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HYPOLAIS ICTERINA.

The Icterine Warbler is a rare summer visitor.



376 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

REGULUS CRISTATUS.

The Goldbreast is a rare summer visitor.

ACROCEPHALUS PHRAGMITIS.

The Sedge-Warbler is a somewhat rare summer visitor.

ACCENTOR MODTJLARIS.

The Hedge- Sparrow is a somewhat rare summer visitor.

TURDUS ILIACUS.

The Redwing is a very common summer visitor.

TURDUS PILARIS.

The Fieldfare is a very common summer visitor.

TURDUS MUSICUS.

The Song-Thrush is a tolerably common summer visitor.

TURDUS VISCIVORUS.

The Missel-Thrush is a tolerably common summer visitor.

ORIOLUS GALBULA.

The Golden Oriole is only an accidental visitor.

MOTACILLA ALBA.

The White Wagtail is a common summer visitor.

MOTACILLA VIRIDIS.

The Green Wagtail is a very common summer visitor.

ANTHUS OBSCURUS.

The Rock-Pipit is a frequent summer visitor.

ANTHUS PRATENSIS.

The Meadow-Pipit is a frequent summer visitor.

ANTHUS CERVINUS.

The Red-throated Pipit is a frequent summer visitor.

ANTHUS ARBOREUS.

The Tree-Pipit is a frequent summer visitor.

ClNCLUS MELANOGASTER.

The Dipper is recorded by Henke as not common. It is
of the black-bellied form.



Birds of Archangel. 377

TROGLODYTES PARVULUS.

The Wren is recorded by Henke from Archangel. It is
probably a rare resident.

SlTTA URALENSIS.

The Siberian form of the Nuthatch is an occasional winter
visitor.

ACREDULA CAUDATA.

The Siberian form of the Long-tailed Tit, with a very long
tail, measuring from 3'8 to 3*6 inches, is not rare ; but Henke
does not say if it be a resident.

PARUS CINCTUS.

The Archangel form of the Lapp Tit is intermediate
between the Scandinavian and Siberian forms. It is a com-
mon resident.

PARUS BOREALIS.

The Archangel form of the Marsh-Tit is intermediate
between the Scandinavian and the Siberian forms. It is a
very common resident.

PARUS ATER.

The Cole Tit is a rare resident.

PARUS MAJOR.

The Great Tit is a common resident,

AM PELTS GARRULA.

The Waxwing is very common in some years,

GARRULUS INFAUSTUS.

The Siberian Jay is a common resident,

GARRULUS GLANDARIUS.

The Jay is a very rare resident.

NUCIFRAGA CARYOCATACTES,

The Nutcracker is a rare visitor.

PICA CAUDATA.

The Magpie is a very common resident.

CORVUS MONEDULA.

The Jackdaw is a very common resident.



378 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

CORVUS CORNIX.

The Hooded Crow is the commonest resident.

CORVUS CORAX.

The Raven is common, especially so in winter, on the island
of Solovetsk.

CORVUS FRUGILEGUS.

The Hook is a common summer visitor,

LOXIA CTJRVIROSTRA.

The Crossbill is a very common resident.

LOXIA BIFASCIATA.

The White- winged Crossbill is a very common resident.

LOXIA PYTIOPS1TTACUS.

The Parrot- Crossbill is very rare.

PYRRHULA MAJOR.

The Eastern Bullfinch is a very common resident.

PlNICOLA ENTJCLEATOR.

The Pine-Grosbeak is very common in summer, but
migrates somewhat more to the south in winter.

CARPODACUS ERYTHRINUS.

The Scarlet Bullfinch is a very common summer visitor.

PASSER DOMESTICUS.

The Common Sparrow is a very abundant resident.

PASSER MONTANUS.

The Tree- Sparrow is a common resident.

FRINGILLA SPINUS.

The Siskin is very common in summer.

FRINGILLA LINARIA.

The Mealy Kedpole is very common in summer.

FRINGILLA CCELEBS.

The Chaffinch is common in summer.

FRINGILLA MONTIFRINGILLA.

The Brambling is common in summer. Henke says he
obtained a hybrid between the Chaffinch and the Brambling.



Birds of Archangel. 379

EMBERIZA AUREOLA.

The Yellow-breasted Bunting is a very common summer
visitor.

EMBERIZA PUSILLA.

The Little Bunting is a very common summer visitor.

EMBERIZA RUSTICA.

The Rustic Bunting is a very common summer visitor to
all the pine- forests, and often rears two broods in the year.

EMBERIZA CITRINELLA.

The Yellow-hammer is a not very common summer visitor.

EMBERIZA SCHCENICLUS.

The Reed-Bunting is a very common summer visitor.

EMBERIZA NIVALIS.

The Snow-Bunting is a winter visitor, breeding on the
north coast of the Kanin peninsula.

EMBERIZA LAPPONICA.

The Lapland Bunting passes through on migration, breed-
ing above the limit of forest-growth.

OTOCORYS ALPESTRIS.

The Shore-Lark passes through on migration, breeding
above the limit of forest-growth.

ALAUDA ARVENSIS.

The Sky-Lark is a rather rare summer visitor.

COLUMBA PALUMBUS.

The Ring-Dove is a not uncommon summer visitor.

LAGOPUS ALBUS.

The Willow-Grouse is a very common resident.

LAGOPUS ALPINUS.

The Ptarmigan breeds on the west coast of the Kola
peninsula.

TETRAO UROGALLUS.

The Capercailzie is a resident, in some years exceedingly
common.






380 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

TETRAO TETRIX.

The Black Grouse is a resident, much commoner in some
years than in others. Hybrids between the Capercailzie and
the Black Grouse are frequent.

TETRAO BONASIA.

The Hazel-Grouse is a resident, sometimes very numerous.

CoTURNIX COMMUNIS.

The Quail is a rare summer visitor.

CJHARADRIUS PLUVIALIS.

The Golden Plover passes through on migration, breeding
in great numbers on the tundra.

CHARADRIUS HELVETTCUS.

The Grey Plover is not rare on migration, and is said to
breed in some numbers on the Kanin peninsula.

CHARADRIUS FULVUS.

The Asiatic Golden Plover has once or twice been obtained.

CHARADRIUS MORINELLUS.

The Dotterel is common in the tundra, and breeds near the
mouth of the Dwina.

CHARADRIUS CANTIACUS.

The Kentish Plover is a summer visitor on the coast.

CHARADRIUS HIATICULA.

The Ringed Plover is a common summer visitor to the
banks of the Dwina.

CHARADRIUS MINOR.

The Lesser Ringed Plover is a summer visitor to the banks
of the Dwina.

STREPSILAS INTERPRES.

The Turnstone is a rather rare summer visitor.

H^EMANTOPUS OSTRALEGUS.

The Oyster-catcher is common.

TOTANUS GLOTTIS.

The Green shank is a common summer visitor,



Birds of Archangel. 381

ToTANUS FUSCUS.

The Spotted Redshank is a common summer visitor.

TOTANUS GLAREOLA.

The Wood-Sandpiper is a common summer visitor.

TOTANUS OCIIROPUS.

The Green Sandpiper is a common summer visitor.

TOTANUS CALIDRIS.

The Redshank is a rare summer visitor.

TOTANUS HYPOLEUCUS.

The Common Sandpiper is a very common summer visitor.

PHALAROPUS HYPERBOREUS.

The Red-necked Phalarope is a summer visitor.

MACHETES PUGNAX.

The Ruff is a very common summer visitor.

CALIDRIS ARENARIUS.

The Sanderling occasionally passes through on the autumn
migration.

TRINGA MARITIMA.

The Purple Sandpiper was only once seen by Henke, when
he obtained six examples early in winter.

TRINGA CANUTUS.

The Knot is recorded by Henke as having been seen in
summer near the mouth of the Dwina, evidently breeding.

TRINGA SUBARCUATA.

The Curlew Sandpiper was obtained by Henke near the
mouth of the Dwina in summer, and showing signs of
having bred.

TRINGA ALPINA.

The Dunlin is a very common summer visitor,

TRINGA MINUTA.

The Little Stint is a rather rare summer visitor. Henke
says he has taken the nest on the grassy sand on the river-
bank, where it was overflowed when the ice broke up.

SER. IV. VOL. VI. 2 D



382 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

TRINGA TEMMINCKI.

Temminck's Stint is a common summer visitor, breeding
amongst the drift-wood on the river-banks.

TRINGA CINEREA.

The Terek Sandpiper is a very common summer visitor.

LIMOSA RUFA.

The Bar-tailed Godwit is a rare summer visitor. Henke
never obtained its eggs.

ScOLOPAX RTJSTICULA.

The Woodcock is a very common summer visitor.

SCOLOPAX GALLINAGO.

The Common Snipe is a very common summer visitor.

SCOLOPAX GALLINULA.

The Jack Snipe is only seen on migration.

SCOLOPAX MAJOR.

The Great Snipe passes through on migration to breed on
the Kanin peninsula.

NUMENTUS ARQUATA.

The Curlew is a very common summer visitor to the delta
of the Dwina.

NUMENIUS PH.EOPUS.

The Whimbrel is a rare summer visitor.

GRUS CINEREA.

The Crane passes through on migration to the tundra,
where it is common.

PLATALEA LEUCORODIA.

The Spoonbill has only once been found, when eight ex-
amples appeared in December.

CREX PRATENSIS.

The Corn-Crake is a rare summer visitor.

CREX PORZANA.

The Spotted Crake is a very common summer visitor.



Birds of Archangel. 383

FULICA ATRA.

The Coot has once occurred, during the brcaking-up of
the ice.

PoDICEPS RUBRICOLLIS.

The Red-necked Grebe is very common.

COLYMBUS ARCTICUS.

The Black-throated Diver is common on the lakes in the
forests.

COLYMBUS SEPTENTRIONALIS.

The Red-throated Diver is very common.

COLYMBUS TORQUATUS.

The Great Northern Diver has not occurred ; but Henke
says he has received eggs of this species collected by the
Samoyedes on the Kanin peninsula.

URIA BRUENNICHI.

Briinnich's Guillemot occasionally appears in winter.

URIA GRYLLE.

The Black Guillemot breeds on an island near Onega.

ALCA TORDA.

The Razorbill breeds on the same island as the preceding.

MERGULUS ALLE.

The Little Auk has been seen on the coast of the Kola
peninsula.

MERGUS MERGANSER.

The Goosander is a rare summer visitor.

MERGUS SERRATOR.

The Red-necked Merganser is a very common summer
visitor.

MERGUS ALBELLUS.

The Smew is a common summer visitor, breeding in hollow
trees.

SOMATERIA MOLLISSIMA.

The Eider Duck breeds on the same island, near Onega,



384 Mr. H. Seebolim on the

where the Black Guillemot and Razorbill are found. It is
occasionally seen near Archangel in winter.

SOMATERIA SPECTABILIS.

The King Eider breeds on the Kanin peninsula.

FULIGULA FUSCA.

The Velvet Scoter is a rare summer visitor.

FULIGULA NIGRA.

The Black Scoter is common on migration. A few remain
to breed.

FULIGULA CLANGULA.

The Golden-eye is a common summer visitor.

FULIGULA GLACIALIS.

The Long-tailed Duck breeds commonly on the tundra.

FULIGULA CRISTATA.

The Tufted Duck is a common summer visitor.

FULIGULA MARILA.

The Scaup passes through on migration.

FULIGULA HISTRIONICA.

The Harlequin Duck is a rare summer visitor.

ANAS PENELOPE.

The Widgeon is a very common summer visitor.

ANAS QUERQUEDULA.

The Garganey is a very common summer visitor.

ANAS ACUTA.

The Pintail is a very common summer visitor.

ANAS BOSCAS.

The Mallard is a very common summer visitor.

ANAS CRECCA.

The Teal is a very common summer visitor.

ANAS CLYPEATA.

The Shoveller is a very common summer visitor.

ANSER BERNICLA.

The BauidiJbl Goose is rare on the autumn migration.



Birds of Archangel. 385

ANSER LEUCOPSIS.

The S*eut Goose was once obtained in spring.

ANSER RUFICOLLIS.

The Red-breasted Goose is only seen in the spring. It is
very rare.

ANSER ALBIFRONS.

The White-fronted Goose passes through on migration,
and breeds on the Kanin peninsula.

ANSER MINUTUS.

The Little White-fronted Goose passes through on migra-
tion and breeds on the Kanin peninsula.

ANSER SEGETUM.

The Bean-Goose is a summer visitor.

ANSER ARVENSIS.

The Grey-lag Goose is a summer visitor.

CYGNUS MUSICUS.

The Mute Swan is a summer visitor.

CYGNTJS MINOR.

Bewick's Swan is a summer visitor, and breeds near
Archangel.

STERNA MACRURA.

The Arctic Tern is a very common summer visitor.

LARUS MINUTUS.

A small colony of the Little Gull visits the neighbourhood
of Archangel to breed.

LARUS TRIDACTYLUS.

The Kittiwake is a rare summer visitor.

LARUS RIDIBUNDUS.

The Black-headed Gull is a rare summer visitor.

LARUS EBURNEUS.

The Ivory Gull is a rare winter visitor.

LARUS GLAUCUS.

The Glaucous Gull is occasionally seen. It breeds on the
Kanin peninsula.



386 Mr. W. A. Forbes on the Structure

LARUS MARINUS.

The Great Black-backed Gull is an occasional visitor. It
breeds on the Kanin peninsula.

LARTJS CANUS.

The Common Gull is a very common summer visitor.

LARUS BOREALIS.

The Siberian Herring-Gull (the L. affinis of Reinhardt) is
an occasional summer visitor. It breeds in great numbers
in the monastery on the island of Solovetsk. Those that
cannot find a suitable place outside the monastery breed on
the walls and in the court-yard. In the latter alone Henke
counted over 500 nests, though the monastery is visited an-
nually by about eighty thousand pilgrims.

STERCORARIUS POMATORHINUS.

The Pomarine Skua is an occasional visitor. It breeds on
the Kanin peninsula.

STERCORARIUS CREPIDATUS.

Richardson's Skua is a summer visitor, breeding at the
mouth of the Dwina and on the Kanin peninsula.

STERCORARIUS BUFFONI.

Buffon's Skua is a summer visitor, breeding at the mouth
of the Dwina and on the Kanin peninsula.



XXVIII. On the Variations from the Normal Structure of
the Foot in Birds. By W. A. FORBES, B.A., M.B.O.U.,
Prosector to the Zoological Society.

" IN all birds, even in Archceopteryx, the fifth digit of the
pes remains undeveloped .... Many birds have only three
toes, by suppression of the hallux. In the Ostrich, not only
the hallux, but the phalanges of the second digit are sup-
pressed .... hence the Ostrich has only two toes."

" The normal number of the pedal phalanges in birds is
(as in ordinary Lacertilia) 2, 3, 4, 5, reckoning from the
hallux to the fourth digit. Among the few birds which con-
stitute exceptions to the rule are the Swifts, in which the



Avifauna of New Caledonia. 545

Before we conclude our " Notes " we hope the Editors of
'The Ibis" will allow us a little space for a ride on our
favourite " hobby " small-bore guns for collecting-natu-
ralists, especially ornithologists. Our favourite " Long Tom "
.(bore -360) has already been noticed in these pages, and we
can now confidently recommend a double-barrelled gun of
larger bore, but still small (viz. 28 to the lb., old style), as
fitted to do all the work that a naturalist requires, and to
effect a vast saving of cost and weight and space in carriage of
ammunition. The collector must, however, be content with
a pin-fire gun for the following reasons : He can load his
cartridges at least five times over, and though they may be
expanded by the firing, the use of a steel " swedge " before
loading contracts them very much, and with the aid of a hard
wooden punch (we use 8 inches of an old ash broom-handle !),
which can be carried in the pocket, they can always be forced
into the chamber of the gun : when fired they come out
easily. Not so with a central- fire gun, here any forcing is
damaging to the self-acting extractor, and the collector will
inevitably come to grief if he attempt it.

Our little 28-bore weighs barely 5 lb., an ordinary fowling-
piece 6^ or 7 lb. Capt. Richards, B.N., the discoverer of
the lovely Charmosyna margaretha, who collected much in the
Solomon Islands, had a gun constructed by Mr. Buckley,
one of the B. O. U., on the lines of ours, but 36 inches long
(one barrel full choke), with which he did wonders, and of
which he speaks in rapturous terms in the ' Field/ This
weighed 6 lb.

The charges we use are, for small birds, f dram of powder,
^ oz. of small shot; for ordinary work 1 dram powder, f oz.
No. 7 shot; large charge 1J dram powder, f oz. shot. For
large Pigeons, such as Ph&norhina goliath, weighing nearly
2 lb., and usually perching on very high trees, we use 1 dram
powder and f oz. shot, Nos. 2 or 3. A small charge of pow-
der will send large shot with sufficient force to kill at long
distances, and will not scatter it so much as a large charge.

Now calculate the saving of such a gun over a 14- or 12-
bore, which requires 2^ drams of powder and 1 J oz. of shot.



546 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

Of our first charge we get 409 shots in the pound of powder,
of our second 256-258, and of our third 170. 2i drams of
powder allow about 102 charges to the pound.

Of shot 96, 42 and 26 in the pound, as compared to 13 of
the big gun. Of course the big gun can throw small charges,-
but it does not do it so well as the small one. Now we
venture to say that at least 80 out of every 100 specimens
killed in the forest will fall to the first and second charges,
and a little amount of careful stalking and manoeuvring will
bring any thing else (Ducks, sea-fowl, &c.) within range of
the third and big shot, special charge.

An ordinary gun-case will carry about 140 of these small
cartridges, or, on an average, 700 shots, as we have shown ;
and we think that when the relief of carrying the smaller
weight of gun and ammunition when afield collecting (espe-
cially in a hot climate) is considered, the saving in bulk, as
luggage (impedimenta), and the saving of good ammunition
(not to be got in out-of-the-way places the best, usually,
in which to collect), our collecting-brethren of the B. O. U.
will thank us for the foregoing " wrinkle " about small-bore
guns.



XL. On the Interbreeding of Birds. By HENRY SEEBOHM.

THE interbreeding of birds supposed to be specifically distinct
is a subject which has been much neglected by ornithologists.
The existence of intermediate forms so produced has been as
much as possible ignored. Where the facts were too obvious
to admit of doubt, the so-called cross was contemptuously
dismissed as a hybrid a monstrosity and, as such, possessing
no more scientific interest than a white blackbird or a six-
legged calf. So long as each species was supposed to have
had a separate origin, and to be divided by a hard and fast
line from every other species, this attitude of ornithologists
towards interbreeding was excusable ; but now that the theory
of development has been generally accepted, the subject will
be found to possess the greatest interest and to throw unex-
pected light upon the origin of species.



Interbreeding of Birds. 547

The old definition of a species having lapsed, in consequence
of the rejection of the theory of special creation, it is neces-
sary to provide a new one. The first step towards an under-
standing of what constitutes a species is the admission of the
existence of subspecies. Two forms which are apparently
very distinct, as Corvus corone and C. cornix or Carduelis
major and C. caniceps, are nevertheless found to be only sub-
specifically distinct a complete series, of examples from one
extreme form to the other in each case being obtainable.
These are produced by interbreeding. In the case of the
Crows it has been proved over and over again that the two
extreme forms not only interbreed with each other, but also
with the intermediate forms ; so that not only are mulattos
produced, but also quadroons, octoroons, &c. Of course, in
no other way could a complete series from one extreme form
to the other be obtained.

In some genera of birds we find the relationship between
the species still more complicated. Lanius excubitor inhabits
Western Europe : it is an intermediate form between L. major
of North-eastern Europe and Siberia and L. leucopterus of
South-eastern Europe and Siberia. A complete series of
examples of intermediate forms connecting L. major and
L. leucopterus may be obtained ; and yet both species inhabit
the same district in Siberia and appear to be specifically
distinct, no intermediate forms having been obtained from
that country. On the other hand, both the extreme forms
appear to be only subspecifically distinct from L. excubitor,
inasmuch as in North-eastern Europe every intermediate
form is found between L. major and L. excubitor, and in
South-eastern Europe every intermediate form is found
between L. excubitor and L. leucopterus. In this .case we
may assume that L. excubitor was the original Shrike from
which L. major and L. leucopterus have varied in opposite
directions. In the case of the Crows and the Goldfinches,
already cited, the circumstances are probably somewhat
Differ ent. The original Crow or Goldfinch may have been
an intermediate form of either of the extreme forms; but
there is considerable evidence to prove that, in the case of the



548 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

Crow at least, the two forms had been long enough separated
for the intermediate forma to have been absorbed by inter-
breeding, or eliminated by sexual or natural selection, and
afterwards reproduced by the interbreeding of the extreme
forms wherever the geographical areas of their respective
distributions again met, not only in the valley of the Yenesay,
but also in the valley of the Elbe and in the highlands of
Scotland.

We must, however, look upon the example of the Crows as
an exceptional case. Interbreeding seldom takes place be-
tween the extreme forms, because they are too widely sepa-
rated geographically. The intermediate forms occupy the
intermediate localities, and were probably the original race,
which has spread in different localities and has had to struggle
with different difficulties, and has consequently developed in
different directions, but not to such a degree as to prevent
the individuals of each valley breeding with their immediate
neighbours ; so that a complete series from one extreme to
the other is obtainable, though, as in the case of the Shrikes,
the two extremes have become so widely separated that when
they have subsequently remigrated into the same locality they
remain distinct, having lost the power, or at least the will, to
interbreed.

The case of the Shrikes may be given as a typical example
of incipient species, of imperfectly segregated species, of
species in the process of formation, of conspecies, of sub-
species, or by whatever name ornithologists may agree in
future to call the phenomenon the great fact lying at the
bottom of it all, and explaining it all, being that inter-
breeding takes place. We must, however, bear in mind that
there is no hard and fast line between a specific difference
and a difference which is only subspecific. Two forms may
have become so widely separated that interbreeding between
them has become physically impossible, or they may have
become sufficiently separated to cause the cross to be a barren
hybrid, or the produce may only be less fertile than usual, or
no perceptible decrease of fertility may be observable. The
practical result is that slight subspecific variati9ns are con-



Interbreeding of Birds. 549

tinually lost by interbreeding ; so that the similarity of
individuals in a species is retained, whilst the sterility pro-
duced by a specific variation prevents the universal mongreli-
zation of species which might otherwise take place.

Interbreeding is a check upon the indefinite multiplication
of species ; whilst the narrow limit in which it is possible
provides against the extinction of specific differences.

A very interesting case of the interbreeding of forms
hitherto supposed to be specifically distinct has just come to
my knowledge.

Cinclus cashmiriensis is a well-known species of Dipper, in
which the dark-brown and white on the underparts are dis-
tributed in the same manner as they are in our bird, the white
throat and breast being divided abruptly from the dark-brown
belly and flanks. Its range extends from Lake Baical to the
Altai Mountains. In its more northern locality it meets with
C. leucogaster, with which it apparently interbreeds ; for, as
is well known, every intermediate form, as well as both
extreme forms, are found in the district. I have lately had
an opportunity of examining a large series of Dippers, sent
from the Altai Mountains by the Siberian collector of Herr
Tanere of Anclam ; and I find that in the southern extremity
of its range C. cashmiriensis comes into contact with C. sor-
diduSjwiih whom it also apparently interbreeds; for here again
we have every intermediate form as well as both extreme
forms. It is impossible to say whether C. leucogaster would
interbreed with C. sordidus or not, because we do not know of
any locality where both are found; but it is difficult to avoid
coming to the conclusion that both of them interbreed with
C. -cashmiriensis. By obtaining a series of examples from
both localities, a complete series of Dippers may be obtained,
beginning with birds having nearly the whole of the under-
parts white, and ending with birds having the whole of the
underparts brown, the throat and breast being only a shade
paler than the belly and flanks.

In all these forms of Cinclus there is little or no difference
in the colour of the upper parts, which makes it very difficult
to suppose that the difference in colour can be a protective

SER. iv. VOL. vi. 2 P






550 Mr. C.'Dixon on the

one. The same remarks apply to the various subspecific
forms of Sitta europcea.

But whatever theory we may adopt to account for the
differences in the colour of nearly allied species from different
localities, the fact that interbreeding takes place remains;
and it is this fact which I wish to press upon the attention


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