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in Switzerland, where the confession of Augsburg was



applausu in regia sua basilica
imaginem crucis aclhuc retinet."
Dialogi vi., ab Alano Copo Anglo.
Antv. 1566. p. 713.) In conse-
quence of remonstrances from tlie
bishops, Elizabeth removed the
crucifix in the early part of her
reign ; but she replaced it in
1570.-— Strype. Annals, i. 262.
Parker, ii. 35.

^ He argued in their favour



(Neal loosely says in favour of
images) before a parliamentary
committee, assisted by Cox, against
Grindal and JeAvel. Jewel evi-
dently anticipated ill success, and
in that case he seems to have
determined upon resigning his
bishopric. — Juellus ad P. ]\Iart.
4 Feb. 1560. Burnet. Hist. h\f.
Records. Lond. 1820. iii. 387.



16



ORIGIN OF



[a.D. 1oG3.



viewed as a badge of successful rivalry. Hence Bul-
linger, writing- to Utenliovius, recommended Edward's
reformation as one with wliicli the pious were contented'.
No doubt he M-ould have been better pleased with
arransfomcnts more Calvinistic, but he saw difficulties in
their way, almost insurmountable. lie was, therefore,
satisfied with such a settlement as should guard reformed
principles in their full integrity, without giving a decided
triumph to his German neighbours*. None, however,
who approved the Augustan confession were likely to
feel any lasting disappointment from the adoption of
Edward's reformation. Its episcopal polity, and respect
for external forms, must inevitably gain upon their affec-
tions. Thus Elizabeth's religious choice was evidently
well adapted for pleasing a large and important section
of her Protestant subjects. For conciliating that party
which formed a majority of the whole nation, its recom-
mendations could hardly fail of proving eventually quite
equal to those of Lutheranism, and they were greatly
superior to such as the Swiss reformation offered.

Viewed from the distance accordingly of Switzerland
and the Rhine, England's religious policy ajipeared



' " Video in Angliii noii modi-
cas oljorituras turbas, si quod qui-
dam (rem indignissimam multis
niodis) postulant, recipiatur Au-
gustana Confessio. Vcxat hoc
onines ccclcsias sinccriores, ct
cupit sue fermento inficerc omncs.
Dcus colicrceat homines satis alio-
quin pios, at pietati puriori nio-
lestos. Et tu scis quod factum
sit in Polonia. Cave et adjuva ne
recipiatur. Salisfacit piis Kdvardi
reformnlio." — I'-x I'pist. ]MS8. in
]iil)l. ICocl. lU'lg. Loud. Stuype.
Annals, i. 251).



* " At quantum ego conjicere
possum, hoc unum quairunt adver-
sarii vestri communes, ut vobis
ojcctis, ut Papistas, vcl ah his non
viullum divcrsos Lulhoatios, doc-
tores et antistites surrogcnt."
(Bullingcrus Homo. Ep. AVint.
BruNET. Ilisl. Re/'. Kocords. iii.
422.) Jewel awakened I'cter
Martyr's apprehensions upon this
subject, by letters, dated April 2H
and November 5, 1559. — JO. 30 1,
.304.



A.D. 1563.] PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY. 17

iinexcei^tionable and judicious '. Among such as re-
turned from asylums in those parts, a different feeling
extensively jirevailed. They had seen their own cherished
opinions professed by petty societies of republicans,
generally poor, none without a mercantile disposition to
retrench public formalities, at once expensive and unpro-
ductive. Their continental friends naturally lauded such
simplicity, and as their own penury and exile arose from
a church organized upon the opposite extreme, they
could hardly miss a prejudice in favour of their hosts.
In this, too, they were necessarily fortified by those Hel-
vetic jirej^ossessions which Bishop Hooper had brought
home, even in happier times. It is not surprising, there-
fore, that vestments and attire worn by their persecutors,
should have offended most, if not all, of the Marian
exiles on their arrival in England. They found, how-
ever, their clerical countrymen retaining everywhere the
surplice and the corner-cap : nor could they legally
decline these peculiarities themselves on their accept-
ance of jDreferment. A spiritual charge, however, was
anxiously desired by all the exiles, because the Church
taught no doctrines which they did not cordially approve.
But many of them so abhorred the attire, statutably
imposed upon their profession, that they ministered and
appeared without it. At first, no great notice was taken
of these irrefi-ularities. The services of able reformers,



' " Me quidem malle nullas
ceremonias, nisi rarissimas, obtrudi
Ecclesire. Interim fateor, non
posse statim leges de liis, forte
non adeo necessarias, aliquando
etiam inutiles, damnari impietatis,
turbasque et schisma excitare in
Ecclesia, quando (videlicet) super-
stitione carent, et res sunt sua



natura indifforentes. Facile autem
credo, vires prudentes atque jioli-
ticos conformitatem rituum urgere,
quod existiment banc facere ad
concordiam, et quod una sit Ec-
clesia totius Angliae." — Bulling.
D. Laur. Ilumf'redo, ct D. Tlio.
Sampsoni. Buknet. Hist. lief.
Records, iii. 430.



18



ORIGIN OF



[a.d. 1563.



probably, were considered well worth some connivance
at such scruples. The Romish, Edwardian, and Lutheran
parties, were not, however, likely to approve this forbear-
ance. The first must have been seriously offended by it,
because objections to vestments and habits were advanced
on grounds most insulting- to the Papal Church. The
propriety of distinguishing the clergy, both in their mini-
strations and ordinary intercourse, was not contested'.
Only established habits were painted as empoisoned,
defiled, and desecrated by the Church of Rome. Her
use, like that of Baal's priests, had rendered them
accursed, the livery of Antichrist, which faithful ministers
could not wear without infamy and peril*. A govern-
ment, intent upon conciliating Romish prejudice, was
driven to discourage this extravagance. Its farthest
indulgence could not go beyond a temporary and un-



' " Now if any should say, that
we do tliis rather of singularity
than of conscience, and that ■vve
are so addict to our maners that
we will not change for the hetter,
he may understand, that if our
apparel seem not so modest and
grave as our vocation requires,
neither suffer to discern us from
men of other callings, we refuse
not to wear such as shal be
thought to the godly and prudent
magistrates for these uses most
decent ; so that we may ever keep
ourselves pure from the defiled
robes of Antichrist." (Whitting-
ham, dean of Durham, to the earl
of Leicester.) The letter appears
to have been originally undated,
but it has now From Durham,
15G4, " in the hand," Strype says,
" of liishop Grindal." —Annab.
Append, xxvii. p. 82.



* " God forbid that wc, by
wearing the Popish attyre, as a
thing but indifferent, should seem
thereby to consent to their blas-
phemies and heresies. Surely,
my Lord, it may seem to be a very
poor policy to think by this means
to change the nature of supersti-
tion, or to deck the spouse of
Christ with the ornaments of the
Babylonical strumpet, or to force
the true preachers to be like in
outward show to the papists,
Christ's enemies. Ilezekias, Jo-
sias and other famous princes,
when they reformed religion ac-
cording to God's word, compelled
not the preachers of God to wear
the apparel of Baal's priests, or of
Shemarim, but utterly destroyed
their garments." — lb. ad fund.
pp. 71>, 82.



A.D. 1563.] PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY.



19



authorised forbearance, in the hope that objections^ at
once unsubstantial and illiberal, would wither under
neglect, and soon die away. Even this temporising
policy must, however, have its limits, It was an advan-
tage to zealots of the Romish party, who did not fail to
represent Protestantism as effective only to unsettle;
equally the bane of public tranquillity and spiritual
safety.

The primate's prominence in settling the Church
naturally made him sensitive to such reproaches. His
own good sense and sound information were securities
against any undue estimate of mere externals. With
his dying breath, accordingly, he disclaimed all thought
of intrinsic excellence in cap, tippet, suri)lice, or wafer-
bread. For enforcing these ancient formalities, he, and
others in authority, had been stigmatised as great Papists.
He repels the appellation as calumnious, admitting an
awful responsibility were it otherwise ^ But Parker had
all the value for law and decency which experience
imprints upon grave, wise, and elderly minds. Hence he
was offended with a disposition to beard established
authority, and to trample down prejudices, no less inve-



^ " Controversia nuper de qua-
dratis pileis et superpelliciis inter
nos orta, exclamarunt Papistte,
non esse quam profitemur una-
nimem in religione fidem; sed
yariis nos opinionibus duci, nee in
una sententia stare posse." — Ilor-
nus, Episc. Vint. D. Gualtero,
Tigur. Eccl. Min. 16. Cal. Aug.
1565. Burnet. Hist. Ref. Re-
cords. III. 420.

^ " Does your Lordship thinke,
that I care either for cap, tippet,
surplis, or wafer-hreade, or any



such '? But for the lawes so esta-
blished, I esteme them, and not
more for exercise of contempt
against lawe and authoritie, which
I se wil be the end of it : nor for
any other respect. If I, you, or
any other, named great Papistes,
should so favour the Pope, or his
religion, that we should pinch
Christ's true Gospel, woe be unto
us all." — The Archbishop's last
letter to the Lord Treasurer.
Strype. Parker. Records, xcix.,
iii. 332.

C 2



20 ORIGIN OF [a.P. 1563.

terate than excusable. With the apprehensive, but pre-
scient sagacity of age, he also saw a spark in caps and
surplices, quite erpial to raise a mighty flame'. lie
sought anxiously, therefore, to suppress the clamour
against these distinctions, thinking, probably, that na-
tional good sense, if calmly left to take its course, would
soon reduce them to their true standard of importance.

Thomas Young, the northern metropolitan, makes no
aj)pearance in the vesture controversy. Hence he may
reasonably be considered as unvisited by a deeply-seated
scruple about cap and surplice. Had he taken any very
serious offence at such distinctions, we must have met
with appeals to his authority. Yet he was among the
six who resolved upon facing the odium and danger of
avowing Protestant opinions, in Queen Mary's first convo-
cation*. He fled also for his life, and wore away in exile
the tedious years of that mistaken princess's unhappy
reign. But he was no partaker of Swiss hosjiitality, or
even a member of that Frankfort congregation, which, at
first, listened so readily to Knox. Wesel was his ])lace
of refuge, as it was of Scory, bishop of Chichester. The
persecuted strangers there were about one hundred, all
contented seemingly with King Edward's liturgy; for

' " I se her niajestie is affected ' suppresses his name. Str>'pe
princely to governc, ami for that i says, — " The queen commanded
I se her, in constancie, almost this convocation to hold a public
alone to be offended with the [ disputation, at St. Paul's church,
Puritans, Avhose governance in I concerning the natural presence



conclusion, wil undoe her, and al
others that depend upon her." —
The Archbishop's last letter to the
Ijord Treasurer. Stuype. Parker.
Records, xcix. iii. 3in.

* His luart seems to have



of Christ in the sacrament of the
altar: which, how well it was
opposed by four or five of the six
("for Young went away), in the
presence of abundance of noble-
men and others, recourse is to be



failed him early in the debate ; I had to Foxe." — Crdiiiiicr. i. iij] .
lience it is, jjrobably, that Foxe :



A.D. 1563.] PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY.



21



they never used any other'. On Young's return to
EngLand, his services and sufferings were requited by the
see of St. David's". Arehbishoi) Parker, however, was
not long in recommending him for York, — a plain proof
of his high estimation of him. He felt satisfied, indeed, of
his ability, temper, prudence, and resolution". The court
manifested an equal confidence, by appointing him Presi-
dent of the North*. His enjoyment of these dignities
was rather brief"; but he lived quite long enough to
abhor cap and surplice, as antichristian and unlawful, if
arguments loudly and perseveringly assailing them had
been such as his mind could not resist.

Edmund Grindal, bishop of London, had first come
into notice as a disputant, at Cambridge, against tran-
substantiation, in King Edward's reign. Soon afterwards
he became chaplain to Bishop Ridley; Rogers and Brad-
ford, eventually martyrs, being his fellows. Under
Queen Mary's government, such a man must have been
quickly overtaken by a loathsome prison, and an agoni-
sing death. Hence he sought safety in flight, and fixed
himself at Strasburg. He there signed a letter to the
congregation _ at Frankfort, deprecating departure from
Edward's liturgy, as a tacit and pernicious admission of
" imperfection and mutability'." He was even the
bearer of this communication, and was thus personally
concerned in that settlement Avliich drove Knox and
Whittingham to Geneva. But Grindal, though satisfied
with his country's liturgy, Avas not equally so with her



' Strype. Memorials, iii. 233.

^ Consecrated Jan. 21, 1560.
— GoDAviN. De Prcesid. 586.

^ Archbishop Parker to Secre-
tary Cecil. Date, Oct. 12, 1560.
Extract. Strype. Farker. i. ] 73.



* Translated Feb. 20, 1561 :
made President of the North at
the same time. — Godwin. De
PrcBsul. 710.

" He died June 26, 1568.— /Zi.

' Troubles al Frankjbrd.



22



ORIGIN OF



[a.d. 1563.



ecclesiastical attire. On his nomination to the see of
London, he consulted Peter JMartyr as to the lawfulness
of using dresses, long holden in superstitious estimation.
His letters relating to this, and other questions, were not
fully answered until he had been consecrated bishop of
London '. Thus Grindal stood committed to the habits ;
and ^lartyr approved, but recommended him to teach
and speak against them. The learned foreigner denied
any serious importance to a clergyman's ordinary dress ;
thus unreservedly surrendering the cap. JNIinistering
vestments he placed upon a different footing, observing
that he constantly refused himself, when canon of Christ-
church, to wear the surplice. He would not, however,
allow scruples upon such subjects as a sufficient ground
for withdrawing from useful situations. This operation
of thcni, he represented as necessarily productive of unfit
appointments; thus rendering farther concession hope-
less'. These views were evidently Grindal's own. But
unfortunately, an active party jiaid far more attention to
his tongue than his example. Yet, the former did no
more than give utterance occasionally to doubt and dis-
like : the latter spoke habitually a deliberate conviction,
that mere externals ought not to disquiet conscience,
paralyse utility, or engender separation.

James Pilkington, bishop of Durham, one of the
Cambridge disputants against transubstantiation, under
Edward, and subsequently an exile in Switzerland', came
home under apprehensions of " unjn-ofitable ceremonies'."



' Dec. 21, 1559. The new
bishop was tlicn forty years of
age. — Sthyit. Grindal. 4\).

* //;. 44, 45.

■' He spent part of his time at
Zuricli, the rest at Basle. He



had been master of St. John's Col-
lege, Cambridge, — Strype. Memo-
rials, iii. 2;3l>, 2.M3.

■* FiXtract of a letter from
Frankfort, dated Jan. 3, 1551).
fcJnivri:;. Annals, i. 203.



A.D. 1563.] PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY.



28



By way of excusing such as jileaded conscience, in refu-
sing- the habits upon such grounds, he paints the inconsis-
tency of rejecting Popery, yet clinging to Popish apparel,
"as a holy relic'. This is, however, an exaggeration;
the obnoxious vestments being retained from policy,
not from any thought of intrinsic holiness. But besides
a lurking prejudice against them, the bishop highly
valued many of their more uncompromising opponents.
Hence he willingly gave every advantage to the scruples
of these excellent jiersons, and would fain have procured
for them entire satisfaction. His own unbiassed opinion
of the controversy evidently was, that it turned upon
trifles ^ On the eve of his return from exile, he had,
with others, expressed himself willing to obey orders
from authority, " being not of themselves wicked';" and
his example, indeed, was a standing rebuke to those who
acted otherwise. He excuses this by jn-ofessing an
exjiectation, that conformity was intended to be only
temporary^; then he flies off, by relating that Bucer
would not wear a square cap, " because his head was not
square." Thus the objections were treated as merely
plausible, whatever indulgence might be due to those
who urged them.



^ Bistop Pilkington to tlie earl
of Leicester : date, Oct. 25, 1564.
Strype. Parker. Append, xxv,
iii. 70.

^ " In this liberty of God's
truth, Avhich is taught plainly
without oflfence, in the greatest
mysteries of our religion and sal-
vation, I mervel much that this
smal controversie for apparel
shuld bee so heavily taken. But
this is the malice of Satan, that
where he cannot overthrow the
gretest matters, hee wil raise grete



troubles in trifles." — Id. ad ciind.
lb.

^ Extract of a letter from
Frankfort, nt supra.

* " Thogh thinges may be born-
with for Christian libertie sake for
a tyme, in hope to wynno the
weake : yet whan libertie is turned
to necessitie, it is evil, and no
longer libertie : and that that was
for wynning the weak, suffered
for a time, is becomen the confirm-
ing of the froward in their obsti-
natenes."— /rf. ad eund. lb. 73.



24 ORIGIN OF [a.d. 1563.

Robert Iloriio, bishop of Winchester, clean of
Durham under Edward, had found an asylum, in ISIary's
reijrn, at Frankfort and Zurich. He landed in his native
country Avitli such prejudices against the habits as had
usually llowed from a residence in Switzerland. But
he found these obnoxious distinctions established by law,
and an adoption of them indispensable to the j)ossession
of ])referment. A refusal of this by himself and his
friends, Avould involve, he felt, either the continuance of
Poperv, or the comi)lete adoption of Lutheranism'. He
was indisposed even for the latter j^art of this alternative.
Hence he set an example of conformity which he would
ratlier have declined, under an impression that his conduct
really compromised no principle of any great importance.
He did not cease, however, to feel for those Avhom con-
science bound under a different conviction, and he lived
in hope that another parliament would give them some
relief*. His opinion, therefore, amounts to little more
than a needless admission of worth in individuals, while
it stamps their scruples as overstrained.

The celebrated Bishop Jewel did not return from his
exile at Frankfort and Zurich, without sharing in the
sentiments ordinarily brought home. Hence he was
among those who doubted, at first, whether conscience
would allow submission to established habits and cere-
monies \ Having determined in the affirmative, he would
still have been hapj)y to see them wholly removed and
extirpated, for the ease of others more scrupulous'. But

' " Which Avas an argument the * " Atquo utinam aliqiruulo ah

learned foreigners, their Iriends, imis radicihus aufVrri et cxtirpari

suggested to tlieui." — Stuvpe. ////- possint; nostra' fjuidem ncc vices

nals. i. 2() 1. ad cam rem nee voces deerunt." —

" Itol). Wiuton. I), fiualtero. Jo. Juel. IVt. 3Iart. (h>te Nov. .'5,

date 10 C'al. Aug. loOo. IUunet. ]r»"»l). Bium-.t. lUsl. lief. Hecords.

Hisl. lirf. Kccords. iii. 421. | i.vii. iii. 'MK\.

" .Stkvi'E. Anuals. i. 2()1.



A.D. 1563.3 PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY. 25

he is far from taking liigli ground for their scruples.
Peter Martyr liad sjiolven of the vestments as " relics of
the Amorites." Jewel compliments this as most feli-
citous'. The view, however, uppermost in his own mind,
w^as the fitness of such attire for stage effect ^ He founds
its attraction upon a long experience of clerical incompe-
tence. jNIen having seen their pastors mere logs without
wit, learning, or morals, at least insisted upon the
popular recommendation of a scenic dress \ Even now
this must not be abandoned from professed anxiety " to
follow the golden mean." It ought rather to be called
" the leaden mean," Jewel playfully says*. As to doc-
trine, the great apologist admits, nothing more was to
be desired\ In his ojiinion, tlierefore, the whole contro-
versy owed its origin to matters rather below serious
notice.

Edwin Sandys, who filled successively the sees of
Worcester, London, and York, was another brief objector
to the habits. Being vice-chancellor of Cambridge, at
Edward's death, his own Protestant principles, and an
application from Northumberland, urged him to jjreach
in support of Lady Jane Grey. In this delicate under-
taking he showed so much discretion, that, after a short



* " Sunt quidem ista?, ut tu
optime scribis, reliquiae Amore-
teeorum." — Id. ad eund. lb.

" De religione quod scribis,



pere placucrunt, credo, secuti sunt
inscitiam presbyterorum : quos
quoniam nihil aliud videbant esse
quam stipites, sine ingcnio, sine



et veste scenica." (lb.) " Agitur ^ doctrina, sine moribus,veste saltern
nunc de sacro et scenico apparatu, ' comica volebant populo commen-
quajque ego tecum aliquando ri- dari." — Id. ad cund. lvii. 383.
dens, ea nunc a nescio quibus, nos * " Alii sectantur auream quan-
enim non advocamur in consilium, dam, qute mihi plumbea potius
serio et graviter cogitantur, quasi videtur, mediocritatem." — Id. ad



religio Christiana non possit con-
stare sine pannis." — Id. ad eund.
lb. 365.

^ " Sed illi, quibus ista tanto-



cund. lb. Lii. 365.

* " Omnia docentur ubiquc pu-
rissimc." — Id, ad eund. date Nov.
16, 1559. lb. Lvni. 385.



26



ORIGIN OF



[a.d. 1563.



imprisonment, liis friends interfered for him sucessfully'.
But political amnesty did not involve religious, and lie
fled, with his ^vife, to the Continent. His places of exile
were Strasburg and Frankfort. When again in P^ngland,
and marked out for preferment, he was one of those who
deliberated upon the statutable attire". Like most of
his friends, he decided against any serious importance in
the question.

The same oi)inions were entertained by other prelates,
but further j^iarticulars are needless. All the bench,
however, that returned from exile, had contended long
and earnestly, before preferment was accepted, for a com-
plete revolution in ecclesiastical attire'. The govern-
ment shrank from this, as impolitic, being desirous of
weaning the people, as it were, im])erceptibly, from
inveterate superstitions. Hence the Act of Uniformitij
authorised all such habits as were statutably used in the
second year of King Edward'. Had nothing further been



' Godwin. De Pra'snl. 711.

* Strypk. J/nials. i. 264.

" Edm. Oriiulal. D. Ilenr, Bul-
linger. Loud. 27 Aug. 1566. Bur-
net. His/. Ref. Records, xcii. iii.
472.

■* Thus particularised in llic ru-
Lrics to Edward's first book : — " In
tlic saying or singing of inattens
and evensong, baptizing and bury-
ing, the minister, in parish-
churches, and cliapels annext to
the same, shall use a surjilice.
And in all cathedral churches and
colleges, archdeacDUS, <leans, jtro-
vosts, masters, ])rebendarics, and
fellows, being graduates, may use
in the choir, besides their surplices,
such hoods as pertain to their
several degrees uhich they have



holden in any university ■\vithin
this realm, but in all other places,
every minister shall be at liberty
to use any surplice or no. It is
also seemly that graduates, when
they do preach, should use such
hoods as pertaineth to their seve-
ral degrees.

"• And whenever the bishop
shall celebrate the holy communion
in the church, or execute any
other public ministration^^ he shall
have upon him, besides his ro-
chette, a surjdice or alb, and a
cope or vestment, and also his
pastoral stalf in his hand, or else
borne or holden by his chaplain."

" Upon the day, and at the time
appointed for the ministration of
the holy coramuiiion, the priest



A.D. 1563.] PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY.



27



provided, a figure, venerable, but somewhat gaudy, would
have been presented by the clergy in their eucharistic
ministration, though at no other time. A subsequent
clause empowered the crown to make new regulations in
this case. Elizabeth saw the expediency of resorting



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