during all the year.
The White Sulphur Springs and Santa Cruz
have found more than a rival in the Hotel Del
Monte at Monterey, California, and the Pacific
coast has railroad trains that are as economical
of the time of her business men as the fast mail
trains between New York and Chicago. Moniercy
may be reached at a speed of forty miles an hour,
and the tourist may extend his visit to this his-
toric and interesting spot and take in Santa
Cruz for only a trifle more than he used to pay
for a trip to San Jose.
The Monterey and Salinas VnWy Railroad has
been purchased by the Southern Pacific and
changed to a broad-gauge road. A new connec-
tion has been built from Castroville (see page
284), and the old connection via Salinas discon-
tinued. The whole road has been relaid with
the best of steel rails, and its fast trains make it
the most popular road on the coast.
Monterey, 125 miles from San Francisco, the
terminus, is delightfully situated on the bay of
Monterey, which is 28 miles wide. This historic
spot was reached in December, 1001, and posses-
sion taken in the name of the King of Spain, and
named after Gaspar de Zuniga, Count of Mon-
terey and Viceroy of Mexico at the time.
In the fall of 17G9 Gaspar de Portala, governor
of Lower California, came overland from San
Diego with two priests and 63 soldiers and erected
Portala' s Cn>.-s (immortalized by Bret Harte), in
the vicinity. In June, 1770, Father Junipero
Serra, a Franciscan, erected another cross and
joined in hoisting the royal standard of Spain.
It was one of the most flourishing places on the
coast from that time until alter California be-
came a state in the Union.
The stars and stripes were hoisted by Commo-
dore Sloat July 7, 1846, and Monterey, long the
capital of the Spanish and Mexican province,
was the capital ot the new stale. With the re-
moval of the capital to San Jose it entered on a
Rip Van Winkle sleep, which continued until
A few years ago, the Pacific Grove Retreat was
formed, designed primarily to furnish a cheap
and attractive summer resort for ministers of all
denominations and their families, \\ith all the
advantages of sea-bathing, liut the new Hotel
del Monte, the finest on the Pacific coast outside
of San Francisco, and its throng of visitors, has
given a new life to the place. This hotel accom-
modates, in first-class style, 400 guests, and has
all modern conveniences and appliances. It is
built in the modern Gothic or Eastlake style, is
385 by 115 feet, and three stories high one an
attic story. The house is elegantly furnished,
and the grounds, consisting of 106 acres, are en-
tirely closed, and beautifully wooded with pine,
oak, cedar, cypress, English walnuts, etc.
In the town are many objects of interest, such
as the Catholic church, built in 1794, with old
paintings of much merit; the old block-house
and fort; the Cuartel, on California street; Cot-
ton Hall; tne old custom-house.etc. ; the light-
house on Point Pinos, tliree miles west of the
town, with a Fresiial light of the third order;
the Moss Beach; Seal Rocks ; Cypress Point and
The last is four miles south of Monterey, on
Carmel Creek, a beautiful, picturesque spot. It
was founded by Father Junipero Serra, June 3,
1770. Jn 182-), the Mission had 90,000 cattle,
50,000 sheep, 2.000 horses, 2,00 J calves, 370 yoke
of oxen, 45!),000 in merchandise and $40,001) in
silver all of which, ten years later, was con-
verted to secular uses by decree of the Mexican
government. The old ruins of the church are
full of interest, and in the yard near it lie the
remains of fifteen governors of the province and
stat-% as well as the tornb of Junipero Serra.
Fifty miles of graveled roads afford fine drives.
Hunting and fishing that cannot be excelled may
be easily reached. The sea-bathing is the best
on the coast north of Point Conception, and the
climate equable and healthful.
The table of temperature for Monterey was kept
in 1874 by Dr. E. K. Abbot, a correspondent of the
United States Signal Service ; that for San Fran-
cisco by manv parties, and is a mean of most any
three years ; Los Angeles by W. H. Broedrick (for
1871), who took observations four times a day for
seven years. The Santa Barbara record is for 1869,
and was kept by officers of the Coast Survey.
The Santa Monica record is for 1846, and was kept
by Dr. W. S. King, of the army, in 1853. The
Fort Yuma record was kept liy officers of the
army in 1851. All others are taken from notes
of travelers or from books written from friendly
and sometimes enthusiastic standpoints.
The following carefully-prepared table presents
the mean temperature of Monterey and many other
health-resorts and places throughout the world.
Monterey, . . .
San Francisco, .
Los Angeles, . .
Santa Uarbara, .
San Diego, . .
Santa AJonica, .
Sacramento, . .
Stockton, . . .
Fort Yuma, . .
Cincinnati, . .
New York, . .
New Orleans, . .
Honolulu, . . .
Funchal, . . .
Men tone, . . .
Genoa, . .
City of Mexico,
St. Augustine, .
Santa Cruz. . .
Jan. July. Ditf.
THE HOTEL DEL MONTE AND GROUNDS AT MONTEREY, CAL.
Sjr F. E. SHE^REfi.
These queer looking people, with loose gar-
ments, umbrella hats, or skull-caps, rags for
hose, pantaloons made ankle tight by tapes ;
wooden shoes, coppery skin, high cheek-bones,
almond eyes, half-shaved heads, jet black hair,
and dangling pig-tail*, are the hated of the
Paddy, the target of hoodlums ; the field of the
missionary, the bomb for the politician to ex-
plode, and the sinew for capital. They are
called the essence of all that is vicious, villain-
ous, and certainly are opinionated. They are
everywhere ; even the boys say they cannot throw
stones without hitting them, but they are to be
best seen in the Chinese quarters of San Fran-
cisco, from Pacific Street, the " Barbary Coast,"
to Sacramento Street, and from Kearney to
Stockton, five squares by two, in the heart of
the oldest part of the city.
Although in every block, and near every door,
their special quarter is almost like a city of the
"Middle Flowery Kingdom" set right down in
our midst. Streets and alleys, and labyrinthian
windings, not only such as we tread, are theirs ;
but, they live and travel under ground and over
roofs, up and down, until the cunning policeman
is outwitted in following them; and all their
streets and by-ways are swarming with human
or inhuman inhabitants, but little less numerous
than the rats and the vermin. Cellars and lofts
seem equally good for either lodgings, factories,
shops, or laundries, and apartments of ordinary
height are cut in two with a ladder to ascend to
the loft, reminding us of the log-cabin days in
the back-woods, or the wild frontier.
Buildings are made more capacious by rude
balconies from the second stories, that almost
touch over the narrow passages beneath. The
Globe Hotel, corner of Jackson and Dnpont
Streets, three stories high, with about GO rooms,
is inhabited by about, 1,500 Celestials, and the
heads of the Chinamen in their bunks, must
look like the cells of a honey-comb. Steamship
hold, cemetery vault, Roman catacomb, or
Egyptian pyramid could hardly be better
Health. The narrow streets are wide enough
for hucksters, wood-piles, chicken-coops, tempo-
rary pig-pens, baskets and poles, and all sorts of
foul rubbish, and just wide enough for our
noses. These streets may center in open courts
that reek in filth, or lead one from treading
where death-dealing vapors ooze through the
loose boards t>n which he walks, to dwellings,
where the floors are easily lifted to secure sewer
accommodations in pools or vats beneath ; but
with all this, the Chinamen seem to thrive best,
and huddle closest where it is darkest and most
dismal, and where sunlight never enters.
Leprosy is said to exist, but if competent medi-
cal authorities have so pronounced any of their
loathsome diseases, it is not generally known, or
else the leprosy is not of a contagious character.
There are loathsome diseases among them, and
especially among the prostitutes, by which even
small boys are infected, but no wide-spread
pestilence has ever been known among them,
and the death-rate is not excessive.
Their funeral customs and places of burial
make the concealment of the dead far more un-
likely than when some victim is chopped to pieces
and stowed away a la practices not unknown to
Personal Habits. Inoculation in child-
hood is universal, and they seem to come out of
their filth as the eel from his skin, with a per-
sonal cleanliness that is marvelous, and to most,
incredible. So far as the secret of their anoma-
lous health and personal cleanliness can be de-
tected, it is in their practice of daily ablution.
They bathe as if it were a sacred duty, and in
Washington Territory will cut through the
winter ice to find the necessary water, and the
tooth-brush is a daily companion.
The cue is regarded with patriotic pride. It
find the tonsure were introduced into China in
1G44, as a mark of acceptance of, and subjection
to the Tartar
rule, and en-
forced by the
favor of the
courts, to all
wore the cue,
and by reject-
ing in the lit-
tions all candi-
dates who ap-
it. and even by
death in some
cases, until at
mark of deris-
the badge of
honor, and now
carries this flag
of his country,
r>o less dear
than his own
It is formed
hair on the
crown of the
head, three or
four inches in
with it coarse
silk or false
hair, until in
cases of the am-
reaches to with-
in three inches SCENE m ALLBY ' CHINESE
of the ground. Sometimes it is worn for conven-
ience in a coil around the head or the neck, but
it is a mark of disrespect to have it coiled thus
in the presence of superiors more insulting than
to enter a Fifth Avenue cathedral or orthodox
-church and sit with the hat on the head.
The head of those who can afford it, is shaved
once in ten or fifteen days. The razor is triangu-
lar in shape, about two 'inches long, and an inch
wid3 at one end, hollow ground and weighing
about two ounces. The metal is of such excellent
quality that the razors are often bought by
Americans for the steel only.
Tonsorial operations are performed with great
skill, and there are delicate instruments for swab-
bing the ears, pulling hairs out of the nostrils,
and cleaning the eyelids on both under and upper
sides. The sign of the barber-shop, is a lour-
the legs painted
green, and the
knobs on top
As the cue is
the badge of
servitude to the
of China, no
one can become
citizen, or "de-
clare his inten-
tions " and re-
tain this, for it
in political mat-
ter?, he is not
his own master,
but the slave of
and hence ap-
pears the ab-
surdity of those
who deny the
of the Chris-
made by some
c u o . An En-
who unites with
church, is not
required or ex-
pected fpr this
reason, to re-
nounce his al-
legiance to the
QUARTERS, SAN FRANCISCO.
Chinese Quarters. The most interesting
objects to be seen in the Chinese quarters are
stores, shops, restaurants and temples, or Joss
houses, and opium smoking places, although
some of the tourists visit viler abodes, out of
A visit to the Chinese quarters may be made
in daylight or by night, and with or without a
policeman. The writer has frequently passed
through the alleys and streets of Chinatown with-
out the protection of policemen, and never ex-
perienced the least indignity. The only occasion
when he failed to receive the strictest courtesy
and deference was on intruding upon a company
" at rice," (when (hey do not like to be disturb-
ed) and introducing a large company of friends,
one of whom said he came from New York, when
one of the Chinamen grinned from ear to ear, ex-
claiming, "You foolee me he Irishman, he
Those desiring the protection of a policeman
can secure the services of one by applying to the
Chief of Police in the City Hall. Compensation
should be made privately. Two dollars and a
half is a sufficient fee, but visitors should pay their
own admittance to the Chinese theater.
The Six Companies. It is hard to estimate
the birds of a large flock that come and go with
spring and fall, and the Chinese are always travel-
ing to and from the Celestial Empire, and no
census taker, or poll tax gatherer has ever been
guilty of the sin of numbering them. Whoever
can be caught is squeezed for taxes, and no mat-
ter whether he has paid or not, he can pay for
some one that can not be caught. The number
of the people is variously estimated, but may be
given as follows :
The Ming Yung Company,
Hop Wo Coni|>!inv,
Kong Chow Company,
Yung Wo Company,
Sam Yap Company,
Yen \V p Company,
Of these 65,000 are in California, and 30,000 in
San Francisco. Of the whole number about 50,-
000 are women, children and merchants.
Emigration is carried on through Houg Kong,
a British port, the Chinese from the province of
Kwangtung going via this port. It is not prob-
able that it could be wholly prevented as long as
the Chinamen can make money here.
At the end of the year 1851, not 4.000 had
come to America. But the reports of the open
country, and plenty of gold, brought 18,000 in
185:2, and alarmed the Californians, so that the
next year only 4,000 came, and the average of
arrivals since, has not been 5,000 a year. We
have often been told of "passage engaged
ahead for thousands," that "enough are coming
the present year to overrun us," but the prophe-
cies are somewhat akin to those of the world's
The books of the Custom House, show the ar-
rivals since 18(58 to have been as follows, but of
departures and death*, there is no reliable record.
JI A LE.
95,753 4.296 100.049
As to the object and power of these companies
there is a difference of opinion. Some assert
they are about absolute for all purposes of
government, importing men and women, making
and enforcing contracts for labor and passage,
settling disputes, and by means of hired assas-
sins killing at their pleasure, any one for whom
they choose to offer a reward.
This and more everything that can be said
against them is believed by more than every
Irishman, and on the other hand, those who have
lived in China, in the service of the American or
English government, and missionaries who a/ieak
and read the Chinese language, deny to the com-
panies any such extent of power or purpose, and
the Chinamen universally deny it.
It is certain that these organizations are pro-
ipct'u-e, that they are practically emigration and
aid societies, that they care lor the sick, send
some of the destitute back to China, settle dis-
putes by arbitration, and possess such power that
the officials of the companies are sometimes
" bound over " for the members to keep the peace,
and by an arrangement with the Pacific Mail
Steamship Company, prevent the return of
any one to China who has not paid his debts, and
gather up and return to China the bones of all
the dead belonging to the respective companies.
They have no criminal power, and if American
officials did not co-operate with and encourage
the companies they would have much less in-
fluence and importance. Previous to coming,
Chinamen have often no knowledge of the exist-
ence of the companies. A family may accumu-
late means to send one of their number, not from
Cork, but Hong Kong, and on his arrival he usu-
ally allies himself to one of the companies for
mutual assistance and protection, and the six
companies may also advertise in China to induce
some to emigrate.
Nearly all Chinamen in America arc from the
province of Kwantung. of which Canton is tho
principal city, and hence only the Cantonese
dialect is spoken here.
The part of the province from which they come
usually determines what company each will join.
No fee is exacted for membership or initiation.
A washing guild, or organization that fixes
rates for washing, etc., has often been confound-
ed with the Six Companies. It is a trades-
union, independent of the companies. Trades-
unions are as common in China as in America.
audit is not surprising therefore that they fix
here the prices of washing, and allow no new
wash-house \\ithin certain limits of another, and
keep wages high enough to secure the most
money, and low enough to sicken the Irishman
that competes with them.
The Women. These are all of the lowest
order, excepting perhaps 150 out of the thou-
sands here. The manner of dealing with them
is like that with Ah Hoe, as follows :
" An agreement to assist the woman Ah Hoe,
because coming from China to San Francisco
she became indebted to her mistress for passage.
Ah Iloe herself asks Mr. Yee Kwau to advance
for her ftiiJO, for which Ah Hoe distinctly agrees
to give her body to Mr. Yee for service as a pros-
titute for a term of four years. There shall be
no interest on the money. Ah Hoe shall receive
no wages. At the expiration of four years Ah
Hoe shall be her own master. Mr. Yee Kwau
shall not hinder or trouble her. If Ah Hoe runs
away before her time is out, her mistress shall
find her and return her, and whatever expense is
incurred in finding her Ah Iloe shall pay. Ou
this day of the agreement Ah Iloe has received
with her own hands $030. If Ah Hoe shall be
sick at any time for more than ten days she
shall make up by an extra month of service for
every ten days ot sickness. Now this agreement
has proof. This paper received by Ah Hoe is
YUNG CHKK, 12th year, 9th month, 14th day.
In October, 1873, Ah Iloe came to "Mr.
Gibson's school for protection, saying she had
been beaten and ill-treated and gave this con-
tract as an evidence that sin had been held in
slavery. Ths money she had h ;Id in her hands a
few seconds, being compelled to pass it immedi-
ately over to her employer. She was taken to
Hong Kong by her mistress and shipped to this
Tar, Pa}/htff.1i\ San Francisco 324 per-
sons or firms, are assessed for personal property,
and the valuation is $531,300. Of city tax
$5,012, <" e., .943 of the whole was collected last
year, and of the State tax $ 2,89(5. 5!>, . *., .90 ut'
the whole was collected ; a much larger propor-
tion than the whole roll will show for other tax-
payers. One of the tea-importing firms is as-
sessed for personal property at. $23,000, and
another at $'22,500, and six firms at $10,000 or
On real estate it is impossible to ascertain the
amount of assessment, but it is certain that soma
of the people are so well pleased with the country as
to consider it a desirable home, or else so shrewd
in business as not to fear speculations in real
estate, in which they often make fortunate turns.
They never trouble any board of equalization
for a reduction of their assessment, and if their
assessments are made surprisingly low, may
Allah forgive the error for such is not the inten-
tion, and strange as it may seem the names of
Chinese real estate owners are never found on the
delinquent tax-list. Some of the Chinamen are
reputed to be worth from $100,000 to ?_H)(),000.
Sfrikittf/ Character titties. They are in-
v rioiis, working early and late, are jjeuctable,
never giving offense in the street.
They are thievish, and clannish, and have many
vices, but they never garrote the belated club-
man ; they will lie, but their honesty in deed and
word is not a whit below any mercantile class,
and their veracity is as good as the average in
the same sphere of labor.
Economy is seen in shrewd bargains, in
cheap living, in picking up the gold in the tail-
ings that slips through the fingers of the Ameri-
can miner, in roasting his pork by the carcass and
selling it to save the services of many cooks and
the cost of many tires.
The cobbler pursues his avocation on the street,
reminding one of the horseback rider during the
war, who was shaken heartily and awakened by
a stranger who desired to know what he paid for
lodgings. For the cobbler a candle-box will fur-
nish a seat, and all his tools and stock in trade
be carried about in another small box or basket.
They can live for about eight or ten cents a
day, but the average cost of the working class is
about thirty cents.
Skill in Imitating. They are great imi-
tators, and so far as known, do they not
furnish a striking illustration of the truth of
the theory of natural selection? Do not their
caudal appendages and power of imitation show
their relation to the monkey, and the link they
form in the development of the race?
They are servile imitators. The sea captain
who had an oil painting injured, and gave it to
a Chinese artist to reproduce, was amazed to see
the reproduction of the gash, and the Chinese
tailor who "followed copy" in making the new
coat with a patch on the elbow, needed his
ideas enforced with blows, yet they never ex-
Mbit the stupidity of the new coachman, who
was sent to grease the carriage, and leturned in
half an hour, saying he had " greased it all ex-
cept die SUOK.S Uio <v heels hang on." They are
more than in.itators, ior the ingenious heatheu
Chinee can produce more expedients from his
fertile brain than Ah Sin aces from his flowing
sleeves. In the mountains John will own,
drive, and care lor tut; own team ^< horses, or
Their value as servants or laborers is largely
in this, that they do as they are shown, and
have no more opinion of tLrfir own, tl.an the
miner who replied to his superintendent, when
?ked " what is this ore worth a ton ? " " I don't
know, to me it's worth four dollars a day."
/'offer of Control ot-er Their J<eetin</s,
makes their faces as unreadable as marble.
They are the least demonstrative of all the na-
tionalities represented the very opposite of the
Frenchman. They rarely laugh or cry, yet they
become excited, have no fear of death, and their
Chinese oa*S* roll from them at a rapid rate.
They often express their feeling by oaths and
curses, to which American profanity, it is to be
"hoped, will not attain by the next Centennial.
They wish their enemies to be chopped into a
thousand pieces, that his bowels may rot inch
by inch, and in geneal, their frequent oaths are
vile, low, and most vulgar, and they use them in
the consciousness that the mistress " can't sabee."
As servants many regard them as a great re-
lief to the insolence and visiting so common to
the class, and find them as reliable as any others.
They are liked and hated in proportion as they
are faithful and find kind mistresses. Many
have tried them to their disgust, and others
would have none but Chinamen.
Their language gives them no little advantage
in publishing their grievances. A kind and cul-
tured lady was greatly attached to her China-
man, who remained in her kitchen about two
years, and then returned to China to visit his
His successor proved to be a surly and care-
less fellow, and was soon discharged. No China-
man would then stay for more than a few days
or a week, and a " Jap " was engaged but with
the same mysterious result. At length some
characters in the written language were discover-