Henry Seebohm.

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together, as Sharpe and Dresser appear to me to have done.


This Shrike is fairly figured in David and Oustalef s ' Oiseaux
de la Chine/ plate 76. It appears to breed in Eastern Siberia
(Tacz. Journ. f. Orn. 1876, p. 198), to pass through Mongolia
on migration (Prjev. Howl. Orn. Misc. ii. p. 273), and to winter
in China (David et Oustal. Ois. Chine, p. 93).


Mr. Kibort has sent me three skins of the adult and two

.Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Siberia. 187

skins in the immature plumage of this species. Dr. Theel
obtained eggs of this bird. I take it to be the L. phaenicurus
of Pallas, and the L. superciliosus of Latham.


This very handsome and rare Jay appears to be very com-
mon in the neighbourhood of Kras-no-yarsk'. Mr. Kibort
has sent me numerous skins.


Mr. Kibort has sent me two skins of the Siberian Jay from
Kras-no-yarsk'. Dr. Theel informs me that he met with this
species at various stations on the Yen-e-say' up to the Arctic


Mr. Kibort has sent me three skins of this brilliantly
plumaged bird from the neighbourhood of Kras-no-yarsk'.
Dr. Theel obtained it at Yen-e-saisk'.


Mr. Kibort has sent me a fine male of this species from
Kras-no-yarsk 7 .


Mr. Kibort has sent me two skins of the Hawfinch from
Kras-no-yarsk'. They agree exactly with others from Asia
Minor and Japan.


Mr. Kibort has sent me two skins of the common Crossbill
from Kras-no-yarsk'.


Dr. Theel informs me that he met with small parties of
this species between Kras-no-yarsk 7 and Yen-e-saisk'.


Dr. Theel informed me that he saw two examples of this
species in lat. 59 on the 26th of June.


Dr. Theel informed me that he saw the Tree- Sparrow as
far north as lat. 60.


188 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Siberia.


Mr. Kibort has sent me a skin of this species from the
neighbourhood of Kras-no-yarsk'. Dr. Theel also obtained it
there and at Asinova, in lat. 61.


Mr. Kibort has sent me the nest and eggs of this species
from Kras-no-yarsk f .


Dr. Theel obtained this species in lat. 65 on the 13th of


I have received seventeen skins of this handsome Bunting
in autumn plumage, and two skins in breeding-plumage,
from Kras-no-yarsk'. In both plumages the ear-coverts are
deep reddish brown, instead of black as in its Japanese ally,
E. ciopsis, Bp. All the skins of E. ciopsis, Bp., from Japan
which I have seen in collections in this country have black
ear-coverts ; but in the Leyden museum both species are
labelled as coming from Japan.


Mr. Kibort has sent me several skins of the Sky-Lark
from the neighbourhood of Kras-no-yarsk'. They all appear
to be identical with our European species, and differ from
the Japanese form in being paler on the upper parts.


Mr. Kibort has sent me a skin of this species from Kras-


This species was first met with by Dr. Theel on the 25th of
July in lat. 69, which is probably the southern limit of its
range in the breeding-season.


Dr. Theel found this species as far north as lat. 69.

ANTHUS GODLEWSKII (Tacz.), Bull. Soc. Zool. France 1876,
p. 158.

Mr. Kibort has sent me two skins, obtained near Kras-no-

Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Siberia. 189

yarsk', which appear to be the same form as Taczanowski's
new species obtained by Dr. Dybowsky near Lake Baical and
by Prjevalsky in Alaschan, in Chinese Mongolia. This
species seems to me to be a good one. It is nearly allied to
A. campestris, but is decidedly smaller and darker in colour
on the upper parts.


Mr. Kibort has sent me a skin of this Pipit, which differs
from the Tree-Pipit in being much greener on the upper
parts and somewhat more spotted on the underparts.


I am unable to distinguish skins of this species obtained at
Kras-no-yarsk' from skins collected in Holland.


Dr. Theel informed me that he did not see this Wagtail
further north than lat. 59. A few versts further north its
place was taken by M. alba.


Dr. Theel informed me that he found this species breeding
in lat. 59.


Dr. Theel informed me that he first met with this species
in lat. 65, on the llth of July, where it was doubtless
breeding at or near its southern limit in summer.


1 did not succeed in shooting a specimen of the Waxwing
in the valley of the Yen-e-say'; but Mr. Kibort has sent me
three skins from Kras-no-yarsk', and Dr. Theel informs me
that he found this species common in several localities.


I have received three skins of this bird from Kras-no-


The Long- tailed Tit appears to be common in the neigh-
bourhood of Kras-no-yarsk'. Mr. Kibort has sent me

190 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Siberia.

eight skins. The Siberian form is very beautiful, and almost
entitled to rank as a subspecies. The entire head and neck
are pure white. The whole of the inside webs of the innermost
secondaries are also pure white. In the British and Central-
European forms the white on the wing is much less developed;
but intermediate forms are not uncommon in North Europe.
Dr. Theel informs me that he saw this species as far north
as lat. 59.


Bonaparte, in his ' Conspectus ' (i. p. 252), ascribes this
name to Eversmann; but I have been unable to find a
reference to any publication of the name earlier than that of
Bonaparte. Mr. Kibort has sent me two skins of a Dipper
from the neighbourhood of Kras-no-yarsk', which I presume
must belong to this species. Both are males; and both were
shot on the same day, the 17th of November. The head
and nape are sooty brown, much darker than in C. albicollis,
and not so rufous as in C. aquaticus. The underparts of one
skin agree with those of C. melanogaster ; but in the other
the white on the breast extends further down, and instead of
being sharply divided from the sooty black of the belly it
gradually shades into it, passing through the various shades
of greyish brown. The genus Cinclus presents many dif-
ficulties. Dresser, in his ' Birds of Europe/ adds little
or nothing to the facts collected by Salvin in ' The Ibis '
of 1867, p. 109 et seq. I fail to be able to draw the
distinction which Salvin does between local races and re-
presentative species. If he were to examine the additional
material which has come to hand since his article was
written, I think he would agree with me that his local races
are those of which he possessed a large series, whilst of his
representative species he was only able to obtain access to one
or two skins. So far as I can see, there is only one species of
Palsearctic White-throated Dipper, of which the typical form
inhabits Central and Southern Siberia, North India, Tur-
kestan, Persia, and Asia Minor, and will probably stand as
C. cashmiriensis, Gould. In East Siberia every intermediate

Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Siberia. 191

form occurs between this and C. leucogaster, Bonn p., the
extreme type of which has the underparts white throughout.
In Europe three subspecies have apparently established them-
selves: C. melanogaster, Brehm, in the north, in which
the dark parts are intensified in colour and a shade of rufous
is observable on the head and nape ; C. ayuaticus, Bechst, in
Central Europe, in which the rufous shade appears on
the belly also ; and C. albicollis, VieilL, in Southern Europe,
in which the head and nape are paler brown than in the typical


Dr. Theel informed me that he obtained a specimen of this
Thrush as far north as lat. 68.


Dr. Theel informed me that the great breeding-place of
this beautiful and rare Thrush is in the neighbourhood of
Toor-o-kansk', about lat. 66. He did not observe it further
north than E-gar'-ka, in lat. 67.


Mr. Kibort has sent me both adult and young in first
plumage of the Song-Thrush. From the presence of the
latter we may, I think, safely infer that this bird breeds near
Kras-no-yarsk'. I am not aware of any instance on record
of any Thrush migrating before moulting.


Mr. Kibort has sent me a skin of the Common Redstart
from the neighbourhood of Kras-no-yarsk' a male in
breeding-plumage ; so that no doubt can now attach to the
easterly range of this species.


Mr. Kibort has sent me a skin of this species, from Kras-
no-yarsk', in the spotted plumage of the young before
migration, whence I conclude that the Bluethroat occa-
sionallv breeds as far south as lat. 50.

192 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Siberia.


Mr. Kibort has sent me two skins of this Chat from Kras-


Mr. Kibort has sent me four skins of the Spotted Fly-
catcher obtained near Kras-no-yarsk'.


Dr. Theel obtained a female of this species in lat. 61|.


Mr. Kibort has sent me three skins of this Flycatcher
from Kras-no-yarsk'.


Mr. Kibort has sent me three skins, from the neighbour-
hood of Kras-no-yarsk', of this interesting bird.


Mr. Kibort has sent me three skins of this species from
Kras-no-yarsk'. I think there can be little doubt that this
bird is the Motacilla salicaria of Pallas. Dr. Theel obtained
a specimen in lat. 61.


Dr. Theel found this species as far north as lat. 59.


The name of this species does not occur in the list of skins,
identified by Mr. Meves, obtained on the Swedish expedition.
I found it plentiful in the valley of the Yen-e-say'.


Dr. Theel obtained an adult bird of this species in lat. 62.

ACROCEPHALUS DUMETORUM, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii. p. 815.

Mr. Kibort has sent me several skins of this bird from
Kras-no-yarsk'. Dr. Theel describes it as common between
that town and Yen-e-saisk'. He found it breeding in
lat. 59, and obtained a nest "with two eggs. Mr. Meves
describes the eggs as similar to those of Locustella n&via,
having a pale rust-red ground-colour, with many greyish-red

Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Siberia. 193


Dr. Theel informs me that he observed the Swift abundant
at Kras-no-yarsk' and Yen-e-saisk'. He afterwards observed
it in lat. 60, and again in lat.


Mr. Kibort has sent me the skin of a female Goatsucker
from Kras-no-yarsk'. Dr. Theel recognized its peculiar note
in lat. 59.


Dr. Theel informs me that he saw a Kingfisher near Kras-


Dr. Theel was informed on good authority that the King-
Dove occasionally .occurs near Kras-no-yarsk'.


Dr. Theel was informed that the Stock-Dove is occasionally
found near Kras-no-yarsk'. He saw a bird which he took to
be this species at Nasimova, in lat. 59^.


Mr. Kibort has sent me a skin of the common Quail from
Kras-no-yarsk' ; and Dr. Theel heard its unmistakable note
in lat. 61.


Dr. Theel observed this species in lat. 70.


Dr. Theel found this species breeding at Yen-e-saisk', and
observed it as far north as lat. 60^.


Dr. Theel observed the Corn-crake at Kras-no-yarsk' and
as far north as lat.


Dr. Theel observed this species about lat. 69, and obtained
a young bird.

194 Mr. H. Seebohm on the Ornithology of Siberia.


Numerous flocks of this species were seen by the Swedish
Expedition of 1875 at the mouth of the Yen-e-say'.


This species was first met with by Dr. Theel on the 22nd
of July, in lat. 65^, which probably represents the southern
limit of its breeding-range.


Dr. Theel observed the Mallard up to lat. 60.


Dr. Theel shot a Tufted Duck in lat. 68.


Dr. Theel observed the Velvet Scoter in lat. 69 and 69i-


Dr. Theel obtained a Tern in lat. 63, which Mr. Meves
has identified as belonging to this species.

In my first paper on the ornithology of Siberia, I fear that
I scarcely did justice to Prjevalsky. It appears that I was
misinformed as to the scientific knowledge of ornithology
possessed by this great traveller. His fame as an explorer of
almost unknown districts of Central Asia, however, is so
great that it almost obscures the fact that he has added very
largely to our knowledge of the ornithology of that interesting

I may also take this opportunity of expressing my pro-
found regret at the untimely death of my friend, Valerian
von Russow. He had been engaged for some months in an
ornithological expedition in Turkestan. Just before his
return home I had a letter from him, dated Samarcand,
telling me of his success ; the next intelligence I received
was that he had died of smallpox within a week of his arrival
in St. Petersburg. In Russow ornithology has lost an
enthusiastic field-naturalist, who was rapidly acquiring the
scientific knowledge of birds which can only be attained
where large series of skins are available for comparison.

Notes on Mr. R. B. Sharpens Catalogue of Accipitres. 195

His position in the St. -Petersburg Museum is now filled
by Modeste Bogdanow, who has lately published a work
on the Birds of the Caucasus, and whose recently issued
article on the Birds of the Black-earth Zone of the Volga
and its Central and Lower valleys contains some excellent
field -notes.

XVI. Notes on a 'Catalogue of the Accipitres in the British
Museum* by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H.


[Continued from ' The Ibis,' 1879, p. 470.]

FROM the genus Henicopernis, which I last considered, the
transition is easy to that of Pernis, to which I now propose
to refer, and, in doing so, to allude first to the only European
species of the genus, P. apivorus.

Mr. Sharpe does not mention the Asiatic range of this
species, and refers but briefly to the southern limits of its
winter migration, which extend to the African continent and
have even been known to reach (though very rarely) South
Africa and Madagascar.

So far as I know, but one instance (that of a specimen in
the British Museum) is recorded of the occurrence of Pernis
apivorus in Madagascar, and but three of its appearance in
South Africa : one of these birds was obtained by Le Vail-
lant, and described by him under the name of " Le Tachard "
in the ' Oiseaux d'Afrique/ vol. i. p. 82; and the other two
occurred in Natal, as recorded in ' The Ibis ' for 1859, p. 240,
and for 1860, p. 204*.

Several more northerly African localities where Pernis
apivorus has been met with as a winter migrant are men-
tioned in the article on this species in Mr. Dresser's ' Birds
of Europe/ where many details are also given as to its Euro-
pean habitats, and some relating to its Asiatic range ; but that
article does not refer to its occurrence in Siberia (where it is

* One of these Natal specimens is preserved in the Norwich Museum ;
the other I have unfortunately lost sight of.

196 Mr. J. H. Gurney's Notes on

said to have been found by Pallas*), nor to its occasional
presence in Northern China, as recorded by M. David, and
it leaves the question undecided as to whether the Pernis
which has been found in Japan really belongs to this species.

The learned authors of the " Animalia Vertebrata " in the
( Fauna Japonica/ at p. 24 of their volume on the ornithology
of that country, write thus : " Pernis apivorus ; cette espece
.... qui se trouve, suivant Pallas, quoique en petit nombre,
dans toute la Siberie, habite egalement le Japon, d'ou nos
voyageurs ont apporte en Europe deux femelles adultes, qui
ne se distinguent ni par leurs formes, ou par leurs dimen-
sions, ni par leurs formes ou leur organisation, des individus
tues dans les differentes contrees que nous venons de nom-
mer " (i. e. Europe, Guinea, Egypt, and Arabia) .

Professor Schlegel, in his ' Museum des Pays-Bas/ Pernes,
p. 2, under the head of Pernis apivorus, has the following
entry, which probably refers to one of the above-mentioned
specimens : " Femelle, plumage parfait, Japon, Voyage de

I regret that I omitted, when at Leyden some years since,
to examine this Japanese specimen ; but Mr. Sharpe, who has
subsequently visited the Leyden Museum, appears to have
arrived at the conclusion that it is referable to P. ptilo-
rhynchus, as in his list of the synonyms of that species he
includes " Pernis apivorus, Temm. & Schl. Faun. Japon.
Aves, p. 24," which Captain Legge also does in his work on
the Birds of Ceylon, p. 89.

Mr. Seebohm informs me that it was on the authority of
this item in Mr. Sharpens volume, that he stated in ' The
Ibis ' for 1879, at p. 42, that the Japanese Pernis " was in-
correctly identified by Temminck and Schlegel with the Euro-
pean Honey-Buzzard," and that he has not himself seen a
Japanese specimen.

Mr. Sharpe also refers to P. ptilorhynchus <l Pernis api-
vorus, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 341," which seems to in-
volve a conflict of authorities as to the species of Pernis that

* It does not appear to have been noticed in Siberia by subsequent
explorers j vide Newton's Yarrell, vol. i. p. 124.

Notes on the Ornithology of Siberia. 419

there is a stick on which it can perch it may always be seen,
looking, I presume, after the eels. It is a very late breeder,
not hatching till the beginning of June. The nests are, for
the most part, very close together ; and as soon as the young
can fly the whole colony suddenly disappears, and is not seen
again till the next spring, arriving, so far as I could learn,
a little later than the Cormorants, at the end of April. I was
surprised to find the Common Tern breeding in these lakes,
and no trace whatever of the White-winged Black Tern, so
common on the coast, and of the Whiskered Tern, which
would certainly be found in such localities in Algeria or

I fear these notes must have exercised the patience of those
readers who have got so far as this. But I crave their indul-
gence, reminding them that, however absorbing the interest,
historical and archaeological, of these regions, they are neither
fresh fields nor pastures new to the naturalist, though even
here the nesting-places of the Bald Ibis and the Darter may
afford some inducement to younger and more energetic
travellers to follow in our steps and make amends for our

XXXI. Further Notes on the Ornithology of Siberia.

SINCE my last notes on the ornithology of Siberia (Ibis, 1880,
p. 179) I have received three small collections of birds from
that country, two from my collector in Krasnoyarsk, Mr.
Kibort, and one from Samarcand, the latter sent me by Dr.
Staudinger, of Dresden. Among the examples contained
in these collections are some of unusual interest.


A fine example of Gurney's Falcon from Samarcand is
dated 5th March.


Mr. Kibort has sent me an adult male Hobby and bird of
the year from Krasnoyarsk.

420 Mr. H. Seebohm on the


An example of the Long-legged Buzzard from Samarcand
is rn the rufous phase described by Bogdanow from the Cau-
casus. Possibly this so-called "phase" of plumage may
represent the eastern form.


Mr. Kibort has sent me a fine example of the arctic form
of the Ural Owl from Krasnoyarsk. It is the greyest ex-
ample I have ever seen. Examples from Hakodadi are
slightly more rufous, those from the Amoor still more so,
and those from Lapland are the most rufous of all. If
Pallas's name be retained for the arctic form, we must call
the Lapland bird Syrnium lituratum.


Examples of the Short-eared Owl sent me from Krasno-
yarsk are very interesting. The female does not differ from
our bird ; but the males are very much greyer, and are good
specimens of the Strix agolius of Pallas, the arctic form o
Asio brachyotus. In China, as might be expected, our bird


Three examples of the Little Owl from Samarcand belong
undoubtedly to the species originally described by Capt.
Hutton from Candahar, and afterwards redescribed by S win-
hoe from near Shato, in North China, as Athene plumipes
(P. Z. S. 1870, p. 448). This appears to be a good species.
The toes are thickly feathered almost to the claw, whilst in
A. noctua and its ally they have only a thin covering of hairy
bristles. The tarsus is also much shorter, measuring ri to
1 inch, whilst that of A. noctua measures 1*4 to 1*25. Athene
glaux is conspecific with A. noctua. Examples of the former
from the countries south of the Mediterranean are very dis-
tinct from those of the latter from the countries north of the
Mediterranean; but examples from Greece are paler, ap-
proaching the southern form; and in Asia Minor both
extremes occur together with intermediate forms.

Ornithology of Siberia. 421


Of two examples of Pallas's Grey Shrike from Krasnoyarsk,
one appears to be thorough-bred, with no white at the base
of the outer webs of the secondaries, the other shows distinct
traces of white, though to a very small extent.


Another example of a Grey Shrike from Krasnoyarsk is
the Siberian form of L. homeyeri with the white rump.


Two examples from Krasnoyarsk are thorough -bred White-
winged Grey Shrikes. This species has recently been re-
named Lanius prjevalskii by Bogdanow.


I have a male of this Indian Chat from Samarcand.


I have both male and female from Samarcand of Strick-
land's Chat.


A fine adult male of the Siberian Blue Robin from Kras-
noyarsk slightly extends the known geographical range of
this species to the west.


Six examples of Eversmann's Redstart from Samarcand
are interesting. In my volume of the ' Catalogue of Birds
in the British Museum ' (p. 348) I erroneously included
Ruticilla alaschanica of Prjevalsky as a synonym of this
species. Prjevalski's bird is quite distinct, the black of the
lores, ear- coverts, and sides of the neck being replaced by


An example of the arctic form of the Common Wren from
Samarcand is very distinct from our bird. Sharpe recog-
nizes it as a subspecies only in his last volume of the Cata-
logue of Birds. It probably will prove to be so ; but I am not
aware that intermediate forms have yet been found. Sharpe

422 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

places it in the genus Anorthura. This is another instance
of the folly of attempting to carry out the Stricklandian rules
of nomenclature to the letter. There ought to be a rule that
no author can raise a specific name into a generic name
without making the species the name of which is thus stolen
the type of the new genus. The common sense of ornitholo-
gists has hitherto preserved them from violating such a self-
evident proposition. I venture to think that no ornithologist
of any standing will follow Sharpe in this attempt to rob
poor Jenny Wren of a name she has borne for three quarters
of a century.


Eight examples of this species from Samarcand, originally
described by Severtzow from Turkestan, appear to be distinct
from Certhia himalayana. They are somewhat larger and
paler in colour than their Indian ally, with much longer bills.
In length of wing they measure from 2*7 inches to 2*9 (C.
himalayana 2*65 to 2'8), and the length of the culmen varies
from '85 to 1*05 (C. himalayana *65 to '75). It is not im-
probable that intermediate forms may exist in intermediate

CERTHIA SCANDULACA, Pall. Zoogr. R-.-A. i. p. 432.

This species, of which Mr. Kibort has sent me an example

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