Henry Thomas Riley Roger (of Hoveden).

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were slain, some taken prisoners, while some took to flight.
The division which was commanded by the earl of Albemarle
and WiUiam of Ypres charged the Welch, who were advancing
on the flank, and put them to flight. But the troops of the
earl of Chester attacked the body of the above-named earl,
and, like the first line, it was scattered in an instant. All
the king's knights took to fiight, and with them William of
Ypres, ^^ a native of Flanders, a man of the rank of an earl,
and of great prowess.

In consequence of this, king Stephen was lefb with his body
of foot in the midst of the enemy. Accordingly, they sur-
rounded the king's troops on every side, and assaulted them in
every quarter, just in the way that an attack is made upon a
fort^ed place. Then might you have seen a dreadful aspect
of battle, on every quarter around the king*s troops fire flash-
ing firom the meeting of swords and helmets, — a dreadful
crash, a terrific clamour, — at which the hills re-echoed, the
city walls resounded. With horses spurred on, they charged
the king's troop, slew some, wounded others, and dragging
some away, made them prisoners. ISo rest, no breattung-
time was granted them, except in the quarter where stood
that most valiant king, as the foe dreaded the incomparable

" Roger of Wendover says that William of Ypres " and others, who
could not take to fiight, were taken and thrown into prison."

R 2



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244 AlJNiXS OP B06EB »E HOVEDEN. A.D. 1141.

force of his blows. The earl of Chester, on perceiving this,
envying the king his glory, rushed upon him with all the
weight of his armed men." Then was seen the might of the
king, equ£d to a thunderbolt, slaying some with his immense
battle-axe, and striking down otiiers. Then arose the shouts
afresh, all rushing against him, and he against all. At length,
through the number of the blows, the king's battle-axe was
broken asunder. Instantly, with his right hand, drawing his
sword, well worthy of a king, he marvellously waged the com-
bat, until the sword as well was broken asunder. On seeing
this, "William de Kahamnes, a most powerful knight, rushed
upon the king, and seizing him by the helmet, cried with a
loud voice, "Hither, all of you, come hither ! I have taken
the king !" All flew to the spot, and the king was taken.
Baldwin was also captured, who had made the speech for the
purpose of exhorting them, pierced with many wounds, and
bruised with many blows, while earning undying fame by
his glorious resistance. Eichard Fitz-Urse was ^so taken,
who in giving blows and receiving them weis distinguished
by his prowess. After the king was made prisoner, his troop
still fought on; indeed, being surrounded, they could not
take to flight ; but at last were all either taken prisoners or
slain. According to the usages of war, the city was plundered,
and the king, in a piteous condition, was taken there.

The judgment of God being thus wrought upon the king, he
was led to the empress, and placed in captivity in the castle at
Bristowe.^* The empress was recognized as mistress by all the
people of England, except the men of Kent, where the queen'*
and William of Yypres fought against her with all their
strength. She was first received by the bishop of Win-
chester, the Boman legate, and, shortly after, by the citizens
of London. However, she soon became elated to an in-
tolerable degree of pride, because her affairs, after their uncer-
tain state, had thus prospered in warfare; conduct which alien-
ated from her the affections of almost all the people. Irritated
at this, with all the spitefalness of a woman, she ordered the
king, the Lord's anointed, to be placed in irons. A few days

'2 " Armatorum'' seems a preferable reading to " armorum," as it ap-
pears that Stephen was not taken by the earl of Chester alone, but in
consequence of being overpowered and borne down' by a multitude.

^ Bristol. w The wife of king Stephen.



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A.o. 1142. VIKG STEPHIfiK BBSIEGES OXFOBD. 245

after, in conjunction with her nncle, the king of the Scots,
and her brother Robert, having colle<5ted their troops, she laid
siege to the fortress of the bishop of "Winchester ; on which,
the bishop sent for the queen and "William of Ypres, and
nearly all the nobles of England. In consequence of this,
large armies were soon formed on either side. Daily combats
took place, not rank meeting rank, but in skirmishes on the ex-
terior of the lines. Their exploits, therefore, were not con-
cealed amid the haze of battle, but the prowess of each was
conspicuous, and proportionate renown attended his exploits ;
so much so, that to all men of prowess this period seemed
rich in the dazzling exploits of illustrious men.

At length the army of the Londoners came up, swelled to
vast numbers, and, fighting against the empress, compelled
her to take flight. Many were taken while flying, and, among
them, Robert, the brother of the empress, was captured, in
whose castle tiie king was kept prisoner, and through whose
capture , alone the king could be ransomed : and, accordingly,
they were both set at liberty. Thus then, through the judgment
of God, the king was lamentably taken prisoner, and, through
the mercy of €fod, he was mercifully liberated, and received
with great rejoicings by the nobles of England.

In the same year, Alberic de Yere was slain at London, in a
sedition of the citizens. In this year, also, died Geofifrey,
iHshop of Durham, and was succeeded in that see by "William,
dean of the church of Saint Barbara, at York, who was con-
Becrated by Henry, bishop ^of Winchester, the legate of the
Church of Rome.

In the year of grace 1.142, being the seventh year of the
reign of king Stephen, that king built a castle at Winchester."
Just then, an immense multitude of the enemy coming upon
him unawares, the king's soldiers, on meeting them, were
not able to withstand their attack; on which they forced
the king to take to flight. Many of his men, however, were
taken prisoners ; and, among them, William Martel, the king's
sewer, who, for his ransom, gave up the fine castle of Sherburne.

In the same year, the king besieged the empress at Oxford,
from after the feast of Saint Michael till the Advent of our
Lord; and, shortly before the festival of the Nativity, the

'^ It would appear from Gervase's Chronicle, that this battle took place
at Wilton, and not at Wincfaeiter, in the year 1143«



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246 AKKALS OF BOe^t BE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1144.

empress fled across the river Thames which 'wa8fix>eeii) clothed
in white garments. The reflection of the snow and the simi^
larity deceiving ihe ejBs of the besiegers, she escaped to the
castle of WallijQgford ; upon wliic^ Oxford was at length sur-
rendered to the king.

In the year of grace 1143, being the eighth year of the
reiga of king Stephen, that king was present at a council
held at London in the middle of h&xU F(»r, at this period^
no respect was paid by those who plund^^ed to either the
clergy or the Church of God» and, whether deAs or lay-
men, they ^ere equally taken faisonere and held to ran-
som. Upon this, the bishop of Winchest^^ the Eoman
legate, held a council at Lcmdon, which at the time was
absolutely necessary for the safety of the clergy. At this
council it was decreed, that no one who should vi<dently lay
hands upon a clerk could possiUy recdve absolutimi from any
one, not ev^i from the pope himself, and appearing in his pre-
sence. In consequence of this, a slight gleam of serenity, with
great difficulty, ^one fortii at last upon the clergy.

In the same year, the king seized Geoifrey de Mandeville,^^
at his court at Baint Alban's, more in retribution for the
wickedness of the earl, than according to the law of nations ;
more from necessity than from virtuous motives* For, if he
had not done so, through the peifldy of this earl, whom from a
baron he had created an earl, he would have been deprived ai
his kingdom. Accordingly, in order that the king might give
him his liberty, he surrendered to him the tower of London
and the castles of "Walden and Plessis. In consequence of this,
the above-named earl, being stripped of his possessions,
attacked the abbey of Saint Bene^ct at Eamsey, expelled
the monks, and introduced his plunderers, turning the church
of God into a den of thieves. He was a man of the greatest
prowess, but of the greatest perverseness towards God ; of ex-
treme activity in worldly matters, but extremely neglectful
towards God.

In this year, shortly before the festival of the Nativity> the
bishop of Winchester, and soon after, the archbishop of Can-
terbury, repaired to Eome, to treat for the legateship, pope
Innocent being dead, and having been succeeded by Celestmus.

In the year of grace 1 144, being the ninth vear of the
1^ His name really was William.



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A. D. 1144. MIBACLE8 WEOUGHT AGAINST THE WICKED. 247

reign of king Stephen^ that king laid siege to Lincoln^ where,
while he was building a fort opposite fiie castlfe which the
earl of Chester held by force, nearly eighty of his workmen
were smothered by the enemy ; consequently, abandoning the
work) the king retreated in concision. In tike same year, earl
Geoffirey de Mandeyille greatly harassed the king^ and shone
forth 'vdth great glory in all his exploits. But, in the month of
August, the Divine power showed a miracle worthy of its
justice : for two persons, who had committed the like offence
in expdiling &e monks, and turning tiie churches of God into
castles, it punished witii a similar retribution.

For Eobett Marmion, a skilful warrior, had perversely acted
thus towards the church of Coventry; while, as already
inenticmed, Geoffi^y de Mandeville had been guilty of the
like wickedness towards tiie church of Bamsey. Bobert
Marmion, while attacking the enemy, and in the very midst
of a large body of his own men, was slain, singly, before that
very monastery, and, having been exeoBamunicated, has death
for his everlasting portion.

In a similar maimer, Geoffrey, the new-made eaii above-
named, while amid the dense nmks of his own men, was,
singly, pierced with an arrow by a foot-soldier of the lowest
raii. He himself at first laughed at the wound ; but, after a
few days, died in consequence oi it, and while excommunicated.
Behold here the laudable vengeance of God, similarly attend-
ant upon similar crimes, and worthy tp . be disclosed to all
generations ! Also, while the church t^^ held by him as a
castle, blood gushed forth from the walls of the church and
the adjoining cloisters, in manifestation of the Divine dis-
pleasure, and foreboding the extermination of the wicked.
This wa^ seen by many p^sons; cmd, in fact, I myself ^^
beheld it with my own eyes.

Wherefore, because they wickedly said that God was asleep,
God was aroused ; which is evident from these signs and mani-
festaticmsi For, in this same year, Amulph also, the son of
earl Geoffirey, whoj after his father's death, retained possession
of the church as a castle, was taken prisoner and banished the

^ This is the earliest mention made by the ifvriter of himself in the
capacity of witness of what he relates* He must have been very young
at the time ; consequently it was easy to impose on his credulity. He
may, however, be possibly alluding to the extermination of the wieked.



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248 ANNALS OF ROGEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1145.

kingdom by reason thereof, and the leader of his troops, falling
from his horse at his inn,*® dashed out his brains and expired.

In addition to this, the commander of his infantry, Eeimer
by name, whose habit it was to pull down churches or destroy
f hem by fire, was crossing the sea with his wife, when, ac-
cording to the statements of many, the ship became motionless.
The sailors, astonished at this prodigy, made enquiry into
the cause of the circumstance, by drawing lots, on which the
lot fell upon Eeimer. He, however, contradicting, with all his
^ might, that this was the fact, the lots were drawn a second
and a third time, and feU upon him still. Upon this, he was
placed in a boat, with his wife and the money which he had
most wickedly acquired, and immediately thereupon the ship
ploughed the sea with the swiftest speed, just as before. The
boat, however, with these most wicked people, being whirled
round by a whirlpool suddenly formed, was sucked in and
came to destruction.

In the same year, pope Celestinus having departed this life,
Lucius was appointed in his stead.

In the year of grace 1 145, being the tenth year of the reign
of king Stephen, that king was at first occupied in business
relative to the departure of Hugh Bigot. But, in the spring,
earl Kobert, and the whole body of the king's enemies, built
a castle at Ferendimer ; *• on which, the king, displaying his
usual activity, collected his forces and hurried thitiier, taking
with him a numerous and warlike body of Londoners. After
having assailed the fortress for whole days together, while
earl Eobert and his supporters were not far from the king's
army, waiting for additional troops, by a display of miHtwy
prowess attended with the most laborious efforts, he gained
possession of it, though not without great bloodshed. Then,
at length, the king's fortunes began to change for the better,
and to soar aloft.

In the same year pope Lucius died, and was succeeded by
pope Eugenius. In this year also, Alexander, bishop of Lincoln,
went again to Eome, and was honorably entertained by Euge-
nius, the new pope, a man worthy of that highest dignity.

IS *' Hospitio.'' This may possibly mean the portion of the monastery
where the monks were in the habit of entertaining strangers.

19 " Ferendune " is a various reading, ** Ferendimer " being probably a
misprint. Faringdon, in Berkshire, is the place meant.



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A.D. 1147. STEPHEN CEOWNED AT LINCOLlSr. 249

His mind was always kindly disposed, his discretion always
to 1)6 relied on, his countenance always not only cheerful but
even joyous. The bishop, returning the second year after this
to Lincoln, with wonderM taste repaired the church there so
skilfully, that it appeared more beautiful than when it was
first bmlt.

In the year of grace 1 146, being the eleventh year of the
reign of king Stephen, that king, having assembled a large
army, built an impregnable castle, situate opposite to Walling-
ford, where Banulph, earl of Chester, who was now on friendly
terms with the king, was staying with a large number of his
followers. But, shortly after, as the earl was coming in a
peaceful manner to the king's court, the king seized him at
Northampton, while apprehending no such attack, and thrust
him into prison until he had restored to him the most famous
castle of Lincoln, which he had taken from him by stratagem,
and all the rest of the castles which had belonged to himself;
upon which, the earl was released from prison and restored to
liberty.

In the same year, the noble city of Edessa, in Syria, which
is now called Eoaise, was taken through treachery by the
Saracens, on the night of the Nativity of our Lord, while the
bishop and Eaymond, earl of Saint GiUes, and innumerable
troQps collected from the whole kingdom, and the people of
the city were engaged in their religious duties ; who, on the
capture of the city, were put to death by the pagans. In this
city the remains of Saint Thomas the Apostle, which were
formerly transferred from India, are said to rest.

In the year of grace 1147, being the twelfth year of the
teign of king Stephen, that king, at the festival of ihe Nativity
of our Lordt was crowned at the city of Lincoln, which no
king had dared to enter, in consequence of certain supersti-
tions*^ preventing them. After the king's departure thence, the
earl of Chester came to Lincoln with his troops, for the pur-
pose of assaulting it ; upon which occasion, the commander of
his troops, a man of invincible bravery, was slain at the en-
trance of the north gate, and, after losing many of his men,
the earl was forced to take to flight. On this, the citizens of
Lincoln, being victorious, were filled with extreme joy, and,

^ It was believed that misfortune and a speedy death would befall the
king so doing.



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250 ANNALS OF EOGER BE HOVEBEN. A.D. 1148.

with great J^omp) retailed thanks^ iattended with praisesy to the
Virgin of tirgms, their protectress.

At Pentecost, Louis, king of the Franks, Theodoric, ewd oi
Flanders, and the eecr} of St. Gilles, with numberless troops
from the well-peopled kingdom of the Franks, besides many of
the English nation, liaving assumed the cross, set out for Je-
rtisalem, for the purpose of expelling the pagans, who had
taken the city of Eoaisei Conrad also, the emperot of Ger-
many, led a still greater body of iaroops, and both armies passed
through the dominions of iiie emptor of Constantinople, who
afterwards betrayed them.

In the month of August, Alexander, bishop of lancet, set
out for Auxerre, to meet pope £i^nius» who was then at that
j^ce, having jwreviously been to P^ris* He was received by
the pope in the most honorable manner ; but, in consequence
of the excessive heat of the weather, brought with him to
England the seeds of disease and death, and (Hed in the follow-
ing year, having for his successor ^bert de Chedney.

In the year of grace 1 148, being the thirteenth year of the
reign of king Stephen, the armies of the emperor of Germany
and of the Mng of the Franks> which, graced by those most
Hoble chieftains, marched onward with the greatest pomp,
were annihilated, because God utterly despised them. For the
incontinence ascended to the sight of God, of which they were
guilty in acts of fornication and manifest adultery ; a thing
"which greatly displeased the Almighty, and was aggravated by
the tapine and all kinds of crime of wMch they were afterwardfs
guilty. Accordingly, at first they fell, attacked by famine,
through the treachery of the emperw of Constantinople, and
afterwards by the edge of the enemy's sword. The king of
France and the emperor of Germany, upon this, with a very
small number of followers, fled ignominiously, first to Antioch,
and afterwards to Jerusalem. On arriving there, the king of
France, as though about to do something to compensate his loss
of glory, having obtained the aid of the knights of tte Temple
at Jerusalem, and gathering forces on every side, laid siege to
Damascus ; but having effected nothing there, he returned to
France.

In the meantime, a naval force, headed by no influential
men, and relying upon no mighty chieftain, but only on Al-
mighty €K)d, inasmuch as it had set out in a humble spirit,



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A.9. 1148. H^KBT 18 KADE UiUKE OF NOBHAimT. 251

edmed liie fatotir of Ood and nMuiilbsted great prowess. For,
though but few in number, by arms they obtained possession
of a fanK)U8 city x^ Spain, Lisbon*^ by name, and anoth^,
called Almeida, together with the parts adjacent. How true
is it that God opposes the proud, but to the humUe shows
grace ! For the army of the king of the Franks and oi the
emperor was larger and better equipped than the fi>rm«r one,
which had gained possession of Jerusalem ; and yet they were
crushed by a very few, and routed and demolished like webs
of spiders ; whereas these other poor people> whom I have just
mentioned, no multitude could resist, but the greati^ the num-
bers that made head against them, l^e more hdlpless were they
rendered. The greatest part of i^em had come from !&ig^andL

In the meant^e, Geoffirey, eail of Anjou, husband of the
above-named empress, the daughter of king Henry, entered
Kormandy with a great army and ravaged it, and took many
castles and fortified cities ; and the nobles <^ If ormandy, keep-
ing in mind the oaths iiiey had made td the said empress
and her heirs regarding Normandy, readily changed to ikeit
side. For Eustace, ike son of king Stephen, who had been
the duke of Normandy, and had married Constance, dst^ of
Louis, kii^ of France^ Was now dead, and the king of France
had given his sister Gonstance in maniage to Eaymond, earl
of Saint Gilles ; and from this period the wars so greatly in-
creased against king Stephen in England, that he could give
no attention to the defence of Normandy.

At this time, Henry, son of the empress Matilda, being
now a youth sixteen years of age, and having been brought
up at the court of David, king oi the Scots, his mother's uncle,
was dubbed a knight by the same king David, at the city of
Carlisle, having first made oath to him that if he should come
to be king of !^gland, he would te^tore to him Newcastle and
the whole of Northumbria, and would allow him and his
heirs to hold for eVer in peace, without ^haUenge of l^dr
right, the whole of the land which lies between the rivets
Tweed and Tyne. After this, the same Kbdxj, by the advice
and assistance of David, king of the Scots, cross^ over into
Normandy, and being received by the nobles, was by them
made duke of Normandy.

'^ Great part of Portngal was at this time in the hands of the Moors.



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252 AXNALS OP EOGEE DE HOTia)BN. A.D. 1153.

In the year of grace 1149, being the fourteenth year of the
■ reign of king Stephen, Henry, duke of Normandy came into
England with a great army, on which many castles were sur-
rendered to him, and a great number of towns ; he also coined
new money, which they called " the duke's money ;" and not
himself only, but all the influenjial men, both bishops as weU as
earls and barons, coined their own money. But fiim the time
when the duke came over, he rendered null the coin of most of
them.

In the same year, Louis, king of the Franks, and Eleanor,
his wife, returned from Jerusalem to France,

In the year of grace 1150, being the fifteenth year of the
reign of king Stephen, the abbey of Holcoltram was founded,
also the abbey of Kinross, in Moray. In the same year, also,
the Prsemonstratensiaa order came to Dryburgh, at the feast of
Saint Martin

In the year of grace 1151, being the sixteenth year of the
reign of king Stephen, pope Eugenius sent by his legate, John
Papirius, four palls to Ireland, whither a pall had never been
sent before, and appointed archbishops at four places, one at
Armagh, another at Cashel, a third at Dublin,^ and a fourth at
Connaught. In the same year, Geoffirey, earl of Anjou, departed
this life, and his son Henry succeeded him in the earldom.

In the year of grace 1152, being the seventeenth year of
the reign of king Stephen, during this year as also two pre-
ceding ones, king Stephen and Henry, duke of !N'ormandy,
frequently engaged in battle, and did not withdraw from the
combat, except with a great loss of substance and of men ; but
the duke of Kormandy always gained the day. For his re-
sources increased more and more, and became more abundant
every day, while the king's power decreased more and more.
For the chief men of the kingdom, bearing in mind the oaths
they had taken to the empress and her heirs, nearly all gave
in tiieir adhesion to the above-named empress and her son, the
duke of Normandy. In the same year, Henry, earl of Nor-
thumbria, son of David, king of the Scots, and Matilda, his
daughter, departed this life.

In the year of grace 1153, being the eighteenth year of
the reign of king Stephen, peace was restored to England, a
treaty being made between long Stephen and Henry, duke of
2^ CaUed " Diveline" in the text.



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A.D. 1154. DEATH OP KING STEPHEN. 253

Normandy, whom king Stephen adopted as his son, and ap-
pointed Ms heir and successor in the kingdom, through the
mediation of the venerable man Theobald, archbishop of Can-
terbury, and Henry, bishop of "Winchester. The king also
appointed the duke justiciary of England imder him, and all
the affairs of the kingdom were transacted through him ; and
jfrom this time forward the king and the duke were of one
mind in the government of the realm, so much so that, from
this period, no disagreement ever arose between them.

In the same year died David, king of the Scots, on the ninth
day before the calends of July, on which, his grandson Malcolm,
the son of earl F«airy, a boy twelve years of age, succeeded him
in the kingdom. In the same year, pope Eugenius departed
this life, and was succeeded in the paptwy by Anastasius. In
this year died Bernard, abbat of Clerville ; William, bishop of
Durham, also died in this year,, and was succeeded by Hugh
de Pudsey,^ treasurer of the church of York, nephew of tibe



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