and Thursday preceding the Sabbath on which they both
died within five hours. Called in consultation I witnessed
these 2 deaths, the termination in each case due to an
ascending paralysis. Fourteen of the 15 cases were chil-
BY UW. NOT REPOSTABLE
IN OTHER STATES.
( F)- FROM A SERIES BY FROST
(EST)- NUMCR OF CASES
IN UNITED STATES
ijj. .3. Map (diagrammatic) of L'nited States.
dren and young adults, but the fifteenth was the man of
~<> who kept the little shop. On October 2ist he was
taken ill. and said to a neighbor who found him sitting
over a stove, "I have had backaches before, but never any-
thing like this." He developed a paralysis of both legs
and died October 26th.
Twenty miles south of Eau Claire is the village of
Augusta. Three miles from Augusta live the Wagner
family, consisting of father and mother and 6 children.
Their farm is a clearing in the woods. They grew corn
and potatoes, lived in a one-room log house, and \Yagner
\\orked steadily clearing his little domain, exchanging
firewood for groceries and clothing. They had no pump,
carrying water from the creek one-fourth of a mile away.
In the summer of 1908 they took a boarder, an old man
who was a county charge, for whom they received the
sum of $1.50 a w r eek. A few days after the old man's
< 1894-1901 Xi902- < 06> '08' '10
Fig. 4. Prevalence of cases in United States.
arrival he was taken ill. Mrs. Wagner nursed him, but
a week later her husband became ill in the same manner;
and one by one all of the children. The old man and 3 of
the children got well. The father was left with a paralysis
of one leg and 3 of the children had an arm or leg para-
lyzed the girl aged 10, a boy 4 years of age, and a baby.
In the report a review of the epidemics of acute polio-
myelitis in Norway and Sweden, w r ith the occurrence of
many hundred cases during the four summers of 1903-4-
5-6, is given, with a review of the epidemic in and about
EPIDEMICS AXD PANDEMICS. 7
the port of New York, "our principal port of entry from
Europe/' and the article concludes: "It would seem that
a highly contagious disease had journeyed along the main
highways of travel from the Old \Yorld to the Eastern
United States, and thence to these sections of the Middle
AYest, where there is a large percentage of Scandinavians
"There were about 8700 cases of infantile paralysis
reported in the United States in 1910, and if we contrast
that figure with the years prior to 1904, when the average
yearly number was 15 cases per year, we may appreciate
what an enormous increase has occurred.
"When we come to the analysis of the figures for
1910 we must remember that they were brought out by
a systematic and extended inquiry undertaken by the
Massachusetts State Board of Health, and probably had
such an inquiry been possible in one of the earlier years a
larger number of cases would have been discovered than
now stand as reported in those years. Still, one cannot
conceal the fact that in 1910 there apparently occurred a
very much larger number of cases than before all over
the United States, and that the extent and distribution of
the disease in this country in 1910 was of a different
character from that of any previous year." (Lovett.)
COINCIDENTAL EPIDEMIC PARALYSIS IN
ANIMAL AND MAN.
Epidemiologists of the recent epidemics of poliomye-
litis in man have not Overlooked the coincidental paralysis
and death among domestic animals, yet the aggregate
of such occurrences has not hitherto, I believe, been as-
A close relationship between paralytic cases in man
and animal during epidemics of poliomyelitis has been
observed in the United States, and in Sweden, Westphalia,
England, and P>razil.
ACUTE PARALYTIC DISEASE AND DEATH AMONG DOMESTIC ANIMALS OCCURRING
COINCIDENTLY WITH EPIDEMIC POLIOMYELITIS IN MAN. (MANNI1
Massachusetts 1911 Horse
Hens 39 in all
week before onset in child
Wash'n. D. C.
1911 18 animals (1 cow) paralyzed among 102 cases of poliomvelitis
1911 Horse, one week before onset of
paralysis in boy
1910-11 1000 horses and
4000 cattle dead with '
'symptoms of rabies,"
coincidental with 13 cases of human poliomyelitis at Sao Paulo
Oct. 1. 1912
meningitis, paralysis, death, 24,000. Hostlers >aid to
In the State of Massachusetts in 1910, during an
epidemic of 1000 cases of poliomyelitis, paralysis among
horses and cattle included many colts, geldings and horses.
and also many heifers, cows and bulls. One veterinarian
attended 15 cases of paraplegia in cows ("\Yentzell.
Beverly) of which most died. Three other paralytic cows
are said to have had twisting of the neck, circled to tin-
right ; when forced to walk, complete paralysis of hind
quarters. A Guernsey hull with complete paraplegia was
killed six weeks later, when atrophy of gluteal muscles
was noted. (May.)
The following cases of sickness, paralysis or death
among small animals and fowls was noted during the
Paralysis in Domestic Animals. The table shows that out of
186 families in which acute epidemic poliomyelitis occurred. 34 home<
had illness, paralysis or death in 82 animals. One hundred and ten
EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS. 9
of the families above mentioned had animals ; therefore, about 30
per cent, of no families with animals had illness, paralysis or death
in their animals. (Springfield, Mass., 1910. Sheppard. )
DATA AS TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
Xo animals of any kind in 76
Animals present in 1 10
6 homes had 14 hens with sickness.
6 homes had 6 cats with sickness.
4 homes had 4 dogs with paralysis.
4 homes had 12 hens with paralysis.
2 homes had deaths in 2 dogs.
6 homes had deaths in 6 cats.
8 homes had deaths in 42 hen-.
2 homes had deaths in 2 horses.
34 homes had illness, paralysis or death in 82 animals.
At 1'enryn, Cornwall. England, on May 27, 1911, a boy of 6
years of age was taken acutely ill ; he was observed falling about the
house ; he went out and again fell and was carried home, and paral-
ysis of all extremities followed. This was the second of 132 cases
of paralysis in Cornwall and Devon, the adjoining shire, during the
-ame summer. One week before the boy's illness a horse belonging
t<> this lad's father had aJi attack of what is locally known as "poke-
neck ;" it is said to have been paralyzed in the neck and forequarters ;
it fell down in the stable and was unable to rise ; when taken out of
the stable with assistance it again fell ; it was shot without having
been seen by the veterinary surgeon.
June 8th, a lad of 2^ years became ill with a paralysis of both
legs. The second boy's father had been in the house with the first
ca-e. (Gregor & Hopper, "Poliomyelitis in Cornwall," British Med.
lour., Xov. 4. 1911.)
Reading of this report of coincidental paralysis in man
and Imrse, occurring in the same homestead during a
considerable epidemic of poliomyelitis, crystallized a be-
lief that has been constantly augmented during four years'
10 INFANTILE PARALYSIS.
study of this disease. The season preceding the "Wisconsin
epidemic of 1908 I was asked to examine two recently
foaled colts on the stock farm of Chas. L. Allen, of Kau
Claire, \Yis. These colts were affected with a spastic
paralysis, all four legs sticking rigidly forward: when
lifted to a foothold they could not stand. They were tw>
of a considerable number of blooded colts that were lost
that season. A young riding horse also developed a spastic
gait and had to be disposed of.
During the epidemic of 1000 cases in Minnesota in
1909 three colts were seen by Dr. H. W. Hill, epidemi-
ologist of the Minnesota State Board of Health, ill with
a disease ''strongly analogous in clinical history and
symptoms to the disease in the human." (Hill. Minn.
Med. Jour., Sept. i, 1909.)
These colts were under the care of Dr. C. S. Shore, a
veterinary surgeon of Lake City, Minn., who wrote of
them the following excellent clinical record:
In my veterinary practice of the past five or six years I have
found a disease appearing among one- or two- year-old colts that
shows a line of symptoms corresponding closely to anterior polio-
myelitis in children. I have had from 5 to 10 cases a year during thi>
time, always occurring during the summer months, and the majority
of them during the month of August. The affected colts are usually
found in the pasture unable to stand. The owner will sometimes
notice an unsteady gait for twenty-four hours before entire loss of
motion occurs. At first the colts have a rise of temperature to 104 ;
pulse and respiration accelerated ; animal sweats profusely ; there is
some trouble noticed in swallowing, especially water ; bowels tending
toward constipation ; more or less tympanites ; retention of urine for
a few hours at least. Head drawn back so the end of the nose tend-
to assume a position somewhat on the line with the neck.
The death loss is less than 10 per cent., but in those that recover
the market value is depreciated, because of faulty gait the animal
assumes after an 'attack of the disease; there is atrophy and contrac-
tion of certain muscles or certain groups of muscles. It seems that
EPIDEMICS AXD PANDEMICS. H
the flexor muscles of the legs especially are more often affected than
the extensor, and in almost all of the cases some of these deformities
are likely to remain permanent, causing a flexion of the fetlock. The
elevators of the head are also likely to become affected, causing the
head to have a poky appearance as it is carried out from the body.
After one of these attacks the colt will remain down from one to
three weeks, and will then continue to improve for a year, but it sel-
dom if ever makes a complete recovery. ( Hulk-tin Mass. Board of
Dr. Shore's interesting" note that the colts had difficulty
in swallowing will be referred to again later. It is evident
these colts were affected by the same disorder as the horse
at renryn, which died after developing poke-neck' and
paralysis of the forequarters.
The State of California had an epidemic of 100 known
cases of poliomyelitis in 1910. The majority of these cases
occurred in San Joaquin County, and according to the
September, 1910, Bulletin of the California State Board
of Health, "veterinarians report a considerable number of
puzzling paralyses of colts in San Joaquin County, where
the largest number of cases have occurred so far."
Historical Cattle Plagues. At Echternach in the
Luxembourg there is an annual dance through the church,
of pilgrims, headed by the clergy, to the shrine of St.
\Yillibrod. The pilgrimage is done by way of vows for
the cure of nervous diseases. The local legend asserts
that the ceremony had its origin in a cattle plague which
began in the eighth century, which ceased through an
invocation to the saint. The dance is headed by the clergy
and proceeds to a traditional tune from the banks of the
Sure to the church, up sixty-two steps, along the north
aisle, around the altar with the sun, and down the south
aisle. Tt is curious that until the seventeenth century only
men took part in it. ("Medieval Stage," E. K. Chambers,
T()ii, vol. i, page 163.)
12 1XFAXTJLF. PARALYSIS.
A knowledge of this plague, simultaneously affecting
animals and man with an acute nervous disease, reappear-
ing at irregular intervals through the ages, and ceasing
i ? i on an invocation to the saints after all the susceptibles
had been killed or crippled and an immunity established
for the rest of the inhabitants, sheds a flood of light on the
so-called miracle cures of the middle ages and today. A
thousand pairs of crutches might well adorn the walls of a
church which could cure ( ? ) paralysis of the legs, but it
is to be feared the cure was inoperative where the paralysis
was not regressive in type.
Pigs and Chickens. The reports of paralyzed fowl.^
from districts where poliomyelitis exists are common, and
call to my mind a number of similarly affected hens I saw
some years ago on the John Seymour ranch in Allen
County, Kansas. The housewife reported the death of
a hundred hens from an epidemic disease, and called my
attention to one of those remaining which crouched on
the ground, and when disturbed fluttered a short distance,
dragging its feet. Other fowls were unable to use one
wing; many chickens whirled wildly about until they fell
dead. The epidemic was clearly an acute nervous dis-
order, producing ataxic and paralytic types.
Examination of Paralyzed Chickens. (a) Dr. Charles L. Dana
examined one of the fowls paralyzed during the Vermont epidemic of
1894, and found, "an acute poliomyelitis of the lumbar portion of
the cord; no meningitis; bacteriological examination negative."
(Caverly, loc. cit.)
(b) Dr. F. A. Ely examined a paralyzed chicken with a most
suggestive history from a Boone County, Iowa, farm. The chicken
had an acute illness not exceeding three days in duration, and one
wing and both legs were paralyzed. During the summer many of the
chickens on this farm became ill and disabled, and as soon as this
was noticed the farmer would snap off their heads and throw the
chickens into the hog-yard. Some time later a large hog developed a
EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS. 13
typical paralysis of both hind legs, so that the animal wore the skin
<>tf his knees as he dragged himself ahout. In October. 1910. Dr. Kly
saw in consultation a child with acute poliomyelitis on this farm ; at
the same time of Dr. Ely's visit, another case of paralysis was ob-
served in a chicken which was taken to Des Moines for examination.
Dr. A. R. Robertson, pathologist at Drake University Medical
School, reported: "Examination of fowl paralyzed after three days'
acute illness (one wing, both legs). Upon exposure of the spinal
cord, a distinct area of softened cord, one inch in length, of the lower
dorsal and upper lumbar regions was observed. Histological sec-
tions from the affected areas revealed numerous small hemorrhages
in the anterior cornua. and distinct collections of cells in perivascular
and perilymph channels, and tissue spaces of the anterior horns. The
histological picture was that of acute poliomyelitis in man." ( Bier-
ring. "Acute Poliomyelitis in Iowa in 1910-1911," Interstate Med.
Jour., Jan., 1912.)
At 1'ella. Marion County. Iowa, one hundred and fifty miles dis-
tant from the Boone County case, a similar association between a
paralytic disease in chickens and cases of acute poliomyelitis was
noted. A number of these chickens were obtained. Three of them
were kept for two. three, and four weeks, until the paralysis and a
certain degree of muscular atrophy were established, and then ex-
amined, with confirmatory results. (Bierring. loc. cit.)
In September, 1911, 5 cases of acute poliomyelitis in Calhoun
County. Iowa. 3 of which proved fatal in the first forty-eight hours,
occurred on four different farms. On the farm of each of 4 of the
cases a history of paralytic disease in lower animals was obtained.
In 2 instances chickens were affected; kittens at one farm, pigs at
another. (Bierring, loc. cit.)
Tlic Dog. The coincidental paralysis of the dog and
human poliomyelitis has been reported from Sweden,
Vermont. Massachusetts. Illinois, California, and the State
<>f Washington. Kelly, of the State of Washington, re-
ported that one family had I dog paralyzed for two days
one week before onset in child (1910). Langhorst, of
Illinois, reported 2 cases of acute poliomyelitis succeeding
paralysis in a dog with which patient associated. This
14 1XFAXTILE PARALYSIS.
report is given in full under "Transmission of Acute Polio-
myelitis through the Dog" in Chapter II of this volume.
The State of Massachusetts had an epidemic of 923
cases of poliomyelitis in 1909 and a second epidemic of
845 cases in 1910. The summer of 1910 the following
cases of paralysis in dogs were collected by the investi-
gator employed by the State Board of Health:
PARALYSIS IN MASSACHUSETTS DOGS, 1910. (MAY.)
Declham. French bulldog, paraplegia gradually working for-
Xcwtonville. French bulldog, paraplegia. Recovered in three
Amesbury. Twelve-year-old housedog. Complete paralysis,
posterior to lumbar region, sudden and continuing.
Boston. Nine-year-old housedog, paraplegia.
Boston. Wadsworth. Three dogs of different breeds and ages ;
all had same symptoms : ascending paralysis of all four legs, coma
and death. Head twisted to right. Two lived for twelve days. The
puppy lived three days.
Boston. Cocker spaniel. October nth, complete paraplegia;
Dec. 5th, dog able to walk and improving.
Salem. Several cases of paraplegia in dogs, accompanied by
vomiting ; all fatal.
Reading. Six cocker spaniels from 4 to / years of age. Para-
plegia, some very sensitive to touch. Recovery.
Boston. May. Spaniel. Slight paraplegia developing complete
paralysis of hind legs, bowels and bladder in August, 1905. Paral-
ysis and atrophy present in 1910.
Sheep. "In England paralysis is epidemic among
sheep in the early autumn each year." ("Torment of
Flies," Shipley, Christ College, Cambridge.) It is well
known that Sir Walter Scott was afflicted with a short and
withered leg. He had an acute illness when he was a
small lad which left him unable to walk, and he was given
in charge of an old shepherd of whom he was very fond.
EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS. 15
This shepherd took the boy out in his plaiddie to the fresh
air of the sunny hillsides, and health returned to him, but
he was left with a paralysis of one leg.
In the fine study of the life of the English shepherds
of today, W. H. Hudson relates the story of an ataxic
sheep, told by the shepherd, Caleb Bawcome, who was
himself the victim of poliomyelitis. The description of
man and sheep is as follows:
"Caleb, a shepherd of the clowns. A very tall, big-boned, round
shouldered man, uncouth to grotesqueness, who walked painfully
with the aid of a stick, dragging his shrunken and shortened bad leg.
He told me that when he were a young man he was
once putting the sheep in the fold, and there was one that was giddy,
a young ewe. She was always turning round, and round, and round.
And when she got to the gate she wouldn't go in, but kept a'turning
and a'turning 'till at last he got angry and, lifting his crook, gave her
a crack on the head." He tells of other giddy sheep, "giddy because
they had a maggot on the brain, or some other trouble I couldn't find
out." He also tells of an unlucky farmer in those parts whose sheep
fell sick and died in numbers, year after year, bringing him down
to the brink of ruin. ("A Shepherd's Life," W. H. Hudson, pages
52, 127, and 352.)
Here, then, is a record of an epidemic sheep plague
occurring annually; a very good description of an indi-
vidual case of the ataxic type occurring in a young ewe;
the shepherd presenting the typical flaccid paralytic type;
and our knowledge of Walter Scott, the child of aristo-
cratic parents, contracting the acute disease coincidently
with association with a shepherd.
A TAl'.LE OK EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS OK ACITE
POLIOMYELITIS. COMPILED KROM MAXY SOURCES
BY DR. JACOLYX V. V. MAXXIXG.
Ytur. Locality. Cases. Deaths. Reported by
1.S41. Louisiana 11 .... Colmer, Am. Jour. Med. Sc.. Tan.,
ISfiS. Norway 14 .... Bull.
1S75. Philadelphia (in 4 years) ... 86 Sinkler, Bost. Med. Sury.. Nov.
issl. I'mea, Sweden 13 ..... Bergenholz-Medin. Intrn. Med.
ISSo. S. Koy, Germany 13 4 Cordier, Lyon med., 1888.
ISSo. Mandel, X<>r\vay 9 .... Oxholm-Leegard, Netir. Centrb..
1887. Stockholm. Sweden 43 3 Medin. Xord. Med. Ark.. 1896.
1S;3. Boston 26 Putnam, Boston Med. Jour., 1893.
is .}. St. Girons, Krance 9 .... Andre, Compt. de med. Bordeaux.
IS' 4. X. Adams, Mass 10 Brackett. Tr. Am. Orth.
1894. Rutland, Vermont 132 18 Caverly, N. Y. Med. Record, 1894.
!S"5. Spertoli, Italy 7 .... Pericinni, La Sperimental. 1895.
1895. Genoa ." 6 .... Bucelli, Policlinico, 1895.
1895. Stockholm, Sweden 20 .... Medin. Xord. Med. Ark., 1896.
1896. Much Haden, England 7 1 Pasteur, Tr. Clin. Soc., 1897.
1896. Port Lincoln, Australia 18 \ltman, Austr. Med. Gaz., 1897.
1896. Cherryfield, Maine 7 1 Taylor, Phil. Med. Jour., 1898.
lS')d. Greene Co., Ala. 15 .... Bondurant, Phil. Med. News, 1901.
1897. London 11 .... Buzzard, Lancet, 1898.
1897. Kiel, Germany. Baltic Sea . . 4 .... Pleuss, Inaug. Diss., Kiel, 1898.
1897. Xew York City 12 .... H. L. Taylor, N. Y. Med. Jour.,
IN'W. Lc Grand, Cal 4 .... Xewmark, Med. Xews, Phil., 1899.
IS'*. Koyersford, Pa 22 Jour. Xerv. and Ment. Dis., 1899.
1SW. Vienna 208 .... Zappert. Tahrh. f. Kinderheil., 111.
1898. Frankfort on Main 9 .... Auerbach, Xeur. CentralbL 1900.
1899. Stockholm. Sweden 54 3 Wickmann, Heine Med. Krank..
1899. Bratsburg, Xorway 54 2 Leegard, Xorsk Mag. f. T
1899. Poughkeepsie, X. Y 37 1 H. D. Chapin. Arch. Pod.. 1900.
1900. Gloucestershire, Mass 52 .... Painter. Trans. Am. Orth.
1901. San Krancisco, Cal 55 .... Woods, Occidental Med. J., xvii.
l n (>3. Gotteburg, Sweden 20 1 YVickmann. Urine Med. Krank..
1903. Xorway 18 6 Harbitz, Jour. Am. Med. Asso.
1903. Parma, Italy 26 .... Lorenzelli, La Pediatria. 1904.
1905. Queanbergen, N. S. W 6 .... Blackball, Austr. Med. Gaz., l'*>4.
1905. Sydney, Australia 25 Litchfield.
1905. Stanmore, Australia 34 Wade.
I'JO.r I'.risbane, Queensland 108 4 Ham, Austr. Med. Gaz.
1904. Ilvalen, X T orway 41 .... Xannsted, Xorsk Mag. f. l.ae-..
1904. Aaf Jordan. Xorway 20 6 Platon, Tidssk. f. d. Xorsk.
1904. Trondheim. Xorwav 437 67 C.iersvold. Xorsk Mag. f. I
EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS. 17
A TABLE OF EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS (Continued).
Year. Locality. Cases. Deaths. Reported by
1904. Sweden 1031 Wickmann, Tidssk. f. d. Norsk,
1905. Norway 952 111 Harbitz, Jr. Am. Med. Asso.,
Sept. 7, 1912.
1906. Norway 466 50 Harbitz, ibid.
1907. Norway 204 30 Harbitz, ibid.
1905. St. Louis, Mo Fry.
1905. Central Illinois 8 Norbury.
1906. (During the year 1906, curiously free from reports of poliomyelitis in the
city of New York, there was said to have been a serious epidemic of
cerebrospinal meningitis. Contrary to the history of the spread of
epidemics of all ages, the epidemic of 3000 cases of poliomyelitis in the
year 1907 is supposed to have appeared like a bolt from the blue.)
1907. FIRST AMERICAN PANDEMIC.
Yar. Locality. Cases. Deaths. Reported by
1907. New York City 2500 .... New York Committee.
19(17. Schenectady 29 .... Clow, Alb. Med. Jour., 1908.
1907. Oil City, Lehigh, Dubois and
Ridgway, Pa 209 .... Urey and Terriberry.
1907. Massachusetts 234 Lovett, Mass. State Bui.
1907. Live Oak, Florida 16 .... Efird, Tr. Flor. State Asso., 1908.
1907. Oceana Co., Mich 20
1907. Trempeauleau Co., Wis 22 .... H. A. Jegi, Tr. T. P. C. Co. Med.
1908. SECOND AMERICAN PANDEMIC.
Year. Locality. Cases. Deaths. Reported by
1908. Massachusetts 136 Lovett, Mass. State Bui.
1908. Clearfield, Pa 14 .... Mills.
1908. Salem, Va 25 .... Wiley and Darden.
1908. Florida 16 .... Frost.
1908. Flint, Mich 30 .... Manwaring, of Flint, Mich.