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danow attempts to distinguish the eastern form of this species
from the western form under the name of Saxicola amphi-
melcena, Henipr. et Ehr., asserting that the two birds differ in
the colour of the frontal band, which he says is black in the
western form and white in the eastern. An examination of
a large series from Greece and Spain convinces me that the
species are the same in both countries. The amount of black
on the forehead varies in examples from both localities, those
in which it is absent being probably birds of the year.

SAXICOLA MORIO.

The Siberian Pied Chat breeds in the Caucasus.

PRATINCOLA RUBETRA.

The Whinchat is common throughout the Caucasus.

PRATINCOLA RUBICOLA.

A Stonechat is not uncommon in the Caucasus, but whether
it is P. rubicola, P. maura, or P. hemprichi, it is impossible
to say, as no specimens appear to have been collected.

RUTICILLA PHCENICURUS.

The Eedstart is very common in the wooded parts of the
Caucasus up to the rhododendron-region.

RUTICILLA MESOLEUCA.

Ehrenberg's Redstart breeds in the Caucasus.

RUTICILLA OCHRURA (Gm.) .

Gould's Redstart appears to breed throughout the Caucasus
in the rhododendron-region. This is one of the most inter-



Birds of the Caucasus. 17

esting discoveries recorded in the volume. Hitherto this
species has only been known in collections from the single type
specimen of R. erythroprocta, Gould, in the British Museum,
obtained at Erzeroum. I examined several skins in the Mu-
seum of St. Petersburg ; and Bogdanow informed me that
others were in the museum at Kazan. There can be no doubt
that the Motacilla ochrura of Gmelin from the Persian moun-
tains is Gould's Redstart (abdomine flavo), and not the
Black Redstart, to which 1 have erroneously assigned it in
the ' Catalogue of Birds/ v. p. 339.

RUTICILLA ERYTHROGASTRA.

Guldenstadt's Redstart was originally described from the
Caucasus, but appears to be rare there, since no recent tra-
veller, except Radde, has found it in that locality.

ERITHACUS HYRCANUS.

The Persian Robin breeds in the Caucasus.

ERITHACUS RUBECULA.

The Robin is also found in the Caucasus. I have an ex-
ample in my collection obtained by Michailowsky.

ERITHACUS SUECTCUS (Brehm, nee Temm.).
The Red-spotted Bluethroat passes through the Caucasus
on migration.

ERITHACUS GOLZII.

The Persian Nightingale is said by Menetries to be com-
mon in the forests of the Caucasus. Examples collected by
him are in the Museum at St. Petersburg. Bogdanow con-
siders its song not nearly so fine as that of our bird.

ERITHACUS PHILOMELA.

The Eastern Nightingale is said by Nordmann and Mene-
tries to be found in the Caucasus ; but their statements re-
quire verification.

ACROCEPHALUS TURDOIDES.

The Great Reed- Warbler is common in suitable localities
in the lowlands of the Caucasian district.

SER. v. VOL. i. c



18 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

ACROCEPHALUS ARUNDINACEUS.

The Reed- Warbler is recorded by Filippi and Kessler from
the Caucasus ; but their statements require verification.

ACROCEPHALUS PALUSTRIS.

The Marsh-Warbler is said to have been found in the
Caucasus by Krinitzky and Nordmann ; but their statements
require verification.

ACROCEPHALUS PHRAGMITIS.

The Sedge-Warbler was found by Bogdanow on the Terek
river.

LTTSCINIOLA MELANOPOGON.

The Moustached Warbler was obtained by Nordmann in the
Caucasus.

CETTIA CETTJI.

Cetti's Bush-Warbler has repeatedly been obtained from
the Caucasus, where it is probably a resident.

HYPOLAIS PALLIDA.

The Olivaceous Tree- Warbler has been found in the Cau-
casus, where it is doubtless a summer migrant.

PHYLLOSCOPUS TROCHILUS.

The Willow- Warbler appears to pass through the Caucasus
on migration.

PHYLLOSCOPUS SIBILATRIX.

The Wood-Warbler passes through the Caucasus on mi-
gration.

PHYLLOSCOPUS RUFUS.

The Chiffchaff passes through the Caucasus on migration.

PHYLLOSCOPUS TRISTIS.

The Siberian Chiffchaff appears also to pass through the
Caucasus on migration, as an example was obtained by Kessler
on September 17th.

REGULUS CRISTATUS.

The Goldcrest has been recorded from the Caucasus; but
no examples are known to exist in Museums.



Birds of the Caucasus. 19

SYLVIA FAMILIARIS.

The Grey-backed Warbler was originally described from
the Caucasus, where it breeds.

SYLVIA NISORIA.

The Barred Warbler is a summer visitor to the Caucasus.

SYLVIA ATRICAPILLA.

The Blackcap is a summer visitor to the Caucasus.

SYLVIA HORTENSIS.

The Garden- Warbler is a summer visitor to the Caucasus.

SYLVIA CURRUCA.

The Lesser Whitethroat is a summer visitor to the Caucasus.

SYLVIA CINERA.

The Whitethroat is a common summer visitor to the
Caucasus.

SYLVIA MYSTACEA.

Bowman's Warbler was first described from the Caucasus.
I had an opportunity in St. Petersburg of examining a fine
series of this bird from the banks of the Kur, collected by
Menetries, and from Turkestan. Fully adult males in breed-
ing-plumage are vinous-brown on the breast and flanks,
but may easily be distinguished from a somewhat similar
plumage of S. subalpina by their dark slate-grey head and
cheeks. It is to be regretted that Dresser, in his ( Birds of
Europe/ after confusing this species partly with S. melano-
cephala and partly with 8. subalpina, should, after tardily
admitting its specific distinctness, have adopted the name
of S. momus, in direct violation of the Stricklandian code,
to which he generally adheres.

ACCENTOR ALPINUS.

The Alpine Accentor is found in the mountain-valleys of
the Caucasus.

ACCENTOR MODULARIS.

The Hedge-Sparrow is also found in the Caucasus.

MOTACILLA ALBA.

The White Wagtail appears to be a common summer visitor

c2



20 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

to the Caucasus. Examples obtained by Michailovsky are
undistinguishable from Indian and Siberian skins of M. duk-
hunensis-, but the validity of this species requires confirmation.

MOTACILLA LUGUBRIS.

The Pied Wagtail has been recorded from the Caucasus ;
but, in the absence of any skins from this locality, we must
consider the statement to be improbable.

MOTACILLA BOARULA.

The Grey Wagtail breeds in the mountain-valleys of the
Caucasus up to the limit of perpetual snow, and is only seen
in the plains during migration.

MOTACILLA FLAVA.

The Blue-headed Wagtail breeds in the Caucasus, but does
not ascend the mountains to any great elevation.

MOTACILLA VIRIDIS.

The Grey-headed Wagtail passes through the Caucasus on
migration.

MOTACILLA MELANOCEPHALA.

The Black-headed Wagtail breeds in the plains of the
Caucasus.

ANTHUS SPINOLETTA.

The Water-Pipit is recorded by Nordmann from the Cau-
casus ; but recent travellers have not obtained it.

ANTHUS ARBOREUS.

The Tree-Pipit is very common in the forests of the Cau-
casus during the breeding-season.

ANTHUS PRATENSIS.

The Meadow -Pipit is said to pass through the Caucasus only
on migration.

ANTHUS CAMPESTRIS.

The Tawny Pipit breeds in the Caucasus, and was described
from there by Menetries as Anthus rupestris.

TROGLODYTES EUROP^IUS.

The Common Wren is a resident in many parts of the
Caucasus.



Birds of the Caucasus. 21

CERTHIA FAMILIARIS.

The Common Creeper is also a resident in many parts of
the Caucasus.

TlCHODROMA MURARIA.

The Wall- Creeper is not uncommon from the limit of
forest- growth up to the snow -line and in the rocky passes too
steep and narrow for the growth of trees.

SITTA C^SIA.

The Common Nuthatch frequents the forests below the
pine-region in considerable numbers.

SITTA NEUMEYERI.

The Rock-Nuthatch has been repeatedly obtained in the
Caucasus. Dresser,, in his e Birds of Europe/ has involved
this species in great confusion. It was originally described
from Dalmatia, is found in Greece, Asia Minor, Palestine,
the Caucasus, and Persia (S. rupicola, Blanf., is a synonym) .
A larger paler- coloured species, S. syriaca (of which S. te-
phronota, Sharpe, is a synonym), was originally described
from Syria *, and is found in Palestine, Turkestan, and Af-
ghanistan.

UPUPA EPOPS.

The Hoopoe is one of the commonest birds of the Caucasus.

CORACIAS GARRULTJS.

The European Roller is very common in the plains.

ALCEDO ISPIDA.

The Kingfisher is very common in the Caucasus, ascending
to a height of 5000 feet.

MEROPS APIASTER.

The Bee-eater is very common in the plains.

MEROPS PERSICA.

The Egyptian Bee-eater has only been found on the south-
east side of the Caucasus.

* On what ground does Canon Tristram (Ibis, 1882, p. 410) contradict
Temmmck's statement (Man. d'Orn. iii. p. 287) that Ehrenberg found this
species in Syria ?



22 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

HlRUNDO RUSTICA.

The Barn- Swallow is a common summer visitor to the Cau-
casus, and is often seen on the mountain-steppes.

HlRTJNDO URBICA.

The House-Martin is very common, building both on the
houses and in the cliffs.

COTILE RUPESTRIS.

The Rock-Martin breeds at some elevation on the moun-
tain-steppes and passes.

COTILE RIPARIA.

The Sand-Martin is common in suitable localities in the
Caucasus.

CYPSELUS APUS.

The Swift is common in most of the towns and villages and
on the mountain-steppes.

CYPSELUS MELBA.

The White-bellied Swift is found in all the mountainous
regions of the Caucasus, but is rarely seen in the plains.

CAPRIMULGUS EUROP.EUS.

The Common Nightjar is common throughout the Caucasus
up to 5000 feet elevation.

CUCULUS CANORUS.

The Cuckoo is common in the Caucasus, but disappears
about the middle of September.

IYNX TORQUILLA.

The Wryneck is found in the Caucasus up to 5000 feet
elevation.

DRYCOPUS MARTIUS.

The Great Black Woodpecker inhabits the plane, beech,
and pine forests of the Caucasus.

GECINUS VIRIDIS.

The Green Woodpecker is very common in the plains,
forests, and mountains of the Caucasus. The Green Wood-
pecker of the Caucasus has twice been described as a new
species, the first time in 1841 by Brandt (Bull. Sc. Acad.



Birds of the Caucasus. 23

Imp. St. Pet. ix. p. 12) as Picus karelini, and afterwards in
1878 by Taczanowski (Journ. Orn. p. 349) as Gecinus saun-
dersi. I have carefully examined Brandt's type in the
St. Petersburg Museum, as well as two skins from Lenkoran
in my own collection, and am unable to detect any character
by which to distinguish them from our common Green Wood-
pecker. M. Bogdanow and Mr. Hargitt both agree in this
opinion.

GECINUS CANUS.

The Grey-headed Green Woodpecker is recorded from the
Caucasus both by Menetries and Nordmann \ but Bogdanow
did not meet with it.

PlCUS POELZAMI, Bogd.

The Great Spotted Woodpecker of the Caucasus is fairly
entitled to subspecific distinction. The male does not differ
very much from our bird, except that the under parts are
darker. In the female, however, this character is still more
pronounced, the colour of the underparts being a cinnamon-
brown, as near as possible to the colour of dry chocolate, or
cafe, au lait. So distinct is the bird from the St. Peters-
burg form of P. major, that Bogdanow does not apparently
suspect their relationship, and points out at some length the
differences between his species and P. mandarinus and its allies.
He has doubtless been led astray by the article of Sharpe and
Dresser in the ' Birds of Europe/ which, unfortunately, con-
founds the Woodpeckers of the P. major group with P. cabanisi
and its allies, and ignores entirely the important variations
of the former. Sharpe and Dresser having stated that, after
an examination of " a very large series of birds from all parts
of Europe/' they "found little or no variation in examples [of
P. major] from different localities/' it was perfectly natural
for Bogdanow to conclude, after a comparison of his birds from
the_Caucasus with those from North Russia, that the former
constituted a good and probably distantly related species ; and
when he found that Sharpe and Dresser treated P. cabanisi as
a " race or subspecies of P. major" it is not surprising that
he should have considered the Caucasian bird a near ally



24 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

of the eastern form, which it greatly resembles in the colour of
the underparts. The fact, however, is that the two species
belong to different groups, apparently separated by a hard
and fast line from each other P. major and its allies always
having white scapulars, and P. cabanisi and its allies always
having black scapulars.

Malherbe, in his ( Monograph of the Picidae/ divides Picus
cabanisi into four species P. mandarinus, P. gouldi, P.
cabanisi, and P. luciani. The characters upon which these
species are founded are the presence or absence of a red spot
on the breast, the shape of the red spot on the nape, and the
variation in tint of the underparts. All these characters
appear to me to be valueless. There are two extreme
forms of P. cabanisi P. luciani and P. cabanisi between
which every intermediate stage occurs. In the former the
white spots on the innermost secondaries meet, forming several
broad white bars across the feathers. In the latter these
white spots are obsolete or nearly so. The former are con-
fined to North China, and the latter to South China, whilst
the intermediate forms are principally confined to interme-
diate localities.

The other statement of Sharpe and Dresser, that examples
of the Great Spotted Woodpecker from different parts of
Europe show " little or no variation " is equally inaccurate.

Examples from St. Petersburg, Archangel, the valleys of
of the Obb and the Yenesay, and from Lake Baikal are larger,
and much whiter on the underparts, than those from Britain
and South Europe, and are known to ornithologists as P. cissa
of Pallas. They would undoubtedly be recognized as a good
species, were it not for the fact that in Scandinavia, and in the
valley of the Amoor, intermediate forms occur.

In Japan a form of the Great Spotted Woodpecker occurs
which appears to be distinct from any of the allied forms. I
propose to call it Picus japonicus. I have eleven examples
two from Hakodadi and five from Yokohama, two from South
Yezo, one from the island of Sakhalin, and one from the
Kurile Islands. The colour of the underparts agrees with
P. major-cissa from Scandinavia ; but the white on the secon-



Birds of the Caucasus. 25

daries is more developed, and the white on the innermost
secondaries is as much developed as in P. luciani. It is
probably only subspecifically distinct from P. major, as the
Sakhalin bird is somewhat intermediate.

In Turkestan P. leucopterus occurs, in which the white on
the wing is very much developed, and the white on the tail
very little so. This species appears to be connected by a
series of intermediate forms with P. syriacus, which Tristram
and Newton have mistaken for intermediate forms between
P. major and P. syriacus, and which Severtzow has named
P. leptorhynchus. P. leucopterus and P. syriacus and all their
intermediate forms, however, may always be distinguished
from P. major and P. cissa and all their intermediate forms
by the small amount of white on the wing and the large
amount of white on the tail of the latter.

Picus MINOR.

The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker is said to be rare in the
Caucasus.

COLUMBA PALUMBUS.

The Ring-Dove is a resident in the forests of the Caucasus
below the pine-region ; and in winter their numbers are largely
increased by migrants from the north.

COLUMBA LIVIA.

The Rock-Dove is very common in the Caucasus ; occa-
sionally found breeding in great numbers in the caves.

COLUMBA CENAS.

The Stock-Dove is a common resident in the Caucasus.

TURTUR AURITUS.

The Turtle Dove is common in the Caucasus below the
pine-region.

PTEROCLES ALCHATA.

The Pin-tailed Sand-Grouse is said to be an accidental
visitor to the Caucasus from the steppes of Turkestan, which
appears to be the western limit of its breeding-range. Evers-
mann's statement that it breeds in the Kirghiz steppes
(J. f. O. 1853, p. 292, which is quoted by Dresser, doubtless



26 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

refers to P. arenarius. The western form is confounded with
this species by Dresser ; but Bogdanow (Bull. Ac. Imp. Sci.
St. Petersb. xi. p. 51, 1880) shows that the two forms are
fairly separable, the Spanish and African birds having the
subterminal bands of the wing-coverts yellow instead of white.
Bogdanow falls into the error of giving a new name to the
eastern bird, which he calls P. sewerzowi. Linnaeus, how-
ever, distinctly describes P. alchata as having " tectrices
ferruginese margine albse ;" so that his name must stand for
the eastern bird. I propose to call the western bird Pterochs
pyrenaicus, a name originally given to it by Brisson.

PTEROCLES ARENARIUS.

The Black-bellied Sand-Grouse is also said to be occa-
sionally found on the steppes.

TETRAO MLOKOSIEWICZI.

The Georgian Black Grouse is found throughout the Cau-
casus in the upper pine-region and in the birch- and rhodo-
dendron-regions. In summer it feeds on the berries of the
rhododendron, and in winter on the birch-buds and pine-
needles. They pair early in May, at which time Nordmann
(who, however, did not distinguish the species from the
Common Black Grouse) describes their peculiar note as a
kind of singing murmur. The best time to secure them is at
sunrise, when, leaving the pine -forests in which they roost,
they cross the narrow belt of birch and willow and retire to
the " tundra" to feed. The Caucasian tundras above the
limit of forest-growth possess an alpine flora ; and the last
trace of trees appears to be a dwarf rhododendron, which
creeps along the ground almost like the creeping birch of the
Norwegian fjelds and Siberian tundras.

PERDIX CINEREA.

The Partridge is common in the Caucasus, especially on
the steppes.

PERDIX CHUKAR.

The Chukar Partridge is common from the steppes down
to the sea-shore.



Birds of the Caucasus. 27

TETRAOGALLUS CAUCASICUS.

The Caucasian Snow -Partridge is probably the only bird
which is only found in the Caucasus, where it is abundant
from the limit of forest-growth to the snow-line. Nothing
whatever is known of its habits.

TETRAOGALLUS CASPIUS.

The Caspian Snow-Partridge was found by Radde in the
Caucasus ; but the exact locality is somewhat obscure.

FRANCOLINUS VULGARIS.

The Francolin is found in the Caucasus, but is very local.

COTURNIX COMMUNIS.

The Quail abounds in the Caucasus, except in the forests
and swamps. In mild seasons it remains during winter.

PHASIANTTS COLCHICUS.

The Pheasant abounds in the Caucasus in the river-valleys
up to 3000 feet elevation.

RALLUS AQUATICUS.

The Water-Rail is common in most suitable localities
swamps, the reedy banks of rivers and creeks, &c.

RALLUS CREX.

The Land-Rail is very common up to a considerable eleva-
tion.

RALLUS PORZANA.

The Spotted Crake is common.

RALLUS MI NUT A.

The Little Crake is not uncommon in the Caucasus.

GALLINULA CHLOROPUS.

The Moorhen is found throughout the Caucasus, except on
the mountains.

PORPHYRIO C.ERULEUS,

The Purple Gallinule has been obtained in the Caucasus,
but is said to be very rare.

FULICA ATRA.

The Coot is common in the rivers and lakes on the plains .

OTIS TARDA.

The Great Bustard is a common bird on the northern



28 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

steppes of the Caucasus, migrating in large flocks to winter
in the plains of the Kur and Arax.

OTIS TETRAX.

The Little Bustard is similar to the preceding in its range
and migration.

OTIS HOUBARA.

The Houbara Bustard is recorded from the Caucasus by
De Filippi, who obtained two examples. He expressly states
that they were not O. macqueeni.

(EDICNEMUS CREPITANS.

The Stone-Curlew is very common on some of the steppes.

CHARADRIUS VANELLUS.

The Lapwing passes through the Caucasus in great num-
bers in the spring and autumn migrations ; and a few are said
to remain to breed.

CHARADRIUS GREGARIUS.

The Sociable Plover was seen by Bogdanow on the steppes
in August.

CHARADRIUS PLUVIALIS.

The Golden Plover is only a winter visitor to the Caucasus.

CHARADRIUS HELVETICUS.

The Grey Plover is seen in the Caucasus on the autumn
migration.

CHARADRIUS ASIATICUS.

The Caspian Plover is seen in the Caucasus on migration.

CHARADRIUS HIATICULA.

The Ringed Plover is found in the Caucasus in suitable
localities.

CHARADRIUS MINOR.

The Lesser Ringed Plover is common on most of the rivers
of the Caucasus, sometimes to a considerable height.

CHARADRIUS CANTIANUS.

The Kentish Plover is very common on the shores of the
Caspian and on the salt steppes near Bakon,



Birds of the Caucasus. 29

GLAREOLA PRATINCOLA.

The Pratincole is found on the north of the Caucasus,, and
is said sometimes to occur on the south slope.

GLAREOLA MELANOPTERA.

The Steppe - Pratincole reaches the western limit of its
range on the steppes of the Caucasus.

CURSORIUS GALLICUS.

The Cream-coloured Courser was seen in the Caucasus,
both by Nordmann and Mene'tries.

H^EMATOPUS OSTRALEGUS.

The Oystercatcher is very common in the Caucasus, except
on the mountains.

STREPSILAS INTERPRES.

The Turnstone is very common on the Caucasian shores of
the Black Sea.

NUMENIUS ARQUATA.

The Curlew breeds on the steppes of the Caucasus.

NUMENIUS PH^EOPUS.

The Whimbrel breeds on the northern steppes of the Cau-
casus.

LlMOSA MELANURA.

The Black-tailed Godwit breeds in the Caucasus.

LlMOSA LAPPONICA.

The Bar-tailed Godwit passes through the Caucasus on the
autumn migration.

TEREKIA CINEREA.

The Terek Sandpiper, originally described by Guldenstadt
from the river Terek, passes the Caucasus on the autumn
migration.

TOTANUS GLOTTIS.

The Greenshank passes the Caucasus on the autumn mi-
gration.

TOTANUS STAGNATILIS.

The Marsh- Sandpiper is very common during the breeding-
season in the valleys of the Terek and the Kuban.



30 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

TOTANUS FUSCUS.

The Spotted Redshank passes the Caucasus on the autumn
migration.

TOTANUS CALIDRIS.

The Common Redshank breeds in the Caucasus wherever
there are swamps, and winters on the salt marshes of Baku.

TOTANUS GLAREOLA.

The Wood- Sandpiper passes through the Caucasus in great
numbers on the autumn migration.

TOTANUS OCHROPUS.

The Green Sandpiper breeds throughout the Caucasus up
to the steppes.

TOTANUS HYPOLEUCUS.

The Common Sandpiper breeds throughout the Caucasus
up to the steppes.

TRINGA ALPINA.

The Dunlin passes through the Caucasus in great numbers
on the spring and autumn migrations.

TRINGA MINUTA.

The Little Stint is very common during the autumn mi-
gration.

TRINGA TEMMINCKI.

Temminck's Stint is very common on migration.

TRINGA SUBARQUATA.

The Curlew Sandpiper was first described by Guldenstadt
from the Caucasus, but is only seen there on the spring and
autumn migrations.

TRINGA PUGNAX.

The Ruff is very common in the Caucasus during the
spring and autumn migrations.

SCO;LOPAX RUSTICULA.

The Woodcock passes through the Caucasus on migration.
A few remain to breed in the forests below the pine-region ;
and some winter in the plains.



Birds of the Caucasus. 31

SCOLOPAX MAJOR.

The Great Snipe passes through the Caucasus on the spring
and autumn migrations.

SCOLOPAX GALLINAGO.

The Common Snipe passes through the Caucasus on the
spring and autumn migrations ; and many winter in the
swamps on the southern slopes.

SCOLOPAX GALLINULA.

The Jack Snipe passes through the Caucasus on migration,
wintering in the swampy plains to the south.

PHALAROPTJS HYPERBOREUS.

The Red-necked Phalarope passes along the Caucasian
shores of the Caspian on migration. Menetrie*s says that it
breeds on the southern slopes ; but this statement respecting
so arctic a bird is scarcely credible.

RECURVIROSTRA AVOCETTA.

The Avocet is found in great numbers during migration
on the salt lakes and on the shores of the Caspian and the
Black Sea.

HlMANTOPUS CANDIDUS.

The Black-winged Stilt is common on the shores of the
Caspian and the Black Sea, and on the banks of the rivers
and salt lakes, in early spring and summer.

GRUS COMMUNIS.

The Common Crane passes through the Caucasus on mi-
gration ; and a few are said to breed on the steppes north of
the mountains.

GRUS VIRGO.

The Demoiselle Crane is very common on the northern
steppes ; but Bogdanow does not say at what time of the year
probably in summer only.

ARDEA CINEREA.

The Common Heron is found on all the waters of the
Caucasian plains ; but Bogdanow does not say if it winters
there.



32 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

ARDEA PUEPUREA.

Bogdanow simply says that the Purple Heron inhabits the
rivers and lakes of the Caspian plains in great numbers. It
probably does not winter there.


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