of, 163.

Element, voltaic, 236.

Energy, chemical action in rela-

tion to, 244 ; expended in charg-

ing condenser, 209 ; heat a form

of, 1 ; in a current, division of

the, 289; lost in dividing a

charge, 209; of similar con-

densers in parallel, 210; of suc-

cessive charges, 178; stored in

magnetic field, 386; total molec-

ular, 147.

Equal charges of opposite sign,

156."

Equation, Helmholtz's, 385.

Equator, magnetic, 327.

Equilibrium of a conductor, 191.

Equipotential surfaces, 189.

Equivalents, electro -chemical,

259.

Erman, 57.

Euler, 362.

Evaporation, 65; cold due to, 76;

in a closed space, 66.

Swing's theory of magnetism,

323.

Exchanges, Prevost's theory of,

116.

Expansion, 11; linear, 25; of

liquids and gases, 12.

Expression for force in terms of

potential, 190.

External charge, 158.

Extra current, 382.

Farad, 341.

Faraday, 83, 155, 159, 218, 258,

350, 362, 426; discovery, 372;

experiment, 175 ; ice-pail experi-

ment, 175; magneto-optic rota-

tions, 430; ring, 377.

Fahrenheit, 56.

Field, electric, 155; magnet, 401;

rotatory, 418.

Filament, the carbon, 292.

Fizeau, 24.

441

Fleming, 2!7.

Forbes, 109, 114.

Force, electromotive, 238; ex-

pression for, in terms of poten-

tial. 190: magnetomotive, 366;

near a charged plane conductor,

outside a charged sphere,

If,:, -. very near a charged sphere,

U57: within a helix, 366.

Franklin, 208, 224.

Fraunhofer lines, 110.

Fusing point, 54.

Fusion, 54 ; change of volume

during, 56; latent heat of,

61.

Galileo, 19.

Galvanometer, 3o5 ; astatic mir-

ror, 337; d'Arsonval, 338; po-

tential. 330; tangent, 335.

Gas, and vapor, distinction be-

tween, 86; battery, 266; coefii-

cient of elasticity of, 131 ;

volume proportional to absolute

temperature, 38.

Gases, dilatation of, 35 ; law of,

146; liquefaction of, 83; spe-

cific heat of, 52 ; theory of the

pressure of, 143.

Gay-Lussac, -">', ; law of, 146.

Geissler tubes, 391 ; stria? in,

991.

Gilbert, 155; electroscope, 157.

Gramme ring, 403.

Gravity cell, 243.

Gray, 155.

Grove's gas battery. 266.

Growth of current in inductive

circuits, 384.

Hall etlect, 351.

Heat absorbed in solution, 63;

effect of on resistance, 276;

equivalent of a current, 2-7:

laws of development of, 2-7:

modes of transmission, 90; po-

larization of, 109.

Helix, force within, 366.

Helmholtz, 252 ; equation, 385.

Henry, 215, 342, 3*82, 425 ; the, 342.

Hertz, 394, 426; researches, 428.

Holtz influence machine, 180.

Hooke, 14.

Hopkinson, 212.

Horse-shoe magnet, 353.

Humidity, relative, 78.

Hydrogen, convection in, 102 ;

mean square of the velocity of,

145.

Hygrometer, Regnault's, 80.

Hysteresis, 213, 360.

Ice-pail experiment, Faraday's,

175.

Inclination, magnetic, 327.

Induced, and inducing charges,

relation between, 174; electro-

motive force, 372.

Inductance, 383.

Induction, attraction due to, 173 ;

by magnets, 373 ; coefficient of

mutual, 381 ; coeflicient of self,

383; coil, 388; magnetic, and

magnetic force, 359; motor,

42o: self, 382.

Inductive, capacity, specific, 217:

circuits, growth of current in,

: system. 378.

Influence, charging by, 172; elec-

trification by, 171 ; electrification

with like charges by, 173;

machine, the Holtz, 180.

442

INDEX.

Ingenhausz, experiment of, 92.

Instability, condition of, 55.

Insulators and conductors, 154 ;

distinction between, 214.

Intensity of field at centre of

circular coil, 333.

Inverse squares, law of, 107, 162 ;

proof of law, 164.

Ions, 237.

Iron, effect of introducing, 353;

hysteresis in, 360.

Isoclinic lines, 327.

Isodynamic lines, 327.

Isogonic lines, 325.

Isothermal lines, 133.

J and R, relation between, 130.

Jolly, 39.

Joule, 341, 362.

Joule's experiment, 127.

L

Kelvin, 141, 194, 198; balances,

349; water-dropping apparatus,

179.

Kerr, 212.

Kohlrausch, 212.

Lag, of current behind E.M.F.,

411 ; of induction behind mag-

netizing force, 361.

Langley, 7, 110, 111.

Latent heat, of fusion, 61; of

vaporization, 74.

Law, Lenz's, 379, 380; of devel-

opment of heat, 287; of inverse

squares, 107 ; of magnetic cir-

cuit, 368; of magnetic force,

306, 316; of resistance, 275;

Ohm's, 273.

Laws of Boyle and Charles com-

bined, 38.

Leclanche" cell, 248; chemical

action in, 249.

Lemstrom, 232.

Lenard, 395.

Lenz's law, 379, 380.

Leslie's experiment, 117.

Leyden jar, 206, 211, 228, 370;

residual charge of, 207 ; seat of

the charge in, 208.

Light, Maxwell's electromagnetic

theory of, 426.

Lightning, an electrical phenom-

enon, 224; flashes, 226; pro-

tectors, 229.

Linear expansion, 25 ; measure-

ment of, 28.

Lines, isoclinic, 327 ; isodynamic,

327; isogouic, 325; isothermal,

133 ; of force and electric field,

155.

Liquefaction of gases, 82; of oxy-

gen and nitrogen, 87.

Liquid and gaseous states, con-

tinuity of , 84.

Liquids, convection in, 99 ; dia-

thermancy of, 114 ; dilatation of,

30.

Local action and amalgamation,

247.

Machine, Holtz influence, 180;

Toepler, 182; Wimshnrst, 184.

Magne-crystallic action, 358.

Magnetic, circuit, law of, 362, 368 ;

equator, 327; field, 308; field

about a wire, 331 ; field about

current through circular con-

ductor, 332 ; field, energy stored

in, 386 ; fields about parallel cur-

rents, 343; figures, 310; force

due to straight current, 365;

443

force, first law of, 306; second

law of, 317; forces by method

of deflections, 318; by method

of oscillations, 319 ; inclination,

326; induction, 307; induction

and magnetic force, 359 ; mo-

ment, 316 ; permeability, 355 ;

shielding, 311; substances, 311;

>u-ceptibility, 355.

Magnetic relations, Ampere's rule,

330 ; Moreland's rule, 330 ; Max-

well's rule, 330; of a current,

Magnetism, and mechanical stress,

320; eflects of heat on, 313;

Ewing's theory of, 323; molec-

ular, 322.

Magnetization, by electric dis-

charges, 370; curves of, 359.

Magneto-optic rotations, 430 ; ex-

planation of, 432.

Magnets, 305; artificial, 306; horse-

shoe, 354; induction by, 313;

permanent and temporary, 308.

Mascart, 230.

Material bodies, heat in, 2.

Maxwell, 155, 214, 350, 362, 426.

Maxwell's rule, 330.

McAdie, 231.

Mechanical stress and magnetism,

320.

Melloni, 108, 112, 114.

Melting point, influence of press-

ure on, 58.

Mendenhall, 232.

Mercury, 13, 346, 347.

Metals and liquids, thermo-electro-

niotive force between, 302.

Michelson, 28, 427.

Molecular hypothesis, 142.

Moreland's rule, 330.

Morley's comparator, 29.

Motor, counter E.M.F. in, 406;

direction of rotation as a, 405 ;

electrical efficiency of, 408 ; in-

duction, 420; work done by,

407.

Motors and dynamos, 397.

Negative, electricity, 154; elec-

trode, 236.

Neutral temperature, 294.

Newton, 114.

Newton's law of cooling, 124.

Nobili's astatic pair, 337.

Oersted's discovery, 329.

Ohm, 274, 341.

Ohm's law, 273.

Oscillation, period of, 423.

Oscillations, comparison of pole-

strengths by, 320; magnetic

forces by method of, 318.

Oscillator, Hertz's, 428.

Oscillatory discharges, 422.

Osmotic pressure, 243.

Oxygen and nitrogen, liquefaction

of, 87.

Parallel, and oblique currents, 345 ;

plates, capacity of two, 205.

Paramagnetic and diarnagnetic

substances compared, 356.

Peltier effect, 299; experiment to

show, 300.

Person, 55.

Petit and Dulong, experiment, 47,

50, 124.

Phosphorus, dilatation of, 58.

Pile, the dry, 234 ; Yolta's, 233.

Plane, conductor, force near a

charged, 168.

444

INDEX,

Plante's storage cell, 267.

Polarization, 240; dielectric, 213;

of electrolytic cell, 264 ; of heat,

109.

Pole, unit, 315.

Poles, consequent, 312; strength

of, 315.

Pole-strengths by oscillations,

comparison of, 320.

Polyphase currents, 417.

Positive, electricity, 154; elec-

trode, 236.

Potential, difference of, 189 ; dif-

ference of, and E.M.F., 239;

electrical, definition of, 188 ; ex-

pression of force in terms of,

190; high, of thunder clouds,

224 ; loss of, proportional to re-

sistance, 278 ; of the air, method

of measuring, 230 ; of a sphere?

193; results of observation, 231.

Practical electrical units, 341.

Pressure, influence of on boiling

point, 69 ; influence of on melt-

ing point, 58 ; of a gas, theory

of, 143.

Preston, 47.

Prevost's theory of exchanges,

116; extension of, 120.

Primary cells, 233.

Production of a current, theory

of, 243.

Quadrant electrometer, 197; used

heterostatically, 199; used idio-

statically, 199.

Quantity, unit, of electricity, 164;

of heat, 42.

Radiant energy, heat the measure

of, 110.

Radiant heat, 6; and light identi-

cal, 7 ; refraction of, 108.

Radiation, 6; appliances for the

study of, 104 ; invisible, reflected

like light, 105.

Ratio of the two specific heats,

148.

Rayleigh, 225, 390, 431.

Rays, cathode, 394; Rontgen,

394.

Reactions in field of dynamo and

motor, 403.

Redistribution of charge, 160.

Refraction of radiant heat, 108.

Regelation, 59.

Regnault, 33, 37; conclusions re-

specting specific heat of gases,

52 ; hygrometer, 80.

Relation between induced and in-

ducing charges, 174; between

/a and K, 355.

Reluctance, 367.

Remanence and coercive force,

362.

Researches, Hertz's, 428.

Residual, charge of Leyden jar,

207; magnetism, 353.

Resinous electricity, 154.

Resistance, 274; effect of heat on,

276; laws of, 275; specific, 275;

variation of internal, with cur-

rent, 283.

Resonance, electrical, 424.

Resonator, Hertz's, 429.

Reversibility of Daniell cell, 262.

Richmann, 224.

Ring, Faraday's, 377.

Rontgen, 394.

Rogers' comparator, 28.

Ross, 324.

Rotation, direction of as a motor,

445

4n.->; Faraday's magneto-optic,

430, 432; in a magnetic field,

363.

Rotations, Arago's, 379.

Rotatory field, 418.

Rowland, 50, 363; experiments,

120. 350.

Rumford's experiment, 3.

Safety fuses, 290.

Scale, centigrade, 16; Fahren-

heit's, 16; Reaumur's, 16.

Schwatke, 324.

Second law of electrostatics, 163.

Seebeck, 293, 299.

Self-induction, 382.

Siemens, 212.

Silver, chloride cell, 250 ; voltame-

ter, 260.

Similar condensers in parallel,

210.

Simple, bodies, atomic heat of,

50; voltaic element, 235, 237.

Solenoids, 352 ; effect of introduc-

ing iron in, 353.

Solids, conduction by, 91.

Solution, heat absorbed in, 63 ;

tension, 243.

Specific heat, at constant volume

147; by method of mixtures,

44 ; of carbon, 48 ; of gases, 51 ;

of water, 49 ; ratio of the two,

148 ; table of Dulong and Petit,

47 : variation of, with tempera-

ture, 47.

Speed, 407.

Sphere, capacity of an insulated,

201 ; capacity of two concentric,

204; force outside a charged,

165 ; force very near a charged,

167 ; potential of, 193.

Spheroidal state, Go. 72.

Steady strain, discharge with, 227.

Stewart, 114, 122.

Strength of pole, 315.

Sublimation, 65, 73.

Successive charges, energy of,

178.

Surface density, 159.

Surfaces, equipotential, 189.

System, the inductive, 378.

Tait, 96.

Telephone, the, 395.

Temperature, definition of, 9 ; neu-

tral, 294.

Theory, of electrolysis, 268; of

magnetism, 322.

Thermal, capacity, 45; electricity,

293; E.M.F., variation with

temperature, 295.

Thermodynamics, first law of,

126; second law of, 141.

Thermo-electric, diagram, 296 ;

series, 298.

Thermo E.M.F., between metals

and liquids, 302 ; in diagram, 297.

Thermometer, air, 19; alcohol,

18; Boyle's, 19; constant vol-

ume air, 39 ; fixed points on, 14 ;

Galileo's, 19; mercurial, 13;

scales, 15, 16.

Thermopile, 105, 298.

Thomson, 58, 350, 392 ; effect, 301-

Thunder clouds, high potential,

224.

Toepler machine, 182.

Torque, 407.

Torsion balance, 161.

Total molecular energy, 147.

Transfer, electric, in closed cir-

cuits, 215.

Transformers, 415.

Transmission, erlicieucy .

: of heat, modes of, 90.

Trowbridge. 42

Tyndall, 115, 119, 858.

Unit, capacity, 341 ; electromag-

netic, 340; magnetic pole, 314:

of current, the electromagnetic,

; of electromagnetic quan-

tity, 340; of tatic quan-

tity. 104: potential difference,

: practical electrical, 341;

quantity of heat, 4 : ance,

341 ; strength of current, 340.

Vacua, dlfl _ - in high.

discharges in partioi 390.

Value, of alternating curlefft/tl'2.

Vaporization, 65; latent heat of,

Variation of internal resistance

with current, L -

Velocity, of hydrogen, mean square

of. 145.

Verdet's cunstaut, 431.

\fillari ?1: 1 er-

Virtual \ .it? a;iu ;.ai} civ . 41, .

Vitreous electricity, 154.

Volt, 341: virtual, 413.

Volta. 170: pile.

Voltaic cells, effect of heat m.

: element, simple, L

Voltameter, copper.

L .

Volume of :ias proportional to

temperature.

Water, el

cific heat of.

Watt, 342.

Wattmeters, 414.

Waves, electromagnetic, 425

Weber, 322.

-Veils' explanation of dev.

Wheatstone's bridge.

Wiedemann, 321.

Wimshurst machine, 1 3

Wollaston's cryophorus. 77.

Zero, absolute, i : change of , 17.

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