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Soames, Henry, 1785-1860
Elizabethan religious
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ELIZABETHAN



RELIGIOUS HISTORY.



BY



HENRY SOAMES, M. A.

AUTHOR OF THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION, AND OF THE
ANGLO-SAXON CHURCH.



LONDON :
JOHN W. PARKER, WEST STRAND.



M.DCOC.XXXIX.



^i n



TO TnE am. /\' ■*

MOST REVEREND FATHER IN Gfl^J^^,

WILLIAM,

BY DIVINE PROVIDENCE,

LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY,

PRIMATE OF ALL ENGLAND, AND METROPOLITAN.



My Lord Archbishop,

This volume would humbly seek notice
under protection of the approval, publicly given by your Grace,
when Bishop of London, to a former work \ accompanied by an
expressed wish for its continuance to modern times. It is need-
less to detail the reasons why a desire so encouraging has hitherto
seemed unregarded. Some of them are before the world, in the
form of other publications. A design, however, of answering the
gratifying call, has never been out of sight, and for the last three
years, it has regularly occupied a large portion of my leisure.
Farther progress, it was expected, might have been made, before
this. But religious movements under Elizabeth, have an im-
portance that forbade sufficient compression. For the present
view of them, nothing could be more desirable, than a direct
sanction from your Grace. But it shews existing parties, both
civil and religious, in their origin and earliest years. Hence,
permission to dedicate has not been asked, because, if granted,
it might be misrepresented. It is hoped, however, that use of a
venerated name without authority, may be kindly pardoned,
and that nothing unfair has been admitted into pages, which sue
for favour from one of the mildest and most considerate of Chris-
tian prelates.

* The History of the Reformation.

a 2



IV DEDICATION.

Tho subject coiU'Prus most closely that illustrious sec which
your Graco has uow fillo<l, with au (.uviahlo .share of natioual
respect, (luring several years. The lonj; primacies of your admir-
able predecessors, l*arkeraud ^Vhit_L'ift, ajipear, under Providence,
to have saved our))aternal branch of the Catholic Church. Your
Grace, too, has been thntwn u])on a strugEfling and anxious period.
Its issue would bo far less ])romisinf][, had not caution, judiciously
tem])ered with concession, given an auspicious tone to ecclesias-
tical affairs. All history ])roclaims, that ])opular advantages,
once gained, can never wholly be retracted. It shews, however,
also, that a tem])erate but firm resistance to a spirit of unreason-
able encroachment, is ratified by the cooler judgment of an after
day. Even Archbishop Parker .saw the decline of that clamour
against vestures and ceremonies, which once gave him so much
uneasiness. Archbishop Whitgift was equally fortunate as to
consistorian oligarchy. Thus Elizabethan religious history not
only proves the wisdom of that disposition, recently shewn, to
remove real evils, and answer just expectations, but also the
safety of resisting dcTnatuls ruinous to valuable institutions.

An earnest ho|ie, that your (J race's services, j)roved so ines-
timable in these trying times, may long be preserved to tho
Church of England, is general among her ministers, and warmest
friends. By no one, my Lord Archbishoj), is this national benefit
more earnestly desired, than by

Your Grace's

Mo-bt humble and devoted Servant,

THE AUTHOR.

Fun.vKix pEi.ir.vM,
Nov. 3, !«.'{«.



PREFACE.



The reign of Elizabeth is really the origin of modern
English society. Under the first Tudor, feudality was
broken np. The next three were chiefly occupied in
promoting or resisting the Reformation. The last saw
that great change pretty firmly seated in public opinion.
Thus the bare necessity for some religious alteration
became no longer an engrossing subject, and the ferment-
able mass of national feeling required new channels.
These were necessarily found by religion : recent agitation
allowing no other. A few years brought them promi-
nently forward in the shape of Nonconformity, both
Romish and Protestant, carrying political party in its
rear.

An ecclesiastical view of the Elizabethan age is
therefore, not only necessary for a right understanding of
an important reign, but also for a due estimate of influ-
ences yet at work upon the country. General readers,
however, have chiefly thought of civil history, when
attentive to this interesting period. SuflScient promi-
nence has rarely been given to its religious affairs without



VI PREFACE.

sectarian ohjoets. This ha?, probably, arisen from a
deficiency in the available sources of information. Strype
is the great historical authority for ecclesiastical matters,
in this reign. lie has illustrated them in his Aiinals,
Parker, Grindal, WliiUjift, Aj/hncr, and Smith. ]3ut
these works extend over sixteen octavo volumes in the
recent Oxford edition. For working such a mine of
half-forgotten facts, very few have time, or other means,
even if they do not want inclination. In Strypc's vast
magazine, too, much is really sujierfluous to those who
are not seeking civil, or antiquarian information, or Mho
do not value ecclesiastical particulars of the minuter
kinds. The laborious and amiable compiler, also, seems
never to have thought of arrangement, or of presenting
his readers with anything like a carefully-prepared nar-
rative, lie merely worked-up the enonnous stores,
accumulated by his industry and liberality, in chrono-
logical order. Even this has not been done during the
last years to which his Annals relate. At 1588, he
gave over all thought of farther compilation, on account
of his great age. From that year to the queen's death,
he has merely i)rinted the records provided as vouchers
for his fidelity. Thus those, whom time and patience
will allow to seek from Strype, the origin of existing
English parties, will hud fifteen years, in his ])riii('ij)al
work upiiii I^lizabeth's reign, awaiting a narrative IVoni
some other pen.



PREFACE. Vii

Such as are aware that Strype's vohimes are rather
masses of materials than literary works, and also that
Elizabeth's reign is of the highest religious importance,
have long called for some writer to fill up this deficiency
in English history. Ecclesiastical information has been
wanted, at once succinct, and sufficiently full upon leading
points. To supply such, the present volume has been
undertaken. While it was in progress, the Author saw,
with sincere gratification, a call upon him to the task,
from a quarter to which the public has been repeatedly
obliged \ This was naturally a great encouragement, but
in thankfully recording it, he would only urge the diffi-
culty of answering expectations so kindly expressed.

The plan adopted in compiling the following pages,
was to seek information from contemporaries, and to
detail contemporary views. With both, the facts and
comments of modern authors, hostile to the Church of
England, were then compared. These have generally
been transcribed, and will be found in the notes. Thus
the volume contains not only such a version of the
history as appeared most worthy of reliance, but also the
lights in which it is placed by sectarians. All branches
of their body, both Romish and Protestant, are naturally
anxious to make out a good case for themselves in the
reign which saw Englishmen separate from the Church

^ In a note to "Watson's hnpoiiant Consklcralions, lately reprinted,
with the Prefatory Epistle, by the Rev. Joseph Mcndham, M.A.



Vin PREFACE.

of tlioir fathers, tlien recently defecated from inveterate
impurities. Komish Nonconformists M'onld, indeed, fain
lay separation upon tlic Cliurcli party; many students of
Elizabethan history have ever thought, \vith very little
justice. The means of forming an opinion upon this,
and other collateral questions, have, however, it is hoped,
been fairly and adequately given ; nothing being excluded
that seemed at all material, because it clashed with the
writer's own conviction.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.



Introduction



1563. The Vesture Controversy . . 16 v^
Archbishop Parker .... 19
Archbishop Young . . . .20
Bishop Grindal . . . . 21 V^
Bishop Pilkington . . . . 22 \^
Bishop Home .... 24
Bishop Jewel . . . . . 24 i/^
Bishop Sandys .... 25
The Royal Injunctions . . . -27 • '
Sampson and Humphrey ... 29
Want of a Vent for Ascetic Views . . 31
"Want of Preachers ... 32
Hasty and irregular Ordinations . . .34
Rise of Democratic Sentiments . . 35
Policy of adhering to the Vestures . . 37

1564. Irregularities in Ministration • . . 39
Episcopal Connivance . . . .40
The Advertisements . . . 42
Temporary Restoration of Conformity in London . 44
Session of the High Commission Court at Lambeth 45
More general Enforcement of Conformity . 46
Dudley, Earl of Leicester . . .48
Appeals to him from Anti-vesturists . 49
Their Opinions controverted . . .50
Rise of the Party Names, Precisian and Puritan . 52 ,



X CONTENTS.

A. I). PAGE

\5(io. Sampson ejected from the Deanery of Christchurch 54

Withers . . . . .57

Camhridge Proaclilng Licenses . . 58

Anti-vestural Party at Cambridge . . 51)

15GG. Deprivations at Lambeth ... 01

Vestures attacked by the Press . . .63

Impolicy of Concession . . . CJ

Injudicious Defence of Conformity . . 01)

Restraints upon the Press ... 70

The Bishops Boner and Ilornc . . -71

Pojiularity of Bishop Coverdalo . . 7«^

1507. Inconformity of Foxe, the i\Iartyrologist . . 7-1
Kising Violence of the Puritans . . 75
The Separation . . . . .70

CHAPTER II.

1 508. Mary Queen of Scots . . . .70

Pius V. . . . . . 88

The Seminaries . . . . J)2

First Papal Conspiracy against England . 1)8

Attendance of Mary at English I'raycrs . . 1)9

First Papal Mission to England . . 100

Harding . . . . .101

Sanders . . . . . 103

Injury to the Religious Character of Rome . 105

Morton . . . . . I07

1509. Papal Preparations . . , .108
The Conspiracy partially discovered . 110
The Duke of Norfolk arrested . . .112
The Northern Rebellion . . . 113

l."»7(). The Papal Bull to dethrone the Queen . .121

Disliked by many English Romanists . 124

Folton's puldication of tlio Bull . . .125

The Romish Secession . . . 127

1571. New Penalties against Romanism . . 133



CONTENTS.



XI



CHAPTER III. v'

A. T). PAGi:

1571. Clamour for tlic Z)/^c?/)//«e . . 137
Cartnriglit . . . . .141
Puritanical Party in the House of Commons . 147
Conference of a Committee witli tlie Prelates . 148
Act Jor Ministers io be of sound Religion . 149
Assent to the Doctrinal Articles only . .149
Contested Clause in the Twentieth Article . 152
Canons enacted by Convocation . . .158
Puritans cited before the High Commission . 159
The Northampton Regulations . . . 1 59
The Prophesyings . . . 160
Proceedings in Parliament . . .102

1572. The Admonition to the Parliament . . 163
Its ostensible Authors committed . .173
Whitgift's Afiswer, and Defense . . 175
Establishment of a Presbytery at Wandsworth . 186
Proclamation against Puritanical Books . 187



CHAPTER IV.



/





Puritanical Conferences


. 188


1573.


Chark .....


189




Dering ....


. 191




Proclamations against Puritanism .


193




Birchet ....


. 195




Cartwright eludes an Order for his Arrest .


198


1574.


Renewed attack upon the Prophesy i7igs .


. 199




Puritanical Impostures


202


1575.


Death and Character of Archbishop Parker


. 205




Persecution of Foreign Sectaries


213




The Family of Lore


. 214




Archbishop Grindal


218


1576.


Proceedings in Parliament


. 220




The Fifteen Articles


222



XU CONTENTS.

A. D. PAGE

15 77- Suppression of the Prophesy ings . . 223

Hilhy ..... 227
1")78. I?rownc ..... 228

l.')7!t. Wliittingliam .... 230

Burning of Matthew Hammond . . 2.34

Stubbc ..... 23.">

Turitau Incumbents refuse Liturgical Services . 241

Puritans undermine Ancient Religious Usages . 243

CHAPTER V.





Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day


248




]\Iayne ....


. 255


1580.


The Jesuits ....


260




Persons ....


. 204




Campion .....


269




Tlieir arrival in England


. 274




Papal Invasion of Ireland .


278




Proclamation against the .Jesuits


. 281


1581.


New Legislative Severities against Papists .


282




First Disagreements in the Romish body


. 284




Campion's Ten Reasons


288




He is tortured ....


. 2t)4




He disputes ....


297




Is tried ....


301




Executed .....


306


1582.


Other Executions


. 307




Controversy upon Englisli Persecution


308


1583.


Case of Somerville and Anlen .


310




Carter, the Printer


312


1584.


Throgmorton .


314




Creighton


.321




The Association


322




New Legislative Severities against Popery .


324


1585.


Parry .....


. 3J5




Petition in favour of Romanism


338




Dcportutiou of Romish Priests .


. 340



CONTENTS.



Xlll



1585. The Seminary at Rhelms .
15S6. Babington's Conspiracy

1587. Decapitation of Mary Queen of Scots
Desertion of Sir William Stanley

1588. Burnings for Heresy
The Spanish Armada
The Spanish Party



PAGE

341
342
349
350
353
355
360



CHAPTER VI. /



1589.



1592.



1593.



1594.



Puritanical Bias at the Council-board


366


Preferment of Archbishop Whitgift


368


The Mar-Prelate Libels


. 370


AnsAvers to them ....


373


Pluralities ....


. 375


Bancroft's Sermon at St. Paul's Cross


377


Puritanical Organization


. 381


Arrest of Cartwright


385


Udal .....


. 390


Cawdrey .....


395


Hacket ....


. 398


Final release of Cartwright


401


The Oath ex officio


. 402


Cosin's Defence of it


404


Taken in some instances


. 407


Lax enforcement of Subscription


409


Papal claims over England, unconstitutional


. 410


Attacks in Parliament upon the Oath ex officio


,411


Act against Protestant Recusancy


. 413


Greenwood and Barrow


416


Penry .....


. 422


BaiTowism . . . ■


428


Romish Conformity of Henry IV.


. 430


Pretensions of the Infanta


432


Conspiracy of Lopez . . •


. 433


Concealments ....


437


Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity .


. 441



XIV CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VII.

A.D. Pace

ir)94. Rlso of Doctrinal Disagreement in the C'hurcli . '153

151)5. The Sabbatiirian Controversy . . 458

The Predcstinarian Controversy . . 4(>.'3

The Lamheth Articles . . 4G5

1590. Controversial f>ormons at Cambridge . . 471

The Calvinistic and anti-Calvinistic parties . 473

1597. Controversy about Christ's Descent into Hell . 4/0
Fanatical Impostures . . 478
Judicial Intemperance against Puritanism . 483
Ecclesiastical Courts attacked by the Commons 485
Legislative Security given to Ecclesiastical Ap-
pointments .... 48()

Aiiiculi pro Cleru confirmed by Royal Authority 488

1598. Disagreement between tlie Jesuits and Romish

Seculars .... 488
Squire's Treason . . . .491

ICOO. Papal Movements in Ireland . . 495

Papal Designs upon the Succession . . 498

ICOl. The Queen's last Parliament . . 500

Proclamation against Jesuits and their Adherents 502

1002. Protestation of the thirteen Romish Priests . 504
Disgust of the violent Romanists . . 505
Appointment of the Archpriest . . 500

1003. Death and Character of the Queen . . 507
Accession of James I. . . . 51 5
Apprehensions of the Church Party . .517
The Millenary Petition . . . 518
Counter Slovcments .... 520
Raleigh's Conspiracy . . . 522
Watson and Clarke .... 525
Proclamation against Puritanical Petitions . 529

1G04. Hampton-Court Conference . . 530

Death and Character of Archbishop AVhitgift 555

Conclusioii ..... 505



CONTENTS. XV

PAGE

Executions for Religion under Elizabeth . 595
Popes during the Elizabethan Period
English Prelacy during the Elizabethan
Period. • • • *

Index . • • *



601

003
613



ELIZABETHAN

EELIGIOUS HISTORY.



Chapter I.

ORIGIN OF PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY.
1563—1567.

INTRODUCTION MODERATION OF ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS POLICY

GENERAL CONFORMITY OF THE ROMISH PARTY PERSONAL PRE-
POSSESSIONS OF THE QUEEN AND ARCHBISHOP PARKER LUTHERAN

PARTY PREJUDICES OP THE EXILES THE ARCHBISHOP's VIEW OF

THE VESTURE CONTROVERSY ARCHBISHOP YOUNG BISHOP GRIN-

DAL — BISHOP PILKINGTON BISHOP HORNE BISHOP JEWEL BISHOP

SANDYS UNIFORM VIEWS OF THE BISHOPS FROM EXILE SAMPSON

HUMPHREY BULLINGER TOLERANT OF THE HABITS THE ANTI-

VESTURAL PARTY WANT OF A VENT FOR ASCETIC VIEWS WANT

OF PREACHERS HASTY AND IRREGULAR ORDINATIONS RISE OF

DEMOCRATIC SENTIMENTS POLICY OF ADHERING TO THE VESTURES

ROMISH DISCONTENT IRREGULARITIES IN MINISTRATIONS EPI-
SCOPAL CONNIVANCE THE ADVERTISEMENTS TEMPORARY RE-
STORATION OF CONFORMITY IN LONDON SESSION OP THE HIGH

COMMISSION COURT, AT LAMBETH MORE GENERAL ENFORCEMENT

OF CONFORMITY DUDLEY, EARL OF LEICESTER APPEALS TO HIM

FROM ANTI-VESTURISTS THEIR OPINIONS CONTROVERTED RISE OP

THE PARTY-NAMES, PRECISIAN AND PURITAN SAMPSON EJECTED

FROM HIS DEANERY WITHERS CAMBRIDGE PREACHING LICENCES

ANTI-VESTURAL PARTY IN THAT UNIVERSITY DEPRIVATIONS AT

LAMBETH VESTURES ATTACKED FROM THE PRESS IMPOLICY OF

CONCESSION INJUDICIOUS DEFENCE OF CONFORMITY RESTRAINTS

UPON THE PRESS THE BISHOPS BONER AND HORNE POPULARITY

OF BISHOP COVERDALE INCONFORMITY OP FOXE RISING VIOLENCE

OF THE PURITANS THE SEPARATION.

The reign of Elizabeth is one of those periods that give
to nations a lasting impulse. It raised England, hitherto
a secondary power, to a proud equality with France and

B



2 ORIGIN OF [a.i». 15G3.

Spain. Yet Scotland was a separate kingdom, and Ire-
land severely burtliensome. Hence a fabric of substantial
greatness required consummate skill. Its progress, too,
Avas impeded by very serious difficulties. Spanish hos-
tility was always on the watch. Domestic discontent
raged fiercely, during many years, from two opposite ex-
tremes. Mere good fortune could never have overcome
such obstacles to social improvement. Without able
rulers, national prosperity is but a gleam alternating with
storm.

To the ability of Elizabeth's civil policy, ample justice
has been done. Her ecclesiastical government has been
less fortunate: although under it arose the religious
parties, ever since in active collision. Their germs, in-
deed, belong to earlier times. Romanists long reckoned
upon Trent, for silencing Protestant objections to their
church. The Reformers were unanimous in little more,
than in resisting papal usurpation, and renouncing un-
"VNTitten tradition, as an authority for articles of faith.
Within these landmarks was left a wide field of debate-
able ground, in which stirring spirits were continually
marking and occupying new positions. Religious views
being thus imi)erfectly developed, many thought Pro-
testant and Romish differences likely to be merged,
without much difficulty or delay, in one harmonious
whole. As this expectation weakened, comi»leto union
among Protestants was yet a cherished aim. When,
however, the two parties had minutely canvassed opinions,
and sharjKMiod animosities, England and Rome were found
irreconcilealdy at variance. Elements also were gradually
detected in English Protestantism, defying fusion into au
homogeneous mass.

Elizabeth lived among these attempts and discoveries.



A.D. 1563.] PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY. 3

Religious uniformity was her deliberate aim, and every
year made it more hopeless. In spite of strenuous ex-
ertions, three great religious parties became distinctly
marked, and Avidely separated. Of such commanding
national divisions, the first steps are both interesting and
instructive. Yet facilities for tracing them are not gene-
rally available. Nonconformity, both Romish and Pro-
testant, has, indeed, been sufficiently alive to the import-
ance of this reign. Each has blazoned a picture of op-
pression, with zeal and effect : unhappily, too, with con-
siderable truth. The Church has not been served with
equal attention to public opinion. Means are needed of
adequate yet moderate extent, for duly contemplating not
one only, but all the three great religious parties, as they
actually rose. Without such convenient opportunities,
the bulk of men cannot judge accurately of the national
society, as now existing.

The queen's earliest years jiroperly belong to the His-
tory of the Reformation. Until the Thirty-nine Articles
were legally settled, Romanism could hardly be consi-
dered as completely and hopelessly overthrown. Even
then, the national . mind was only prepared for striking-
out new channels. Individuals, more or less disregarded,
took time to recover from the mortification of discomfi-
ture, before they banded into distinguishable sections.
The Romish party, when completely formed, remained
unaffected by the queen's death. It soon indulged in
little more than hope of favourable treatment under her
successor. Not so the discontented Protestants. They
reckoned still upon a command over the. Establishment,
and, until disappointed at the Hampton Court Conference,
did not settle down into a hostile aggregate of sects.
Thus the history of religious party, under Elizabeth,

B 2



4 ORIGIN OF C^.D. 1563

properly begins a few years after her accession, and
extends to the blighting of Puritanical hopes, within the
first year of James. It opens with a church just provided
with authentic terms of communion, and closes with a
new settlement of that body, after a formal collision with
her more dangerous opponent.

The whole period embraces forty-one years. The first
of these are important rather than interesting to a modern
reader. He would hardly care for a strife about some
few externals, Mere it not the first storing of that fuel
which fed eventually so many raging fires. After this
preliminary burst, both the discontented parties played
agitated, conspicuous parts. Romanism took at once an
active political position. Of this, however, there are two
distinct stages. In the first, Romish hopes chiefly centred
in Mary of Scotland, supported by foreign intrigue, and
displaced, or dissembling native secular clergymen. The
second opens with that unhappy princess as the tool of
plotting Jesuits, and wholly turns upon the agency of
their order. In Protestant opposition also, there arc two
divisions, after a discontented party was irrevocably
formed. The first was a struggle, unconnected with
doctrine, for modelling the Establishment after the ex-
ample of Geneva. The second shows the same principle
at work, but in conjunction with doctrinal disagreement.
Protestant opposition likewise threw out Independency,
the genuine j)arent of modern dissent in all its various
forms. But this religious movement, big with (>vcntual
im])()rtance, makes no very conspicuous figure in Eliza-
betlian history. It rather assimilates with indications of
Protestant discontent, barely dis('ernil)](' under Edward.

Elizabctli often ])asses as the rasli provoker of tln)se
religious dissensions which caused her so much embarrass-



A.D. ]563.] PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY.



ment and danger. But this is a hasty view. To say
nothing- of existing* unacquaintancc with toleration, her
settlement of the Church really seemed at first, likely to
encounter no acrimonious or lasting opposition. It Mas,
indeed, a wise and moderate disposal of many difficult
and pressing questions. Although her accession over-
threw the JN'Iarian system, she is hardly even chargeable
with violence to an established religion. There was in-
terference, undoubtedly, with possession. But this may
be no sufficient evidence of original intention. Many of
our older meeting-houses are occupied by Socinians. To
pronounce them built for that sect, w^ould notoriously be
a most unsound conclusion. There were competent in-
quirers who considered churches perverted similarly from
the intentions of their founders. None were able to dis-
prove this impression. None could even point out any
authentic standard of the doctrine taught in these vene-
rable fabrics. With all her claims to take the lead in
religion, Rome did not remedy this capital defect, until
the Council of Trent broke up, at the very close of 1563 '



' Dec. 4. The Trentine decrees
were confirmed by the pope, Avith-
out any reserve, Jan. 26, 1564.
Pius felt, however, far from cer-
tain of their acceptance even by
states friendly to Rome. Hence
he used immediately every exer-
tion to attain this end. Non prima



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