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to the Ornithology of Japan. 39

species, the shoulders are black and the secondaries white,
but the first three primaries are only white on the outside
half of the basal half of the inner web.

MOTACILLA AMURENSIS.

This species appears also to be perfectly distinct from its
allies, and may be always distinguished from the preceding
two species by its grey shoulders and secondaries. In the
distribution of the white on the three first primaries it agrees
with M.japonica. The male in summer plumage has a black
back, suffused with grey on the rump, but the male in winter
and the female in summer have grey backs. The throat is
black in summer and white in winter, but the breast is always
black. The only species with which this bird is likely to be
confused is M. ocularis. From this, however, it is perfectly
distinct, with an entirely different geographical range. M.
amurensis bears the same relation to M. ocularis that M.
yarrelli does to M. alba, and is in every respect as distinct.
The males can only be confounded in winter plumage, but
the lighter slate-grey, especially on the rump, of M. ocularis
is a sufficient distinction. The latter species is not found
in Japan.

MOTACILLA SULPHUREA.

A series of Japanese examples vary in length of tail from
3'6 to 3*7 inches, and are therefore of the var. melanope.

MOTACILLA FLAVA.

A skin from Canton and another (No. 2781) from the
Kurile Islands have the head dark olive-green, the eye-stripe
yellow, and the ear-coverts dark brown, and are therefore of
var. taivanus. An example from Hongkong collected by
Jouy also belongs to this form.

CETTIA CANTANS.

CETTIA CANTILLANS.

Carefully sexed examples of these two species, collected by
Mr.P.T. Jouy, of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington,
about the centre of the main island of Japan, seem to prove
that I was wrong in uniting them. It is curious that two



40 Mr. H. Seebohm's Contributions

species only differing in size should inhabit the same district ;
but they appear to vary in length of wing, as under

Males. Females.

C. cantans 2'65 to 2-5 2-55 to 2-45

C. cantillans 2'2 to 2'15 2'15 to 2-05

ClSTICOLA CISTICOLA.

There seems to be no doubt that the so-called C. brunneiceps
is the summer plumage of the European Fantailed Warbler.

MEGALURUS PRYERI, nov. sp.

This is a most interesting addition to the fauna of Japan.
The skin sent (No. P 5) was shot in Tokio, not very far from
Yokohama. Its nearest ally is M. gramineus from Australia,
but it differs from that species in having a shorter and more
rufous tail, in having buff instead of white edges to the inner-
most secondaries, and in having no spots on the throat, breast,
or under tail-coverts.

The general colour of the upper parts is chestnut-buff,
each feather, except those of the forehead and rump, having
an almost black centre, especially conspicuous on the back
and innermost secondaries. The quills and tail-feathers are
buffish brown, the latter with dark shaft-lines. The under-
parts are chestnut-buff, shading into pale buff on the centre
of the throat and belly, and on the axillaries and under wing-
coverts. Bill black above, pale beneath. Legs, feet, and
claws pale. The bill is Phylloscopine, and the rictal bristles
very small. The second primary is about equal to the ninth,
and about twice as long as the first. The tail, of twelve fea-
thers, is Locustelline, and has no trace of black subterminal
spots. Length of wing 2*32, tail 2'32, tarsus *8, culmen *5
inch.

This bird (and its allies) might be placed in the genus Lus-
ciniola. It is structurally the same as L. thoracica, but has
the pattern of colour of Megalurus, and is so exactly inter-
mediate between the two genera as to make it doubtful if
they can be separated.

TROGLODYTES PARVULUS.

Three Wrens from the Yokohama district measure in length



to the Ornithology of Japan. 41

of wing from 2'1 to T85 inch, and are indistinguishable from
European examples, except that the underparts are slightly
darker and more rufous. The smaller ones are absolutely in-
distinguishable from examples from Vancouver's Island. An
example from Hakodadi measures 2'1 inches in length of wing,
and is slightly paler on the underparts. An example from the
Kurile Islands is still paler underneath, but not quite so
pale as European examples : it measures 2*15 inches in
length of wing, and the culmen '66 inch. Nothing can be
more misleading than to dignify these climatic races with
the rank of species. The Japanese Wren is known as T.
parvulusv&r.fumigatus ; but to distinguish it even as a variety
from T. alascensis and T. pacificus can only be regarded as
hair-splitting, the extremes in a series of any one variety
overlapping the extremes of the nearest allied varieties.

MERULA CARDIS.

Among the examples sent of this species is one (No. 724)
from Hakodadi of the young in first plumage, which was
hitherto unknown. The general colour is brown, but most
of the feathers of the upper parts have chestnut shaft-
streaks and black terminal bands. The throat and upper
breast are spotted like the lower breast and flanks. Axillaries
chestnut.

MERULA CHRYSOLAUS.

An example (No. 723) from Hakodadi of young in first
plumage is new. The general colour resembles that of the
adult, but most of the feathers of the upper parts have
chestnut shaft-streaks and black terminal bands, and on the
breast and flanks are arrow-shaped black spots. Axillaries
grey.

ALAUDA ARVENSIS.

The Sky-Larks of Japan differ in size as much as ours do,
the wing varying in length from 4'9 to 3'9 inches. They are
slightly more rufous than our birds, and might be called
var. japonica by ornithologists anxious to split hairs. A
smaller race, var. ccelivox, also occurs in Japan, having the
wing varying from 3'7 to 3*2 inches.



42 Contributions to the Ornithology oj Japan.

EMBERIZA YESSOENSIS.

Three examples from Yezo prove the distinctness of this
species, which was figured in ' The Ibis ' for 1879, pi. i.

SYRNIUM TJRALENSE.

The skin sent (No. 3163) from Yezo is sexed a female,
and dated October, but is no more rufous than examples from
Krasnoyarsk (see Ibis, 1879, p. 180).

BUBO BLAKISTONI, Seebohm, nov. sp. P. Z. S. Nov. 20th,
1883.

It seems probable that the name of B. maximus must be
erased from the list of Japan birds. The Owl which has
hitherto done duty for this species in Japanese collections
turns out to be almost generically distinct. The skin is
dated Hakodadi, December.

General colour of the upper parts brown, marbled with
buff, which takes the form of transverse bars on the wings
and tail; all the small feathers with broad dark-brown shaft-
streaks. Underparts similar, but the shaft-streaks narrower.
Chin and upper throat white, with very narrow shaft-streaks.
Ear-tufts well developed. Tarsus feathered, but toes
entirely bare. Length of wing 22 inches, tail 11, tarsus 3'8,
culmen 2' 5.

This bird is probably the largest known species of Owl,
and forms a connecting link between the genera Bubo and
Ketupa. It is perhaps nearest to B. coromandus, but is
much larger, and is without any trace of feathers on the
feet.

SCOPS STICTONOTUS. .
SCOPS JAPONICUS.

A series from Hakodadi of the grey form to the rufous
form presents almost every intermediate stage, and shows
that these supposed species are only phases of plumage of a
variable species, probably climatic varieties.

SCOPS SEMITORQUES.

Males appear to measure 6 inches in length of wing and
females 7 inches.



Mr. R. Ridgway on three Guatemalan Birds. 43

AQUILA CHRYSAETUS.

The skin sent (No. P 7) from Yokohama is a young bird
of this species.

AQUILA LAGOPUS.

The skins sent (Nos. 2666 and 1371) from Hakodadi are
Rough-legged Buzzard Eagles.

CIRCUS SPILONOTUS.

The skin sent (No. 1491) from Hakodadi appears to be a
young male of this species. The thighs are white streaked
with chestnut ; the primary-coverts and the secondaries are
very grey ; and there are obscure bars on all the tail-feathers,
except the two centre ones. Another skin (P 8) from the
main island appears to be a female in first plumage. The
thighs are dark chestnut-brown, but all the tail-feathers are
barred.

ClRCUS jERUGINOSUS.

Three examples from the main island of Japan are Common
Marsh-Harriers, with almost white heads, unbarred tails, and
dark chestnut thighs.

V. Notes on three Guatemalan Birds.
By ROBERT RIDGWAY.

HAVING, through the kindness of Mr. Salvin, had the oppor-
tunity of examining the type specimens of the following
species, it affords me much pleasure to offer a few remarks
concerning them, my apology for doing so being that they
possess peculiar interest to me on account of their relation-
ship, real or supposed, to certain North-American forms
with which I have been enabled to make a careful comparison
of them.

1. CHRYSOMITRIS ATRICEPS, Salvin, P. Z. S. May 1863,
p. 190; Ibis, 1866, p. 194.

This very distinct species is apparently most nearly related
to C. spinescens, Bp., of New Granada. The coloration is
very similar, but the olive-green tips to the greater wing-
coverts and margins of the tertials are much broader, and the



44 Mr. R. Ridgway on three Guatemalan Birds.

lower parts of quite a different colour, being yellowish olive
(in some specimens dull greyish) instead of bright oil-yellow.
C. spinescens likewise has no dusky on the chin or throat,
and has a proportionately much smaller bill.

With C. notata no comparison need be made, there being
no close resemblance, except in the shape of the bill, which
is similarly elongated and acute.

2. AMMODROMUS PETENICUS, Salvin, //. c.

In general appearance this species resembles very closely
the {< Coturniculus manimbe, var. dorsalis" of Hist. N. Am. B.
vol. i. p. 549, but is quite distinct. It differs in lacking the
yellow supraloral spot, which in the present bird is greyish
white, in having a distinct dusky line along each side of the
throat, of which there is no trace in C. dorsalis, in the much
paler yellow of the wing-edge^ in the much darker colour of
the lateral lower parts, and in the decidedly darker ground-
colour of the dorsal surface. There are also other marked
differences of coloration, but those mentioned are the most
conspicuous. If the Fringilla manimbe, Licht., and its allies
(Coturniculus peruanus , Bp., and the above-mentioned bird
from the Argentine Republic, Uruguay, &c.) are rightly
placed in the genus Coturniculus, the present bird would seem
to belong there also, since it is very closely allied ; but I
doubt the propriety of referring any of these birds to either
Coturniculus or Ammodromus, all the typical species of which
are distinguished by their very narrow and finely acuminate
rectrices.

3. SPIZELLA PINETORUM, Salvin, //. c.

This species is far more closely related to S. socialis than
to S. pusilla ; indeed I cannot see why it should ever have
been compared with the latter. The resemblance to S. so-
cialis extends to all parts of the coloration, the pattern of
which is identical in the two, but all the tints are much
darker in S. pinetorum. Thus the crown is a very rich dark
chestnut, much darker even than in the fully adult spring
plumage of Melospiza palustris, while that of S. socialis is
clear rufous, as much paler than the tint of M. palustris as



Mr. J. H. Gurney on the Egyptian Nightjar. 173

on their basal portion, but rufous for the remainder of their
length.

The present specimen measures as under :

inches.

Wing 6-80

Tarsus 0-90

Middle toe s. u 0-85

Ear-tuft . . 0-60



XVII. Remarks on the Occurrence of the Egyptian Night-
jar in Nottinghamshire. By J. H. GURNEY, Jun.

ON the 23rd of June, 1883 (as recorded in 'The Zoologist/
p. 374), an Egyptian or Isabelline Nightjar (Caprimulgus
(egyptius) was shot near Mansfield, in Nottinghamshire, and
is now in the fine British collection of Mr. Joseph Whitaker,
who had it while still in the flesh. Mr. H. E. Dresser figures
two forms, the pale and the dark ; the difference is but slight,
but it is apparently to the dark form that Mr. Whitaker's
bird belongs. Mr. Dresser says the range of the Egyptian
Nightjar is not very extensive, Egypt and Nubia appearing
to be its true home (' Birds of Europe/ iv. p. 629) . I believe
I saw a good many in Egypt, but, strange to say, never shot
one. From seeing them in April, evidently coming north
with the migratory stream, I supposed them to be summer
visitants; but as Mr. E. C. Taylor informs me of his having
shot some in December 1853, and as I have lately seen an
example obtained at Komombo on February 12th, 1882, by
Mr. F. Worthington, it is quite evident that the species,
though a true migrant, is found in Egypt at all seasons.

How far south it goes is not known, but westwards
Mr. Dresser mentions (/. c.) that he has identified specimens
from Baluchistan and Turkestan. Strange to say, it has
not been met w r ith in Palestine, where, perhaps, its place is
taken by C. asiaticus (C. tamaricis, Tristr.). The European
occurrences, previous to the Nottinghamshire specimen now
recorded, are Herr Gatke's Heligoland example, obtained

SER. v. VOL. u. o



174 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

eighty ears ago, on the same day but one as the EnglishJ}i*ft,
ancTftHiee specimens obtained in Malta in thesprija^or 1876,
recorded^in^is Journal (Ibis, 1881, p. 19g^bffrof . Giglioli,
who adds that afrtjier was shot inSieiiyby Baron G. Caruso.
Mr. Whitaker's bird m^kestljj&^ixth European specimen, and
adds a third species o^me^gmus to the British list, the
Red-necked Nig}ijtCr (C. ri/^co/^4iaving been already ob-
tained here.^^ ^"\^



XVIII. Further Contributions to the Ornithology of Japan.
By HENRY SEEBOHM.

(Plate VI.)

Two more, collections of Japanese birds, for which I am
indebted to the kindness of Mr. F. Ringer of Nagasaki and
Mr. H. Henson of Hakodadi, enable me to add a few species
to the list of birds from these islands, and to correct some
errors in the identification of those already recorded.

PHALERIS PSITTACULA.

An example obtained by Mr. Snow on the Kurile Islands
is correctly identified.

MORMON CORNICULATUS.

An example collected by Mr. Snow on the Kurile Islands
is correctly identified.

BRACHYRHAMPHUS KITTLITZI.

A male collected by Mr. H. Henson at Hakodadi on the
23rd of March is intermediate between no. 1269 and no.
1357 ('Ibis/ 1884, p. 30), and points to the conclusion
that these four examples may be four stages, from young to
adult, of one species, probably B. kittlitzi. I am expecting
further skins from Kamtschatka, which may tfyrow more light
on the subject.

URIA COLUMBA.

An adult example (No. 2795) collected by Mr. Snow in
the Kurile Islands, and an immature female (no. 1850) from



Ornithology of Japan. 175

Hakodadi, are correctly identified. Mr. Hensoii has also sent
an adult and an immature example of U. car bo.

BERNICLA NIGRICANS.

An example of the Black Brent Goose sent by Mr. Ringer
from Nagasaki agrees with examples from Yedo Bay and
Hakodadi, and has hitherto been erroneously identified as the
Brent Goose (Ibis, 1878, p. 212). There are sixteen feathers
in the tail. It is an almost uniform dark brown, the head,
neck, and breast nearly black, except a white crescent streaked
with black on the fore neck, nearly meeting on the hind
neck. Examples of the Brent Goose with the very dark
underparts below the breast are found in England on the
Essex and Lincolnshire coasts, together with typical birds ;
and in some of them the white on the neck is almost as much
developed as in the Black Brent Goose.

This species is said to be found on both coasts of North
America, but very rarely on the east coast. It was first de-
scribed by Lawrence (Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. York, iv.
p. 171). The volume is dated 1848, but the paper was read
on the 16th of March, 1846. This bird must not be con-
founded with B. hutchinsi from Hakodadi (Ibis, 1882, p. 369),
which is paler and has the belly nearly white, and large
triangular patches of white covering the cheeks and ear-
coverts on each side of the head, as in B. canadmsis, of which
it is a small form, and with which it is probably conspecific.
B. leucopareia is another form of the size of B. canadtnsis,
but differing from it and B. hutchinsi in having a pale ring
round the lower throat.

TADORNA CORNUTA.

Several examples collected by Mr. Ringer at Nagasaki are
correctly identified.

QUERQUEDULA CIRCIA.

Examples of the Garganey have been sent by Mr. Ringer
from Nagasaki. Capt. Blakiston has obtained it also in
Yezo.

o2



176 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

FULIGULA PEEINA.

Capt. Blakiston has sent an example of the Pochard from
Hakodadi.

STERCORARIUS BUFFONI.

An example (no. 2753) collected by Mr. Snow in the
Kurile Islands is correctly identified.

PUFFINUS LEUCOMELAS.

A number of specimens collected by Mr. H. Henson at
Hakodadi agree with the plate in the ' Fauna Japonica/

PUFFINUS CARNEIPES.

Several examples collected by Mr. H. Henson at Hakodadi
appear to belong to this species. The under surface of the
wing is dark, and the legs and feet are pinkish.

DlOMEDEA NIGRIPES.

A fine adult female of this Albatross shot by Mr. H.
IJenson on the 17th of May in the Strait of Tsugaru, sepa-
rating Yezo from the main island, adds another species to
the fauna of Japan. It differs from the other dark Albatross
from Japan (D. derogata) in being slightly smaller, in having
dark instead of pale legs and bill, and in having the head
much paler in colour, especially round the base of the bill.
The bill is also smaller, measuring 4J inches from the frontal
feathers instead of 5 inches. This is said to be a good species,
though it has all the appearance of being the young of the
nearly white Albatross (D. albatrus), of which I have an
adnlt male obtained by Mr. H. Henson at Hakodadi on the
4th of April, which agrees in dimensions with a skin in the
Swinhoe collection from Amoy. In Mr. Ringer's collection
is also an example of D. albatrus from Nagasaki.

GOISACHIUS MELANOLOPHUS.

An example (No. 2714) from the main island, and a series
of examples collected by Mr. Ringer at Nagasaki, belong to
this species. It is not found in Yezo.

ARDEA SACRA.

Two Reef-Herons from the islands in the Straits of Corea
probably belong to this species. They are an almost uniform



Ornithology of Japan. 177

dark slate-grey, with a narrow streak of white on the throat.
They measure: wing 12'5, 11*0; bill in front 3*6, 3'4;
tarsus 3'5, 3'0 ; mid-toe without claw 2'6, 2'4 ; bare portion of
tibia 1-6, 1'3. The range erf this species appears to extend
from the Andaman Islands eastwards to Burma, the Malay
Archipelago, Japan, and the north-east coasts of Australia.
Almost everywhere it seems to be accompanied by a white
variety, with which it appears to interbreed, producing pie-
bald examples. It is said, however, that in South-east Aus-
tralia and in New Zealand the slate-grey form alone occurs.
Both forms, however, are recorded from some of the Pacific
islands. From Ceylon eastwards as far as West Africa a
very nearly allied species, A. gularis, is found in both the slate-
grey and white forms. It is said to differ in having the chin,
throat, and sides of the head white, and in being a somewhat
larger bird ; but ornithologists are not agreed on the specific
distinctions between these species. Examples of the slate-
grey form of the eastern species collected by Siebold in Japan
are recorded by Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Ardese, p. 27), but
no mention is made of them in the ' Fauna Japonica/

GRITS CINEREA.

Of the six Cranes which breed in Eastern Siberia five are
recorded from Japan. Of these, only four appear in Tem-
minck and SchlegcFs ' Fauna Japonica/ the Sacred or
Mantchurian Crane being omitted, no doubt for the very
good reason that the Japanese would not allow Siebold or his
collectors to procure one. The Common Crane is a winter
visitor to Japan, but many only pass on migration, wintering
still further south.

GRITS LEUCOGERANUS.

The same remarks apply to the Asiatic White Crane.

GRUS LEUCAUCHEN.

Grus antigone, Linn, apud Pallas.
Grus vipio, Pall, apud David and Oustalet.
Grus antigone ?, Linn, apud Blakiston and Pryer.
The White-naped Crane is the most abundant Crane in
Japan. Mr. Ringer has sent two skins from Nagasaki.



178 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

GRUS MONACHUS.

The White-headed Crane, according to 1'Abbe David, breeds
in Japan. Mr. Ringer has sent three skins collected in
Nagasaki.



VIRIDIROSTRIS.

Grus j aponensis } Briss.

Grus leucauchen, Temra. apud Blakiston and Pryer.

This is the Sacred Crane of the Japanese. It is probably
only a winter visitor to Japan, and the account of its habits
in that island, quoted in the ' Natural History of the Cranes '
by Tegetraeier from Sir E/utherford Alcock, refer to this
species, though they are erroneously ascribed to the White-
naped Crane by Tegetmeier, who has further complicated
the subject by including the name Grus antigone, Linn.
apud Pallas, in the synonymy of both the White-naped and
Sarus Cranes ; and that of Grus j aponensis, Briss., in the
synonymy both of the White-naped and Mantchurian Cranes.
Mr. Ringer has sent an example of the Mantchurian Crane
from Nagasaki.

RHYNCH^EA BENGALENSIS.

A male collected by Mr. H. Henson at Hakodadi on the
22nd of May is the first example of this species obtained in
Yezo.

.

GALLICREX CRISTATA.

An example of this species collected by Mr. Ringer at
Nagasaki is an addition to the Japanese fauna.

GALLINULA CHLOROPUS.

An example (No. 3249) from Yokohama agrees with
European specimens.

FULICA ATRA.

An example (No. 3248) from Yokohama, and an example
collected by Mr. H. Henson at Hakodadi, agree with Euro-
pean specimens.

OTIS DYBOWSKII.

An example of a male Bustard collected by Mr. Ringer at
Nagasaki agrees with Taczanowsky's description of the



Ornithology of Japan. 179

eastern form of the Great Bustard. It is somewhat smaller
than the western bird, the bill is slightly longer and more
slender, the head is paler in colour, and the lesser wing-
coverts are grey, like the greater and median wing-coverts,
instead of being mottled with brownish buff and black, like
the back. Dybowsky states that he has obtained both adult
and young from Dauria ; and what seem to be young males
of the western form in the Cambridge Museum have the
lesser wing- coverts coloured as in the adult, so that it would
appear that the species is distinct.

LAGOPUS RUPESTRIS ?

A specimen of a Ptarmigan was shot by Mr. Snow on the
nearest of the Kurile Islands to Kamtschatka, which is pro-
bably the Rock-Ptarmigan. It is pure white, except the
tail-feathers and the lores, which are black.

COLUMBA LIVIA.

An example from Nagasaki is darker than usual. The
Rock-Doves of Japan may be escaped birds which have taken
possession of the caves on the coast; they occupy all the
temples in Japan, and are fed by the devotees of Buddha.

TURTUR HUMILIS.

An example sent by Mr. Owston was obtained from a
dealer at Yokohama, and was said to have been shot in the
neighbourhood.

CARPOPHAGA IANTHINA.

A fine example collected by Mr. Pryer near Yokohama
agrees with the figure in the ' Fauna Japonica.' Two examples
collected by Mr. Ringer in Nagasaki are now in the British
Museum .

IYNGIPICUS SEEBOHMI, Hargitt, Ibis, 1884, p. 100.

Mr. Oldfield Thomas has kindly compared examples of
/. kisuki and this species with the types of the former in
the Leyden Museum, and assures me that Temminck and
SchlegeFs bird is unquestionably the same as examples col-
lected by Mr. Ringer near Nagasaki on the island of
Kiushiu.



180 Mr. H. Seebohm on the

IYNX TORQUILLA.

An example of this species (No. 1242), a male dated
Hakodadi, May, was identified by Swinhoe (Ibis, 1874,
p. 162) as lynxjaponica. A careful comparison of this skin
and a series of skins from South China with European
examples fails to show any differences either of colour or
size which are not common to eastern as well as western
birds. This species does not appear to present any climatic
variations.

CHELIDON DASYPUS.

The type of this species from Borneo in the Leyden
Museum has been compared with the type of C. blakistoni
from Japan by Mr. Sharpe, who pronounces them to be
identical. Bonaparte's name will probably be the one
adopted by ornithologists.

CoilVUS NEGLECTUS.

An example in the collection of Captain Blakiston
(No. 2701), obtained at Osaka, in the southern portion of
the main island of Japan, appears to belong to an intermediate
form between Corvus dauricus and C. neglectus.


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