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round the bill are black and considerably developed ; the
upper surface of the head in all three specimens is a dark
and somewhat greyish chocolate-brown, with a few feathers
on the forehead, immediately adjoining the cere, edged with
white ; the mantle is chocolate-brown, darker in C than in
A and B. In C a tinge of rufous is perceptible in the feathers
on either side of the nape ; in the other two specimens this
tinge extends across the nape and on the median wing-
coverts : the latter are variegated with small pure white
spots, none of which are more than *2 of an inch across
(whilst most of them are less) ; and these spots in C extend
to some of the external scapulars. In A the number of these
spots, some of which are concealed, is about nine on the
right side and twelve on the left side ; in B only two spots
are to be found on each side; in C there are about fifteen on



of Birds from Borneo. 89

(54) EURYL^EMUS OCHROMELAS, Sharpe.

Eurylamus ochromelas, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 798.

(56) CYMBORHYNCHUS MACRORHYNCHUS (Gm.).
Cymborhynchus macrorhynchus, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 798.

(67) ARBOROPHILA CHARLTONI (Eyton).
Compared with the types in the British Museum.

From Silam, N.E. Coast of Borneo:

(28, 4) HARPACTES DIARDI (T.).

Harpactes diardi, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 791.

(24) MEGAL.EMA MYSTACOPHANES (T.).

Megalama mystacophanes, vide supra, " Lantoogo."

(13) CALLOLOPHUS MENTALIS (T.).
Callolophus mentalis, vide supra, " Wit- wit."

(8) MlCROPTERNUS BADIOSUS (T.).

Micropternus badiosus, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 792.

(12) MEIGLYPTES TUKKI (Less.).
Meiglyptes tukki, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 792.

(2) THRIPONAX JAVENSIS (Horsf.).
Thriponaxjavensis, Sharpe, torn. cit. 792.

(26) RHINORTHA CHLOROPH^EA (Raffl.).
Rhynortha chlorophcea, vide supra.

(5) RHOPODYTES ERYTHROGNATHUS (Hartl.).
Rhopodytes erythrognathus, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 793.

(16) ALCEDO MENINTING, Horsf.

Alcedo meninting, Salvad, Ucc. Born. p. 93, " Mantis."

(9) CEYX DILLWYNNI, Sharpe.

Ceyx dillwynni, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 793.

(25) HALCYON CHLORIS (Bodd.).

Halcyon Moris, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 793, " Kic-kic."

(1) PLATYSMURUS ATERRIMUS (T.).
Platysmurus aterrimus, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 799.



90 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

(22) DlSSEMURUS BRACHYPHORUS (T.).

Dissemurus brachyphorus, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 795, " Blakil."

(10) TERPSIPHONE APFINIS (Hay) .
Terpsiphone affinis, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 794.

(7) HENICURUS FRONTALIS, Blyth.
Henicurus front alls, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 798.

(18) CHLOROPSIS CYANOPOGON (T.).

Chloropsis cyanopogon, Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 32, "Perak
Hyan."

(15) MlCROPUS MELANOCEPHALUS (Gm.).

Micropus melanocephalus, Sharpe, torn, cit. p. 65, " Piang."

(17,29) RUBIGULA WEBBER! (Hume).

Rubigula webberi, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 171, " Perak Un-
goot."

(19, 20) IRENA CRINIGERA, Sharpe.

Irena crinigera, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 176, " Lalu/ J

(27) ARACHNOTHERA LONGIROSTRA (Lath.).
Arachnothera longirostra, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 796.

(11, 6) CORYDON SUMATRANUS (Raffl.).

Cory don. sumatr anus, Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 111.

(23) TRERON OLAX (T.) .

Treron olax, Salvad, torn. cit. p. 289, " Punie-Siur."

(21, 14) ROLLULUS ROULROUL (Scop.).

Rollulus rouloul, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 800, " Surokan."

(3) EUPLOCAMUS IGNITUS (Lath.).
Euplocamus Ignitus, Sharpe, torn. cit. p. 800.



VII. Observations on the Pied Wagtails of Japan.
By HENRY SEEBOHM.

CAPTAIN BLAKISTON has called my attention to a species of
Motacilla from Japan which appears to him to be distinct from
both M. japonica and M. amurensis. Capt. Blakiston has



Pied Way tails of Japan. 91

sent me three males, after comparing them with the skins in
the Hakodadi Museum ; and I find that I have four other
examples of the same bird in my collection. It seems to be a
good species, breeding in the Kurile Islands, the island of
South Yesso, and the island of Askold, and wintering on the
coast of China from Takow to Amoy ; I propose to call this bird

MOTACILLA BLAK1STONI, Sp. UOV.

Forehead, chin, and the sides of the head and neck (except
a black line through the eye) white. Throat, breast, hind
head, nape, back, lesser wing-coverts, scapulars, innermost
secondaries, tips of primaries, upper tail-coverts, and eight
centre tail-feathers black. Rest of wings and tail and under-
parts white.

From M. amurensis this species may always be distin-
guished by having black instead of grey lesser wing-coverts,
and white instead of brown secondaries. From M.japonica
its white, instead of black, cheeks and sides of the neck are a
sufficient distinction.

Capt. Blakiston informs me that he has examples of M.
amurensis from Kamtschatka ; and Taczanowski also describes
this specie's (under the name of M. kamtschatica, Pall.) as
having been obtained by Dybowski in Kamtschatka. The
synonymy of M. amurensis will therefore be as follows :

Motacilla lugens, Pall, fide Kittlitz, Kupf. Nat. Vog. p. 16,
pi. 21. fig. 1 (1832, nee Temm. et Schl. 1847).

Motacilla lugens, Illig. fide Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 250
(1850, partim).

Motacilla alba, var. lugens, Illig. fide Schrenck, Amur-
Lande, i. p. 338 (1860). *

Motacilla amurenris, Seebohm, Ibis, 1878, p. 345.

Motacilla camtschatica, Pall, fide Taczanowski, Bull. Soc.
Zool. France, 1882, p. 388.

In winter both M. amurensis and M. blakistoni lose the
black on the throat and on the lower breast. M.japonica
appears to retain the black all the year round. The example
of M. amurensis figured in ' The Ibis/ 1878, pi. ix. is the
only skin of this species which I have seen that appears to



92 Mr. P. L. Sclater on the

be quite in breeding-plumage. Seven other skins in my col-
lection have white chins ; but the male described by Dybowsky
is said to have the throat black to the base of the bill. If full
summer plumage be so rare in this species, it may also be so
in M. leucopsis, and Mr. Hume is probably right in con-
sidering M. sechuensis as the fully adult plumage of the latter
species. Assuming this to be the case, the Pied Wagtails of
of Asia in adult summer plumage may be diagnosed as
follows :

a. Back grey.

a'. Cheeks black personata.

V. Cheeks white.

a". Black line through the eye ocularis.

b". No black line through the eye dukhunensis.

b. Back black.

c'. Cheeks black.

c". Chin white japomca.

d". Chin black.

a'". Black on the head coming down in a

peak to the base of the tail maderaspatana.

b'". Forehead white hodgsoni.

d'. Cheeks, white.

e". Black line through the eye.

c'". Shoulders black ; secondaries white .. blakistoni.
d'". Shoulders grey ; secondaries brown .. amurensis.
f". No black line through the eye . leucopsis.



VIII. On the Genera Microbates and Rhamphocsenus of the
Family Formicariidsfe. By P. L. SCLATER, M.A., Ph.D.,
F.R.S.

(Plate III.)

IN the Appendix to our 'Nomenclator Avium Neotropi-
calium/ published in 1873, Mr. Salvin and I instituted a
new genus of Formicariidse, with the subjoined characters :

MICROBATES, gen. nov.
(jjuKpos, parvus, et ftarrjs, qui incedit.)

Habitus generalis Rhamphocceni, rostro paulo crassiore at



Species of Wryneck from Equatorial Africa. 29

maculate ; regione parotica dilute rufa ; tectricibus ala-
rum remigibusque tertiariis dorso concoloribus, primariis
in pogonio exteruo nigro rufoque fasciatis, in interne ni-
jrris, dimidio basali ex parte rufo, nigricante subfasciato ;
mento, gutture, capitis collique lateribus pulchre albo
nigroque fasciatis ; macula suprapcctorali minore intense
rufa ; subcaudalibus laetc rufis ; subalaribus fulvis ; ab-
doiniue subnavescenti-albido, confertim nigro striato ;
cauda rufescenti-brunnea, fasciis subangustis 78 nigris ;
nropygio et supracaudalibus dorso concoloribus, pulchre
maculatis; rostro plumbeo-nigricante ; pedibus plumbeis.
Long. tot. circa 210 millim , culmen 16, alae 94> caudae
72, tarsi 20.

lynx pulchricollis belongs to a singular little group of
African Wrynecks, of which two other species of very similar
appearance are known, /. pectoralis, Vig., from South Africa,
and /. (equator ialis, Riipp., from Abyssinia and Shoa. Both
are rare in museums ; but of the latter species there is a very
fine male in the Bremen collection, and specimens of both
sexes of /. pectoralis are in the Berlin Museum (Krebs, Caf-
fraria), where I have compared them with my new species.

As to /. aquatorialis it will suffice to remark that the
great extent of the rufous colour on the underparts, reaching
from the chin to the abdomen, is quite sufficient to distin-
guish it from the new /. pulchricollis. Much nearer to it
comes /. pectoralis. The principal differential characters
between these two species are the following : (1) In /. pec-
tor alls the rufous guttural spot, in a gradually narrowing
stripe, runs up to the chin, whereas in /. pulchricollis the
whole fore neck (including the chin) shows very regular black
and white fasciae. (2) The under tail-coverts are deep rufous
in /. pulchricollis and light fulvous in 7. pectoralis. (3) The
stripes on the abdomen are much broader and somewhat
shorter in /. pulchricollis. (4) The beak is more slender and
the culmen more curved in the latter species. (5) The bars
of the tail are broader and much better defined in /. pulchri-
collis than in I. pectoralis. (6) The markings of the uro-
pygium and the upper tail-coverts, nearly obsolete in 7. pec-
toralis, are very elegant and conspicuous in 7.



30 Mr. H. Seebohm's Contributions

The form of the tail-feathers is different in the tyro
nes, these being much broader and more obtusely routed
at tnk tips in /. pulchricollis. (8) In /. pectoralis j&\ the
greater quills have very distinct and regular rufous spots or
bars on tntsdr inner webs ; in /. pulchricollis thgse spots are
confined to tlte first quill ; in the others the inner web is of
a nearly uniformslight rufous on its basal hm, the bars being
almost obsolete. (^) /. pulchricollis is altogether the larger
bird.

There is no different in the coldur of the sexes of this
species.

Dr. Emin Bey discovered\tfiis interesting bird in one of
his excursions east of the Bajr-ePDjebel. "All round Babira,"
he writes, " there is nurch cultivated ground, interspersed
with groups of trees/and fine parl^-like scenery. Here it
was that this Wryne'ck, a pair of which I send, was observed
early in the morning searching for ants. \The birds are rather
clumsy in theiXinovements, awkwardly hopping about. They
fly short distances only, the flight being untshilatory. The
note of the male is a repeated dii-i } which is ans\ered by the
female/ They keep much on the ground. In rilHng they
utte/'a sharp zick. Rare."



IV. Further Contributions to the Ornithology of Japan.
By HENRY SEEBOHM.

I AM indebted to Capt. Blakiston for an opportunity of ex-
amining a case of birds from Japan containing some examples
of very great interest. The order in which the species are
placed in the subjoined notes upon this collection is that
adopted by Messrs. Blakiston and Pryer in their article on
the birds of Japan (Ibis, 1878, p. 209).

BRACHYRHAMPUS MARMORATUS.

A skin sent (No. 1269), labelled #, Hakodadi, May,"
appears to belong to this species. Its short tarsus, much
shorter than the middle toe, and blackish plumage, marbled



to the Ornithuloyy of Japan. 31

with huffish chestnut on the upper parts and with white on
the underparts, distinguish it from its allies. It is, however,
very large, as the following comparison of measurements
shows, and may possibly prove to belong to a new species :

Mid. toe
Wing. Tail. Culmen. Tarsus, and claw.

Hakodadi 5-75 1-7 1-5 -8 1-36

B.marmoratn8(Uo\&*) 5'00 1-5 1-35 -7 1-2

BRACHYRHAMPUS WRANGELI.

An example in the Swinhoe collection labelled " No. 1357,
Hakodadi, ? , May," was identified by Swinhoe (Ibis, 1875,
p. 458) with B. kittlitzi of Brandt. It measures wing5'25,
tail 1*4, culmen 1*3, tarsus '7, middle toe and claw 1'3
inch. The upper parts are grey, most of the feathers tipped
with pale grey, but many of them are dark brown with
rufous tips. The underparts are very white, most of the
feathers, especially on the breast and flanks, have dark brown
tips. The under wing-coverts are nearly white. This spe-
cimen cannot be the adult of any of the species enumerated
by Coues, since both the species mentioned by him as having
short tarsi are said to have the under wing-coverts dusky
brown.

A skin sent, labelled " No. 1918, Hakodadi, ? , Nov.,"
appears to be almost adult. The measurements agree with
those of the last-mentioned skin, except that the culmen
measures 1*4. The upper parts are nearly uniform greyish
brown, with much, white on the scapulars. The underparts
are white, except the flanks and axillaries, which are grey,
and the inner wing-coverts, which are mottled grey and white.
Probably the next moult would have brought it to the plumage
described as B. wrangeli.

SlMORHYNCHUS PYGM^EUS.

The skin sent from Hakodadi (No. 3255) agrees fairly
well with Coues's S. microceros, and another (No. 2291) from
the same locality with the S. pusillus of the same author.
Probably, as Dr. Coues suggests, the latter is the young of
the former, in which case he is of opinion that Gmelin's
name ought to be used.



32 Mr. H. Seebohm's Contributions

COLYMBUS ADAMSI.

The skin sent (No. 3256) is an immature example of this
species from Hakodadi, with a nearly white bill. A fine
adult male was lately to be seen in the Fisheries Exhibition,
collected by Baron Nordenskiold in the Arctic Ocean.

ANSER CYGNOIDES.

The skin sent (No. 3247) from Yokohama is correctly
identified.

ANSER HYPERBOREUS.

The skin sent (No. 3246) from Yokohama is correctly
identified, the wing measuring 17| inches.

BERNICLA BRENTA.

The skin sent (No. 3239) from Yokohama belongs to the
form of the Brent Goose (var. nigricans) with the black of
the breast extending to the belly, and the white on the neck
almost in a complete ring.

STERNA SINENSIS.

The skin sent (No. 3241) from Yokohama belongs to this
species, which is new to Japan. The shafts of the primaries
are white.

LARUS BOREALIS.

The skin sent (No. 2787) from the Kurile Islands is an
example of the Arctic Herring-Gull, originally described *
by Brandt from Siberia, and afterwards by Reinhardt from
Greenland.

LARUS TRIDACTYLUS.

The skin sent (No. 2742) from the Kurile Islands is cor-
rectly identified.

STERCORARIUS CREPIDATUS.

The skin sent (No. 2696) from the Kurile Islands belongs
to this species.

STERCORARIUS POMATORHINUS.

The skin sent (No. 1637) from Tokio Bay is an immature
example of this species, which is new to Japan.

* [Where is this original description published ? EDD.]



to the Ornithology of Japan. 33

ATTAGEN MINOR.

The skin sent (No. 2751) from Hakodadi is correctly
identified, the length of wing being 21 inches.

PROCELLARIA LEUCORRHOA.

The skin sent (No. 2748) from Yezo is correctly identified.

PROCELLARIA FURCATA.

The skin sent (No. 1819) from the Kurile Islands is cor-
rectly identified.

PUFFINUS GRISEUS.

The skin sent (No. 2695) from the Kurile Islands belongs
to this species.

TEREKIA CINEREA.

The skin sent (No. 2793) from Yokohama is correctly
identified.

TRINGA PLATYRHYNCHA.

The skin sent (No. 1486) from Hakodadi is correctly
identified. Dresser is, I believe, in error in supposing that
the East-Siberian bird differs from that of Europe.

MACHETES PUGNAX.

The skin sent (No. 1869) from Hakodadi is correctly
identified.

PHALAROPUS FULICARIUS.

The skin sent (No. 2700) from the Kurile Islands is cor-
rectly identified.

SCOLOPAX NILSONI.

The skin sent (No. 1503) from Hakodadi may belong to
this species, which has previously been recorded from Japan.

SCOLOPAX GRISEA.

The skin sent (No. 1707) from East Yezo is that of a female
in first autumn plumage of this species. A second example
was obtained at Yokohama in March, and from the description
is an adult in winter plumage. This American species is an
addition to the birds of Japan. It has occurred in North-
east Siberia (Tacz. Journ. Orn. 1873, p. 112), and is in-

SER. v. VOL. ii. D



34 Mr. H. Seebohm's Contributions

eluded in the list of British birds, more than a dozen examples
having been obtained in this country.

TRINGA SUBMINUTA.

TRINGA RUFICOLLIS.

Both these species pass along the coasts of China and
Japan in spring and autumn, but I have not seen any ex-
amples of T. minuta from either of these countries. These
three species are often confused together. T. subminuta
may always be distinguished by its large feet. T. ruficollis
in spring plumage may always be known by its chestnut
throat and breast, and in winter plumage by the absence of
chestnut margins to the two centre tail-feathers.

TRINGA CANUTUS.

The skin sent (No. 2794) from Yokohama is correctly
identified.

NUMENIUS LINEATUS.

NUMENIUS CYANOPUS.

NUMENIUS VARIEGATUS.

NUMENIUS MINUTUS.

There are two Curlews and two Whimbrels in Japan. N.
lineatus is the Eastern form of our Curlew, from which it is
probably only subspecifically distinct. It differs from our
bird in having the rump and axillaries pure white, characters
which are very rarely met with, and possibly never united in
European birds. It has also a longer bill, as the following
measurements, in inches, of the culmen will show :

Females. Males.

N. lineatus 8 to 6| 6 to 5|

N. arquatus 6| to 5| 6 to 4|

N. cyanopus (N. aus trails and N. rufescens of Gould, and
N. major of Temminck and Schlegel) is of about the same size,
but differs from both forms of the Common Curlew in having
the rump of the same colour as the back and upper tail-
coverts. It varies enormously in the length of: the beak, the
culmen of males varying from 4J to 6| inches, and of females
from 7| to 8J inches.



to the Ornithology of Japan. 35

N. variegatus, Scopoli (ex Sonnerat ; N. uropygialis of
Gould), is the Eastern form of our Whimbrel, and doubtfully
distinct from it, having the rump streaked instead of white.

N. minutus is a miniature N. cyanopus, the wing measuring
only 7J instead of 12 inches in length.

IBIS PROPINQUA.

The skin sent (No. 1829) from Yedo is correctly identified.

BUBULCUS COROMANDUS.

The skin sent (No. 3215) from Tokio is correctly identified.

BUTORIDES MACRORHYNCHUS.

The skin sent (No. 2811) from Nagasaki is correctly iden-
tified. It seems doubtful if this species is distinct from
B. javanicus.

ARDEOLA PRASINOSCELES.

The skin sent (No. 2677) from Hakodadi belongs to this
species, which has not hitherto been recorded from Japan.
It was described by Swinhoe from South China, but seems
to be doubtfully distinct from A. leucoptera.

RALLTTS BAILLONI.

The skin sent (No. 2717) from Yokohama is Baillon's
Crake. It does not differ in size from European examples.

TETRAO BONASIA.

The skin sent (No. 3242) from Hakodadi is a typical
Hazel-Grouse, neither the short-tailed pale Siberian form
nor the rufous South-European form.

LAGOPUS MUTUS.

The skin sent (No. 3243), from an elevation of 9250 feet
above the level of the sea, about a hundred miles to the
north-west of Yokohama, on the main island of Japan (not
from Northern Japan, as erroneously stated by Saunders,
Yarr. Brit. B. iii. p. 86), appears to belong to the Common
Ptarmigan.

TURTUR ORIENTALIS.

The skin sent (No. 2367) from Yezo belongs to this species,

D2



36 Mr. H. Seebohm's Contributions

which has already been recorded from Japan by Whitely (Ibis,
1867, p. 204) as T. rupicola, and by Swinhoe (Ibis, 1874,
p. 162) as T. gelastes.

CUCULUS HIMALAYANUS.

The skins sent (Nos. 2710, 2711) from Fujisan are the
C. himalayanus of Vigors apud Jerdon. The wings measure
7'9 inches.

CUCULUS HYPERYTHRUS.

The skin sent (No. 2709) from Fujisan belongs to this
species. It is the Hierococcyx fug ax of Horsfield apud
Blakiston and Pryer. It appears to me that the adult of
this species is unknown. All the skins I have seen have
longitudinal streaks on the underparts, such as are charac-
teristic of immature birds of the Hierococcyx group of
Cuckoos, to which it evidently belongs.

Picus MINOR.

Three skins sent from Yezo are of typical P. minor, much
darker on the underparts, and much more streaked, espe-
cially on the breast and flanks, than P. minor var. pipra,
which ranges from Archangel to Kamtschatka. Two ex-
amples in my collection from the island of Saghalien, and
one from the Altai Mountains, are paler underneath, but are
streaked on the breast and flanks. A British example only
differs from these skins from Yezo in having the flanks barred
instead of streaked, a feature characteristic of P. minor var.
danfordi from Asia Minor.

UPUPA EPOPS.

The skin sent (No. 2125), caught at sea off the south-east
coast of Yezo, belongs to the typical form of the Hoopoe.

ZOSTEROPS JAPONICA.

A skin (No. 3250) bought from a native bird-dearer, and
said to have been caught in the interior of the main island,
is very large. It measures wing 2*5 inches, tail 1-8, culmen
77, tarsus *76. The rufous on the breast and flanks is some-
what paler than usuaL



to the Ornithology of Japan. 37

CEKTHIA FAMILIARIS.

The skin sent (No. 3182) from Sapporo is of the arctic or
pale form known as var. scandulaca.



MAGNIROSTRIS.

The skin sent from Fujisau, near Yokohama, belongs to
this species, which is new to Japan.

LANIUS MAJOR.

The skin sent (No. 1097) from Hakodadi belongs to this
species, which is also new to Japan.

BUTALIS SIBIRICA.

The skin sent (No. 2730) from Fujisan belongs to this
species, which is also an addition to the fauna of Japan.

PARUS ATER.

Two females from Yezo are indistinguishable from Euro-
pean skins; but a male (No. 3178) from the same locality
has a decided crest, and must be referred to var. pekinensis.

PARUS PALUSTRIS.

Two examples (Nos. 3131, 3132) from Yezo belong to the
form known as var. brevirostris, as does also an example from
the Kurile Islands (No. 2799).

ACREDULA ROSEA.

The skin sent (No. 2732) from Yokohama is indistinguish-
able from European examples, and can hardly claim to be
called var. trivirgata.

^GITHALUS CONSOBRINUS.

A second skin of a male (No. 2543) and one of a female
(No. 2544) from Nagasaki, in the south island of Japan,
appears to prove that this species, of which the type de-
scribed by Swinhoe from Central China is in my collection, is
a good one, differing from ^E.pendulinus in having no chestnut
on the breast, a darker head, and less chestnut on the back.

ACCENTOR RUBIOUS.

The skin sent (No. 2227) from Tokio, at no great distance
from Yokohama, agrees with Temminck and SchlegeFs figure
in having no streaks on the flanks. Probably the Accentor



38 Mr. H. Seebohm's Contributions

rubidus var. fervidus (Sharpe, Cat. B.B. M. vii. p. 653), with
streaked flanks, is confined to the north island of Japan.

ACCENTOR NIPALENSIS.

The skin sent (No. 2731) from Fujisan, not far from Yo-
kohama, agrees with the remains of the type of A. erythro-
pygius in the Swinhoe collection. This hird has recently
been made (Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 663) a sub-
species of A. alpinus-, but I cannot find that it differs in
any particular from A. nipalensis.

ANTHUS LUDOVICIANUS.

Mr. Blakiston has sent a fine series of fifteen examples of
A.japonicus, all of which are absolutely identical with Ame-
rican birds. One example is almost an exact duplicate of
the bird figured in Swainson and Richardson's ' Fauna Boreali-
Americana ' (see Seebohrn, Hist. Brit. B. ii. p. 248) .

MOTACILLA BLAKISTONI, Seeb. Ibis, 1882, p. 91 *.

I have now a fine series of this excellent species of both
sexes in summer and winter plumage, both adult and young.
They all have more white on the basal half of the primaries,
especially the three first, than can be found in any of the
allied species. The male has a black back in summer, but
females in both seasons and males in winter have the back
grey mottled with black. The ear-coverts, cheeks, and sides
of the neck are always white, and in adults the shoulders are
black and the secondaries white, or nearly so. The throat is
black in summer and white in winter, but the breast is
always black.

MOTACILLA JAPONICA.

This species may be recognized in both sexes, at both
seasons and at all ages, by its stout bill and by its never
having the cheeks and ear-coverts white ; they are black in
adults and grey in the young. The only white on the head
is the chin, forehead, and eye-stripe. In this species the
back, throat, and breast of the male are always black,
and of the female always dark grey. As in the preceding
* [See Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vi. p. 144. EDD.]


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