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Kiukiang, 2nd February.

2540. POMATORHINUS STYANI, nOV. Sp.

Lushan, 4th April and 8th November.. The genus Poma-
torhinus was monographed by Capt. Wardlaw Ramsay (Ibis,
1878, pp. 129-145) and afterwards by Mr. Bowdler Sharpe
(Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. vii. pp. 408-432), and P. ruficollis has
been specially investigated by Col. Godwin-Austen (Journ.
As. Soc. Beng. 1876, p. 75) and by TAbbe David and Mons.
Oustalet (Ois. de la Chine, p. 186) ; nevertheless it appears
to me that three distinct species are confused together
under this name by all the writers I have named. Mr.
Sharpe confesses that he accepted the verdict of these
distinguished authorities against the validity of Swinhoe's
species without trying the case himself; but after comparing



264 Mr. H. Seebohm on

Mr. Styan's skius and those in the Swinhoe collection, which
include examples collected by VAbbe David in Moupin and
Sechuen, with a large series from Nepal and Sikkim, he
endorses my subdivision of this 'species into three, all of
which have white throats and white margins to the feathers
of the breast ; but

P. ruficollis has the breast-streaks and the underparts below
the breast russet-brown ;

P. stridulus has the breast-streaks rich chestnut, contrast-
ing with the russet-brown underparts below the breast ; and

P. styani has the breast-streaks and the underparts below
the breast olive-brown.

There is little or no difference in the colour of the upper
parts (except that P. styani is slightly more olive (less russet)
on the rump and upper tail- coverts) ; but P. ruficollis has
much larger feet than the other two species, the hinder toe
and claw varying in length from 1*0 to 0'8 inch in this
species, from 0*85 to O7 inch in P. stridulus , and from 0*75
to 07 inch in P. styani.

P. ruficollis appears to be a resident in Nepal, Sikkim, and
Assam.

P. stridulus appears to be confined to South China from
Sechuen to Tokien.

P. styani is at present only known from the valley of the
Yang-tse-kiang and the adjoining district of Eastern Thibet,
but may possibly also occur in Assam. Mr. Styan describes
it as common on the Lushan hills behind Kiukiang, where it
frequents the thick cover of the lower slopes. It is a shy
skulking bird, creeping through the cover, and only occa-
sional glimpses o it can be obtained as it flits from bush to
bush. In spring it is seen in pairs, but in autumn flocks of
twenty or more are found together. From March to No-
vember they sing incessantly, more especially in spring and
autumn. Mr. Styan describes the song as very similar to
that of the so-called " Chinese Thrush " (Trochalopterum
canorum], a nearly allied bird, which is kept in thousands by
the Chinese on account of its wonderful singing powers. He
further adds, "the song is very sweet and musical, and



Birds from Central China. 265

poured forth with a vigour which reminds me of the Sky-
Lark ; in the early morning, and again about sunset, it may
be heard issuing in all directions from the copses high up
on the hill-sides, and is one of the most beautiful notes I
know."

257. TROCHALOPTERUM CANORUM.
Bought alive.

260. GARRULAX PERSPICILLATUS.
October and January.

263. GARRULAX SANNIO.

Kiukiang.

272. SUTHORA SUFFUSA.

Kiukiang.

290. ORIOLUS CHINENSIS.

295. LANIUS SCHACH.
Nankang, January and March.

306. DlCRURUS CATHCECUS.

310. CHIBIA BREVIROSTRIS.
Kiukiang, 24th September.

341. GARRULUS SINENSIS.
January, April, and November.

344. UROCISSA SINENSIS.

350. PICA CAUDATA.

Of two examples, one is a typical European Magpie and
the other a P. leucoptera ; both were shot in January.

351. CYANOPOLIUS CYANUS.
March, April, July, and November.

353. CORVUS LEVAILLANTI.

Kiukiang, July and October.

354. CORVUS TORQUATUS.
Kiukiang, September and October.

356. FRUGILEGUS PASTINATOR.

SER. v. VOL. ii. x



266 Mr. H. Seebohm on

362. ACRIDOTHERES CRISTATELLUS.

January and November.

366. STURNUS CINERACEUS.
January, March, and November.

373. FRINGILLA MONTIFRINGILLA.
Kiukiang, 21st February.

375. FRINGILLA SINICA.
Kiukiang, 23rd November.

385. COCCOTHRAUSTES MELANURUS.

Kiukiang, 8th March.

397. EMBERIZA AUREOLA.
Kiukiang, 2nd May.

407. EMBERIZA CIOPSIS.
January and March.

410. EMBERIZA PUSILLA.
Kiukiang, 1st March.

432. PlCUS MANDARINUS.

Lushan, 1st April. An intermediate example, the white
more developed than in typical South- Chinese birds, but not
so much so as in typical North-Chinese birds.

441. GECINUS GUERINI.

Five examples, making, with the skins in the Swinhoe col-
lection, a series of a dozen, lead me to the conclusion that
the Formosan bird cannot be separated. The variations in
general colour, and in the amount of black on the head and
white on the tail, are so great that it seems probable that a
series from a great range of localities would bridge over the
entire distance from G. canus of Siberia to G. occipitalis of
the Himalayas, between which all these Chinese forms are
intermediate.

470. TURTUR ORIENTALIS.

March.

471. TURTUR CHINENSIS.
December and January.



Birds from Central China. 267

479. PHASIANUS TORQUATUS.

Kiukiang, 1st March. A fiDe pair of birds of the typical
Chinese form. Mr. Dresser has lately obtained some inter-
esting examples of Pheasants from the Corea which are inter-
mediate between this species and P. formosanus.

508. COTURNIX COMMUNIS.

February.

514. OTIS DYBOWSKII.

A female agreeing with examples from Japan. Taczanowski
assures me that the East-Siberian bird is quite distinct from
the European species.

521. GLAREOLA ORIENTALIS.
December.

522. VANELLUS CRISTATUS.
Poyang Lake, January.

530. CHARADRIUS PLACIDUS.

Two examples, without locality or date, belong to this
species, which Swinhoe renamed J&gialitis hartingi, and
Pere David Charadrius longipes. 4^%xwsx*-wt +*** \^

534. CHARADRIUS MINOR.
Kiukiang, 12th September.

538. TOTANUS GLOTTIS.

December and January.

543. TOTANUS OCHROPUS.
Kiukiang, 9th November.

550. SCOLOPAX RUSTICULA.

February.

553. SCOLOPAX HORSFIELDI.
Kiukiang, 2nd May.

554. SCOLOPAX GALLINAGO.
Kiukiang, 29th April and 7th October.

559. PHALAROPUS HYPERBOREUS.
Kiukiang, 30th August.

x2



268 Mr. H. Seebohm on

563. TRINGA ALPINA.

Kiukiang and Nankang in winter.

566. TRINGA RUFICOLLIS.
Kiukiang, 12th September.

568. TRINGA TEMMINCKI.
22nd October.

570. NUMENIUS M1NUTUS.

Kiukiang, 30th September.

578. NUMENIUS LINEATUS.

Kiukiang, 2nd October. A handsome bird, distinguished
by its long bill, white axillaries, and white rump.

584. ARDEA CINEREA.
Kiukiang, 7th October.

587. ARDEA INTERMEDIA.

Kiukiang, 23rd July. It differs from the next species, in
all ages and at all seasons, in having a yellow instead of a
black bill.

588. ARDEA GARZETTA.
Kiukiang, 17th November.

593. ARDEA PRASINOSCELES.

594. ARDEA NYCTICORAX.
Kiukiang, 10th July.

596. BOTAURUS STELLARIS.

Kiukiang, March.

597. ARDETTA FLAVICOLLIS.
Kiukiang, 10th July.

599. ARDETTA SINENSIS.
Kiukiang, 28th June.

601 . HYDROPHASIANUS CHIRURGUS.
Kiukiang, 22nd June.

602. GALLICREX CRISTATA.
Kiukiang, May and June.



nirdsfroin Central China. 269

604. GALLINULA PHCENICFRA.
Kiukiang, 10th July.

606. PORZANA BAILLONI.

Kiukiang, 7th May.

610. FULICA ATRA.

Kiukiang, 19th November.

611. PODICEPS MINOR.

Kiukiang, 7th October. Indistinguishable from British
examples. The varieties known as P. philippensis are found
in Western Europe, and may be referable to age.

618. MERGUS MERGANSER.
Kiukiang, 20th January.

624. ANSER ALBIFRONS.
October.



625. ANSER

An example from the river Yang-tse-kiang, dated the 22nd
of October, somewhat resembles the skin from Hakodadi
which I determined as the young of the Lesser White-fronted
Goose (Ibis, 1882, p. 369) . I see no reason to change my
opinion. They differ from the adult of A. brachyrhynchus
in having no dark base to the bill, though the nail is dark,
as it is in the adult of that species, and in young only of
A. erythropus.

627. ANSER SERRIROSTRIS.

An example dated February measures 2*5 inches from the
forehead to the tip of the beak. It is an intermediate form
between A. segetum and A. grandis, which range in the
length of bill, measured as above, from 2'2 to 3'4 inches. It is
certainly only subspecifically distinct from the former, and
probably also from the latter.

628. ANAS BOSCHAS.
Poyang Lake, December.

629. ANAS ZONORHYNCHA.
Nan Chang, December.



270 Mr. H. Seebohm on Birds from Central China.

631. TADORNA CAS ARC A.
Kiukiang, November.

632. ANAS CLYPEATA.
Kiukiang, March.

633. ANAS ACUTA.
Kiukiang, February.

634. ANAS PENELOPE.
January.

636. ANAS CRECCA.
January and October.

639. EUNETTA FORMOSA.

640. EUNETTA FALCATA.

647. FULIGULA CRISTATA.

Kiukiang, 8th March.

648 a. NETTAPUS COROMANDELIANUS.

Kiukiang, June and July. The N. kopsckii of Swinhoe
in winter plumage of this species. David and Oustalet are
wrong in saying that the female has no collar, and omit the
important fact that she has no white on the primaries.

649. PHALACROCORAX CARBO.

657. LARTJS CACHINNANS.
Kiukiang, 17th November.

660. LARUS RIDIBUNDUS.
January and November.

662. STERNA CASPIA.
Kiukiang, 3rd September.

663. HYDROCHELIDON HYBRIDA.
Kiukiang, 4th August.



Mr. H. Seebohm on Birds from Lankoran. 425

905. GALLINULA CHLOROPUS.
923. ARDEA CINEREA.
936. BOTAURUS STELLARIS.

957. SPATULA CLYPEATA.

958. ANAS BOSCAS.

961. CHAULELASMUS STREPERUS.

962. MARECA PENELOPE.
964?. UUERQUEDULA CRECCA.

969. FULIGULA NYROCA.

The Ducks are only passengers through in the autumn and
spring. There is a marsh about a mile from the town, where
they frequently take twenty-four hours' rest on their way
to the plains. They never stay longer by any chance. On
their return journey very few rest here.

975. PODICEPS MINOR.

984. HYDROCHELIDON INDICA.

986. STERNA HIRUNDO.

1005. GRACULUS CARBO. " Jel Kawar."
1007. GRACULUS JAVANICUS.

XL1I. Notes on a Collection of Birds from Lankoran.

By HENRY SEEBOHM.

AN opportunity of examining a collection of 600 skins of
birds from the vicinity of Lankoran, on the southern shores
of the Caspian, enables me to add several species to the list of
Persian birds, and to make some corrections in geographical
distribution.

AQUILA NJSVIA.

Four examples of the Spotted Eagle belong to the larger
of the two European forms, and would be regarded as
A. clanga by those ornithologists who separate them.

BUTEO MENETRIESI.

Eight Buzzards vary in length of wing from 16 to 15



426 Mr. H. Seebohm on a

inches. The smaller birds (probably males) have no bars on
the basal three fourths of the tail, and are very chestnut in
colour. The larger birds (probably females) have the tail
regularly barred, and are dark brown in colour, more or less
suffused with chestnut on the head, wing- and tail-coverts,
and the underparts. I think these birds must be regarded
as rather large examples of B. desertorum.

EEITHACUS GOLZI.

Seven specimens of Nightingales belong to the long-tailed
species known as the Persian Nightingale.

PRATINCOLA MAURA.

Three male Stonechats belong to the eastern form of this
bird, having unspotted white rumps.

ACROCEPHALUS TURDOIDES.

A series of fifteen Great Reed-Warblers satisfactorily dis-
poses of the doubts which have hitherto been felt as to the
correctness of the identification of this species by Menetries.
Its breeding-range must therefore be regarded as extending
into North Persia and West Turkestan. In Severtzow's col-
lection I found examples of this species, as well as of A.
stentoreus, the species which Blanford found in South Persia.
The Lankoran skins vary in length of wing from 3' 9 to 3*6
inches, and have the second primary equal to the third or
fourth.

ACROCEPHALUS ARUNDINACEUS (Briss.).

ACROCEPHALUS PALUSTRIS,

Of a series of sixteen small Reed-Warblers, one only
proves to be the Reed- Warbler, all the others being Marsh-
Warblers.

HYPOLAIS PALLIDA-RAMA.

Three examples of Tree-Warblers are, like most of those
collected in Persia by Blanford, intermediate between H.
pallida and H. rama.

HYPOLAIS ICTERINA.

An example of the Icterine Tree- Warbler adds a new
species to the list of Persian birds.



Collection of Birds from Lankoran. 4.27

SYLVIA NISORIA.

SYLVIA ATRICAPILLA.

Four male Blackcaps and one female are interesting as
confirming the identification of Menetries. East Persia
appears to be the eastern limit of the range of this species ;
but the Barred Warbler is found throughout Russian
Turkestan.

SYLVIA FUSCIPILEA.

Curruca cinerea, \&r.persica, Filippi, Viagg/ Pers. pp. 162,
348 (1865).

Sylvia cinerea, /3. fuscipilea, Severtzow, Journ. Orn. 1875,
p. 176.

An example of the eastern form of the Whitethroat is in-
teresting. It seems to me to be fairly entitled to subspecific
rank. It is slightly larger than our bird (wing 3 inches) ;
the general colour of the upper parts is darker and greyer,
especially on the head and neck, and the chestnut on the
wing-coverts is much duller. I have three examples, obtained
by Tancre's collectors in the Altai Mountains; Prjevalski
obtained it in the Eastern Thian-Shan range, Severtzow
found it in Turkestan, and various collectors have obtained
it in Persia. In the two latter countries our bird also
appears.

SYLVIA CURRUCA.

An example of the Lesser Whitethroat belongs to the
western and not to the eastern form. The second primary
is intermediate in length between the fifth and sixth.

SYLVIA MYSTACEA.

Three males and a female of Bowman's Warbler are very
interesting, being in full breeding-plumage. JN either Blan-
f ord's plate of Sylvia rubescens (' Eastern Persia/ ii. pi. xii.)
nor Dresser's plate of Sylvia momus (' Birds of Europe/ ii.
pi. Ixiii.) do justice to this beautiful bird, which has the
black head of S. melanocephala, and the vinous red breast
and throat of S. subalpina.



428 Mr. H. Seebohm on a

PHYLLOSCOPUS TROCHILUS.

PHYLLOSCOPUS RUFUS.

Five examples of the former and three of the latter species
are interesting, confirming the correctness of Blanford's iden-
tifications, and showing that both the Willow-Wren and the
Chiffchaff occur in North Persia.

PARUS PENDULINUS.

A skin of the Penduline Tit does not differ from European
examples.

PARUS LUGUBRIS.

A skin of the Sombre Tit agrees with examples from
Greece and Asia Minor, and does not show the tendency to
be greyer above and whiter below which Blanford found in
examples from South Persia.

EMBERIZA CIA.

An example of the Meadow-Bunting is intermediate between
the eastern and western forms, and might almost be regarded
as E. stracheyi, but being in the abraded plumage of late
summer is difficult to determine.

MOTACILLA MELANOCEPHALA.
MOTACILLA FLAVA.

MOTACILLA RAYI.

Six males and two females of this Yellow Wagtail are very
interesting examples, showing that there is no difference to
be found in the plumage of specimens from the eastern
colony in the basin of the Caspian, and those from the western
colony on the shores of the Atlantic. This is one of the most
interesting cases of a discontinuous area of distribution with
which I am acquainted. Amongst the examples of M. mela-
nocephala is one with a brilliant yellow eye-stripe a very
curious variety, if it is not a hybrid between M. rayi and
M. melanocephala.

A.LCEDO ISPIDA.

Two skins of Kingfishers are intermediate between the
western and eastern forms of this species (wing 2'8 inches),
and might be regarded as large examples of A. bengalensis.



Collection of Birds from Lankoran. 429

These intermediate forms have been called A. pallasii.
There can be little doubt that the three forms are merely
local races of one species.

ARDEA COMATA.

Nine Squacco Herons add a species to the list of Persian
birds enumerated by Blanford, and confirm the statements of
Pallas that this species is found on the Caspian. There can
be little doubt that this was the species seen by Filippi in
countless numbers, and not the Buff-backed Heron, as he
supposed. So far as I can ascertain, the latter bird (A. bubal-
cm) is only a very rare and accidental straggler beyond Africa,
Spain, and Palestine.

PORPHYRIO POLIOCEPHALUS.

Ten examples of the Indian Purple Gallinule, with green
wings and blue-green throat and breast, contrasting with the
purple of the rest of the plumage, are very interesting. It
seems probable that P. c&ruleus is confined to South Europe
and North Africa west of the Adriatic, being replaced in
North-east Africa by P. smaragdonotus, with purple wings
and a green back, and in Asia by P '. poliocephalus , but being
unrepresented in East Europe*.

CHARADRIUS ASIATICUS.

Two examples confirm the correctness of the locality given
by Pallas for the Caspian Plover.

TOTANUS FUSCUS.

An example of the Spotted Redshank confirms the state-
ment of Pallas that this species winters on the southern
shores of the Caspian.

CYGNUS OLOR.

One example of the Mute Swan adds a species to the list
of Persian birds.

ERISMATURA LEUCOCEPHALA.

Thirty-six examples of the White-headed Duck entitles
this species to be added to the Persian list.

* See remarks on this subject by Mr. Sclater, 'Ibis/ 1879, p. 196.
SER. V. VOL. II. 2 I



430 Mr. H. Seebohm on Tetrao griseiventris.

XLIII. On Tetrao griseiventris, a recently described Species
of Hazel-Grouse from North-east Russia. By HENRY
SEEBOHM.

(Plate XI.)

THE Grouse form a compact little genus, confined to the
Palsearctic and Nearctic Regions, and containing about a
score of well-defined species, some of which are again divi-
sible into climatic races or subspecies. Modern ornitho-
logists, suffering from the epidemic which has been called
the tf furor genericus " and the ' ' cacoethes dividendi," have
established no less than twelve genera for the reception of
these twenty or twenty-four species, to the no small incon-
venience of ornithologists whose powers of memory are not
unlimited. As might be expected, the characters upon which
these so-called genera are founded are not very reliable so
little, indeed, that the Willow-Grouse belongs to the genus
Tetrao in summer, but assumes the characters of the so-
called genus Lagopus in winter.

The Hazel-Grouse (Tetrao bonasia) has a very wide range,
extending from the Pyrenees to Japan, and presents an
interesting example of a species which has a Siberian or
Arctic form. Tetrao bonasia septentrionalis is a very grey
bird, with very little rufous in its plumage, and has a shorter
tail than the typical form, towards which it gradually inter-
grades, as so many other Arctic forms do, both in the east
and in the west. The typical or subarctic form is found
in the Pyrenees, the Alps, and the Carpathians, and again
in the valley of the Amoor and on the main island of Japan.

It is not known that any form of Hazel-Grouse inhabits
the Caucasus ; but north-east of that range, near the sources
of the Petchora and the Kama, a nearly allied, but apparently
perfectly distinct, species occurs, Tetrao griseiventris. From
twenty to thirty examples of this new European bird have
been obtained ; so that all idea of its being an accidental
variety must be abandoned. It was first described by the
well-known Moscow ornithologist, Mons. M. A. Menzbier, in
1880 (Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. i. p. 105), and differs from






On Bird- skins from the Orinoco, Venezuela. 431

the Common Hazel-Grouse in many very important cha-
racters. Whilst in the Common Hazel-Grouse the male
differs widely from the female, the former having a black
chin and throat, and the latter a buffish-white chin and
throat obscurely spotted with black, in Menzbier's Hazel-
Grouse both sexes have the chin and upper throat pure
white. As will be seen by the Plate, the general colour of
Menzbier's Hazel- Grouse is much darker and greyer, espe-
cially on the underparts, the pattern of colour in which is
different from that of the common bird. The white tips of
the wing-coverts and the subterminal black band across the
outer tail-feathers, so conspicuous in the Common Hazel-
Grouse, are absent in Menzbier's Hazel- Grouse.

The discovery of this addition to the birds of Europe is
all the more interesting on account of the other European
species, which are confined to the extreme east of the con-
tinent, such as Ruticilla ochrura, Erithacus hyrcanus, Tetrao
mlokosiewiczi, &c., leading to the supposition that this part
of Europe must have been isolated for some time, at no very
distant period, geologically speaking.



XLIV. On a Collection of Bird-skins from the Orinoco,
Venezuela. By HANS von BERLEPSCH.

(Plate XII.)

THE vast plains of the Orinoco, in Venezuela, still remain
a ' ( terra incognita " to ornithologists at least no account
of the birds of this country has yet been published.

It was therefore with considerable interest that I heard
of a collection of bird-skins made in the neighbourhood of
Angostura (or Ciudad Bolivar) by a young man sent out by
the well-known dealer in natural objects, Mr. F. F. G. Um-
lauff, of Hamburg. The whole collection has been submitted
to my inspection and, although small, proves to be of consider-
able interest. There is evidently one new species contained
in it, and others were not previously known to be denizens of



432 Hans von Berlcpsch on Bird-skins

Venezuela. I have therefore thought it well to give an
account of all the species found in the collection.

UmlaufFs collector has just returned home, bringing with
him a few more skins collected on the Rio Apure, a tributary
stream of the Orinoco. The birds collected on the Apure
mostly belong to widespread species of Ardeidse, &c. ; they
are likewise inserted in the following list.

It is much to be regretted that examples of so few species
are in the collection, especially of birds of small size, among
which probably still many novelties remain undiscovered in
the Orinoco plains ; but I am glad to say Mr. Umlauff in-
tends to send out another collector, who we may hope will
be more successful.

1. CAMPYLORHYNCHUS NUCHALIS, Cab.

Angostura. One specimen agreeing with my specimens
from Puerto Cabello, but with a somewhat shorter bill, and
the back more conspicuously striped. There is only one broad
white stripe on each feather of the back, beginning deep from
the base, while in Puerto- Cabello specimens there are two,
one basal, the other terminal, both pear-shaped and separated
in the middle. I believe that this difference is only an indi-
vidual one, and that the Angostura bird may not be fully
adult.

Long. al. 73, caud. 72|, culm. 17, tars. 22 \ millim.

2. ANTHUS RUFUS (Gmel.).

Angostura. One specimen, in much faded plumage, seems
to agree with Bahia skins, with the exception that there is no
yellowish suffusion on the abdomen. The outer tail-feather
is nearly wholly white.

Long. al. 65, caud. 49, rostr. culm. 11J, tars. 19J millim.

This species has not hitherto been recorded from Venezuela.

3. CERTHIOLA LUTEOLA, Licht. & Cab.

Angostura. One specimen, agreeing with birds from
Puerto Cabello.

Long. al. 59, caud, 36, culm. 12^, tars. 16 millim.



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