Herbert F. (Herbert Francis) De Bower.

Advertising principles online

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Millions of people prefer Pears' Soap. They will have no other kind.

AT YOUR DEALBR'S^IU matlffTtkt muattmttds {tL5$ m Iw «f mm
4nrM). 20t m mA» fn tkf Gfyctrimt Sttmttd; (5/« M » k^ tf S mIm).

4« fai steaips bffiaii yoa • T«tt Calw •( Pmts?

Wflltor Janvier, U. & Agent, 419 Canal Street, New York City



In this advertisement a masterpiece costing £9^00 is used for an illus-
tration, adapting the subject to the product, "Pears' Soap**

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DRAWINGS AND REPRODUCTIONS «55

surfaces, and of producing on paper the effect of atmosphere^
often called chiaroscuro, or aerial perspective.

Third, line affords the best possible means of representing
"texture,** i.e., the substance of the surface itself.

5. Stipple, tones and masses. — ^When dots instead
(rf lines are used, the process as well as the effect i&
called **stipple," Stipple effects are much used in
clothing and furniture advertisements. The tinto-^
graph or "Ben Day" process has given stipple a
prominent part in the production of tints in adver-^
tising.

The use of tones of varying intensity is a third
means employed by the artist. The brush is ol^vi-
ously a more difficult tool to use than the pen.

The use of mass is seen in the silhouette and in the
half -silhouette.

6. Pen drawings. — In the hands of a skilled com-
mercial artist, the pen is a most effective instrument..
With it, the entire advertisement may be produced.

Pen drawings are usually well adapted for all ad-
vertising purposes. The mechanical processes favor
the pen-drawn line. Lines can be reproduced ex-
actly, and the contrasts and shadings of the drawing
are truthfidly reproduced in the zinc etching.

Pen drawings are not successful in reproducing in-
tricate patterns or pictures with a great amoimt of
detail. Where detail rather than mass is desired in
the illustration, photographic illustration is usually
preferable. The alternating black and color pages,
of the mail-order catalog illustrate this point. Car-

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256 ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

pet sundries, stair rods and the like are pen-drawn,
whereas rugs are photographed from the originals and
reproduced in color.

7. Wash drawings. — When 'e photographic effect is
desired a wash drawing is usually best, since it repro-
duces not only blacks and whites, but intermediate
tones. Wash drawings are in some respects superior
to photographs. Details which have selling quality
may be given the right degree of emphasis, perspec-
tive may be rightly represented, and backgrounds
may be added or taken away. The texture of a filing
case, a piano or a chair having massive lines may call
for this form of reproduction. The wash drawing
is often preferred as a matter of economy, since the
desired effect may be secured more easily in wash than
in a retouched photograph.

8. Oil paintings. — Recent developments in color-
printing have created a growing demand for "copy in
color." The direct color-photograph is sometimes too
faithful a likeness of the Abject. The oil painting,
when correctly executed, makes ideal color copy.
The cost of good oil paintings and the time required
for successful execution necessarily restrict their use.

The Liggett and Myers Tobacco Company, in its
reproductions of paintings in Fatima cigarette adver-
tising, employs paintings of distinct artistic value.

9. Retouched photographs. — The camera makes no
allowance for poor or unequal lighting. Some color
values it fails to bring out; others it indicates wrongly.
A commercial photograph as received from the pho-



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Effective use of the oil painting gives a dignified appearance to this
advertisement, and lends a sense of distinction to the Fatima cigarette



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258 ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

tographer nearly always needs to be retouched. Such
retouching brings out contrasts and adds details.

10. Sources of art supply. — The advertiser may
procure his illustrations from several sources. These
include the art department of an advertising agency;
an art organization; a "free lance" artist who is
trained in the business requirements of art work; the
art departments of photo-engravers; the art depart-
ments of some periodicals and newspapers; and the
stock-cut organizations that supply ready-made cuts.

11. Kinds of engraving. — There are three general
methods of engraving. The first employs raised
characters, in the second the characters are sunken,
while the third makes use of surface characters. All
engraving is done by one of these three general proc-
esses or a modification.

Printing from raised characters is the oldest
method. The parts that are not to appear are cut
away or kept below the printing surface. Surface
printing is used mainly in one process — ^lithography.
A plain surface may be made to "take ink" in one
place and "refuse ink" in another, by special treat-
ment. When paper is impressed upon the surface,
that part which is inked prints, the remainder leaves
the sheet blank.

The advertiser is necessarily concerned with the
relative advantages of the various methods of engrav-
ing. On a catalog run he may use zinc etchings,
photo-engravings, wood cuts or lithographs thruout.
For the covers of the book he may use any of these



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DRAWINGS AND REPRODUCTIONS «59

mediums or he may use one of the embossing proc-
esses, either wholly or in part. Each process has its
merits and its limitations.

12. Wood cuts. — ^Wood cuts were made when
printing was first invented. Playing cards and re-
ligious pictures were cut on wood as early as 1400,
and advertisers used wood cuts up to about 1880.
Altho later engraving processes have largely sup-
planted this method, wood engraving is sometimes
employed for illustrations of machinery and similar
subjects. The cost of the engraving is relatively
high, but the printing costs no more than letter press
work.

The accompanying reproduction of a wood engrav-
ing, used in the Millers Falls Company's advertise-
ment, shows the present-day use of the wood cut
process. The varying textures and surfaces are



An example of present-day usage of wood cuts

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£60 ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

brought out by differing methods of lining and dot-
ting,

13. Zinc etchings. — In the process of zinc etching,
the copy is photographed and the negative is made on
glass. The developed film is toughened, removed
from the glass and remounted in reversed position
on another glass. A zinc plate, having one surface
highly sensitized, is clamped to the glass negative.
Light, either from the sun or from an electric arc, is



A good type of zinc etching

applied to print the photographed copy on the zinc.
Ink applied to the plate adheres only to the exposed
parts, the remainder coming off after a bath in run-
ning water. After drying, a red powder termed
"dragon's blood" is dusted over the plate; this ad-
heres to the inked portion and is brazed on it.

The actual etching is now done. Immersion in a
solution of nitric acid and water cuts the zinc, except
where it is protected by the "dragon's blood." After
the plate has been subjected to the mechanical proc-
esses of "routing," and moimting to type height, it is
ready for use.



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DRAWINGS AND REPRODUCTIONS 861

Zinc etchings may be prepared from any copy
made up of solid lines, points or contrasting surfaces.
Wash drawings, photographs or copy containing
color tints cannot usually be reproduced by the zinc
etching process. Pen drawings in black india ink
on white paper furnish the best copy. Compara-
tively cheap stock may be used in printing zinc etch-
ings, particularly if the artist has been instructed to
make the drawing "open," so that the cut will not blur
on long runs on cheap paper. The cost is lower than
for half-tones.

14. Half 'tones. — Half-tones stand at the head of
engravings for most purposes — for catalogs, book-
lets, circulars and advertisements in mediums of the
better class. The half-tone can be made to print on
any stock which has a fairly smooth surface and can
be used for color-work. The cost is reasonable. A
relief -plate, photographically made on metal, in which
the printing surface is made up of a regular series
of small dots, or a grating of fine lines in white, is
called a half-tone.

Half-tone plates are produced as follows: The
copy is photographed thru a screen or glass, marked
by cross-lines meeting at right angles. The lines are
opaque; the squares transparent. The photograph,
therefore, is taken thru the transparent squares. An
enameled copper plate is printed as in the zinc etch-
ing process. The plate is placed in a bath of per-
chloride of iron which eats away the coating of the
plate that is unaffected by the lines and dots produced



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£6« ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

by the screen, A proof is then taken, and further
etching may be done on parts of the plate by using
the perchloride again. Hand-work, somewhat after
the manner of wood engraving, may be done if a par-
ticularly fine plate is desired. Mounting, commonly
on a wood base, completes the process.

Most half-tones are made from retouched photo-
graphs. Wash drawings, pen, pencil, crayon or char-
coal drawings as well as paintings in color are repro-
duced accurately by this method, as has been done in
a number of instances for this volume.

15. Importance of the screen. — The screen is a
clear plate of glass ruled accurately in two directions
with lines at right angles. The light cannot pass
thru the lines of the screen, but filters freely between
them and registers on the plate. The result is a
series of light and heavy dots, bringing out in detail
the shading in the photograph. Screens are named
according to their number of lines per inch. The
coarser the screen the lower the grade of stock that
may be used in printing. If a half-tone is to be
printed in newspapers or on a similar grade of stock,
65-line to 85-line screen may be used. If the paper
is of a better grade, 100-line screen; for the ordinary
fiction magazine, 120-line screen; for booklet work
on fairly good, coated paper, 133-line screen; while
for the best results on very fine grades of paper, 150
or even 175-line screen is employed.

The following plate shows different screens from



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264 ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

'65 to 175-line. It should be noted that the finer the
screen the greater the detail which may be secured.

16. Lithography. — Lithography, printing from
specially prepared stones, is useful to the advertiser
chiefly in the production of letterheads, catalog and
booklet covers, and in reproductions of pictures and
designs in color. The unit cost is rather high on
short runs, but low on long ones. The range of use-
fulness is narrow, but the process is capable of fine
results. It comes into competition, in single-color
work, with engraving and embossing, and in
multi-color work with the other and later color pro-
cesses.

Lithographic stone of the best quality is procured
from Bavaria, tho the United States furnishes a large
part of the supply. A grained stone is used to give
a stipple effect; the ordinary sharp line of lithog-
raphy requires a perfectly smooth surface. The
printing surface is washed with a solution of nitric
acid and water, which roughens the stone where there
is no design.

17. Hand-made engravings. — To the experimental
work of Finiguerra, an Italian goldsmith, the world
owes the art of engraving on copper. The process
was invented about 1460, and copper was used until
the beginning of the nineteenth century when steel
was generally substituted.

The printing is made from sunken characters, cut
into the copper or steel plate, usually by hand. In
some cases, machines are used for cutting or tracing



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DRAWINGS AND REPRODUCTIONS 265

the characters ; in others, chemical processes are used.
In printing, ink is applied to the face of the plate.
The sunken parts become filled with ink, and retain
enough to bring the characters level with the surface
of the plate. Any ink adhering to the smooth sur-
face of the plate is carefully removed. The plate and
the stock on which it is to print are forced between
two rollers, one solid, the other covered with woolen
cloth or a rubber blanket. The stock-paper or card-
board is forced into the depressions of the plate under
the pressure of the meeting rollers and comes from
the press printed and embossed. In the best work
the embossing is plainly marked, owing to the depth
of the incisions and to the heavy pressure applied.
In cheaper grades of work, the embossing is com-
paratively slight, but the ink has a peculiar raised
eflFect which distinguishes it as "engraved." Steel
and copper plate engravings are of limited utility.
The latter are employed chiefly for conventional an-
nouncements and cards. Copper plate is frequently
used to announce an offering of millinery, furs, jew-
elry or other high-grade goods. Stationery of high
grade is printed from steel engravings.

18. Ben Day process. — By the use of a sheet of
celluloid having a raised design, known as a Ben Day
screen, it is possible to introduce the pattern of the
screen into any part of the engraving. The parts of
the negative that are not to take the pattern are pro-
tected by being treated with a liquid resistant to the
ink. By this means artistic designs may be intro-



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266 ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

duced on a printing plate; light colors or shadings
may similarly be shown. This process makes zinc
etchings available for a wide range of color work.

Many Ben Day plates closely resemble hand stip-
pling or line work. In the Moon motor car advertise-
ment, the illustration is made by the Ben Day process.

19. Electrotyping. — ^Where forms cannot be
printed as soon as made up, or where permanent
plates are wanted, any form, cut or plate may be
duplicated as many times as needed. By means of
the electrotype, an advertisement may be reproduced
and distributed to all the periodicals in which it is to
appear, thus insuring uniformity of display and clear
printing.

The ordinary electrotype is wax-molded, the mold
being dusted with graphite and submitted to electrol-
ysis. The resulting film of copper is backed with
lead. So-called nickel types, or nickel-plated elec-
trotypes, are used on long runs and in some color
printing. They may be used with any colored ink
without disintegrating, thus preventing the color
change that takes place in some inks when the print-
ing is done from a copper electrotype.

20. Stereotypes and matrices. — Stereotyping is the
process employed in many newspaper offices to du-
plicate forms. Advertisements in the larger news-
papers must conform mechanically to the restrictions
of the stereotyping process. In general, body-type
smaller than six point should be of an open face;
cuts should be free from minute detail, and no half-



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/ Whi
y^ thei



^e Sea^n^ omap^ CajPi



Whatever the price may be, a oar so oonvinoixtg/ly a t tr ac tiv e at
the new 1917 Moon han't yet *'ooine along"
Here is beauty of the kind that is deeper than mere nidcd or
brass and fireah enameL The ImIooo— with its sweeping, unbroken
lines; long, double^owled Delaunay-BeUeville body and rakiA
sboit of windshield— is obviously the season's smart car.
V^thin, the new Moon is Moon straight through — po w er fu l—
staundt— on the qui vivo to do your bidding— generous of dbow
and leg room — upholstered (both models) in genuine tan
Spanish leather.

Sixr66 iSiKjJS

Write for Utmtere, DhMtradaf Md teertbioc tfacM Md odMT iBodda

MOON MOTOR CAR COMPANY ST. LOUIS. U. S. A.



Showing the eflFective use of the Ben Day process in illustration



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268 ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

tones of finer screen than 80 to 100-line are adapt-
able.

The method of stereotyping is simple. A sheet of
prepared paper is beaten into the face of the form or
pressed into it by means of a brush or roller. The
impressed sheet, called the "matrix," is placed in a
mold and molten type metal is poured in. If the
plate is to run on a rotary press, the mold is curved
to conform to the curvature of the press cylinder.

When an advertisement is to be run in a number
of newspapers that have stereotype foundries, it is
more economical to forward the papier-mache matrix
than the plate itself. Even a large matrix can be
mailed at first-class postage for a few cents.

21. Mechanical processes. — In the various modern
methods of reproduction, certain mechanical proc-
esses are constantly employed.

"Stripping" enables the operator to join parts of
different photographs or drawings into one cut or
to combine photo-engraved and etched surfaces. In
stripping, the film is removed from the glass plate to
which it was originally attached. The stripped film
can then be trimmed and placed where desired.

An engraving or other picture having a back-
ground that shades off gradually into the surround-
ing white space is termed a "vignette." Vignetted
half-tones are difficult to print, especially on a platen
press, as the shading tends to cloud under heavy im-
pression, while a light impression gives only a shad-
owy effect. This difficulty is overcome by using the



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DRAWINGS AND REPRODUCTIONS 269

silhouetted half-tone, made possible by the "routmg"
process.

Routing consists in cutting away those parts of an
engraving that are to be below type height. Often
it is necessary to rout blank spaces deeper so that
they will not smudge the paper in printing.

Reverse cuts are those in which the impression is
exactly the reverse of that in the drawings. "Re-
verses" are made by reversing the negative. The
term is also applied to plates in which the blacks and
whites are reversed.

REVIEW

Describe the different forms of originals from which reproduc-
tions can be made and explain the advantages of each for special
purposes.

Distinguish between zinc etchings and half-tones and describe
the methods by which each is produced.

What is the Ben Day process.^

How is the reproduction affected by the processes of electro-
typing and stereotyping.^ By the kind of paper used.^



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CHAPTER XVII

PRINTING ART IN ADVERTISING

1. Relation of printing to advertising. — Except
for a small amount of word-of -mouth advertising,
printing must be relied upon to deliver the adver-
tiser's message. Without some mechanical means of
multiplying the written message, extensive advertis-
ing would of course be impossible.

In view of the practical importance of the subject,
the advertiser should possess a fair knowledge of the
work that can be performed by printing processes.

2. Standard flat-press bed. — Inasmuch as the
printing art, as applied to advertising, embraces a
variety of processes, it is well to note the nimiber and
sequence of the steps which an idea may take before
becoming permanently embodied in print.

Many presses now in use retain the flat bed.
Platen presses bring the type against a flat bed;
cylinder presses rotate a cylinder against a flat form.
The rotary press commonly used in newspaper
offices departs from the use of a flat bed by employ-
ing a curved form that rotates with and against the
impression cylinder.

8. Offset process. — The tendency of ink to trans-
fer under pressure is the basis of the so-called "offset'*
process — one of the later developments of the print-

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PRINTING ART «T1

t. The plate with the form to be printed does
eet the paper directly. The impression is made
\^ c. rubber roller and transferred from this to the
paper.

By means of the offset process, rough papers, such
as those with "antique" finish, may be used as readily
as smooth papers. This is of particular advantage
in the printing of half-tones. Reproduction of deli-
cate shades of color is also made possible by this proc-
ess. Admirers of the offset process claim for it supe-
riority over lithography in the production of soft yet
distinct color effects.

Since offset work requires special plates, entailing
a high cost, it is not practical for short runs. For
large runs, the rapidity with which the work can be
tamed out greatly reduces the unit cost.

4. MuJtkoLor proce^s.-^Tht multicolor process is
based <m the theory that any color may be produced
from the three primary colors — ^red, yellow and blue
—singly <fT in combination. Three plates, each car-
rying one of these colors, are used, one after the other;
the resulting picture will contain nearly every rari-
ation in colors.

It was found that the three-color process could he
improved by the addition of a fourth plate carrying
i)lack. TTris is especially advantageous on IcMig runs,
smce it permits more rapid printing and imperfect
register is less apparent than when but three plates
are used. The paper is fed frc«n rolls thru tiie cylin-
ders; Mcs of the desired colors are fed from differ-

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272 ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

ent fountains and distributed by individual sets of
rollers, each color going to its appropriate form.

The colored sections of the Sunday newspapers are
familiar examples of multicolor presswork. Many
catalogs, printed in one and two colors, carry inserts
in multicolor.

5. Lithographic printing. — Lithography in colors
calls for great exactness in execution. Not only must
the presswork be accurately done, but the colors must
be chosen with the eye of the skilled artist. In lithog-
raphy a satisfactory effect is seldom obtained with
three or four colors, as is the case in other color proc-
esses. In the finer grades of lithographic work, ten
or more impressions are necessary.

Lithographic printing is commonly done on a press
similar to those on which printing in colors by other
processes is done. The stones holding the impres-
sions are first dampened and then inked. The ink-
rollers have a calf -skin surface instead of one of glue
composition. For each color desired a separate stone
is used.

6. Photogravure. — ^Work of distinctly artistic
value can be done in photogravure. In this process,
an intaglio printing plate is used. This plate carries
no sharply incised lines, but is marked by many mi-
nute depressions. In printing, these depressions pro-
duce the shadows, the high parts of the plate showing
white.

To produce a plate in photogravure, the photo-
graphic sensitive film upon which the picture has been



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PRINTING ART 27S

taken is imposed upon a metal plate. The plate is
then developed and the picture bitten into the metal
with mordant. From the resulting plate, impres-
sions may be taken in substantially the same manner
as from a copper plate.

Of late years this process has been adapted to a
cheaper grade of printing, called rotogravure from
the fact that the printing is done on rotary presses.
Rotogravure is much used for pictorial supplements
of newspapers.

7. Copperplate printing, — Formerly, copperplate
printing was done entirely by hand. The plate was
carefully wiped by hand before the stock was fed
to the press. Power was also applied by hand. The
cost of production was necessarily high. The use of
power presses has now reduced the printing cost of
plate-printed matter to little more than that of letter-
press printing.

8. The make-ready, — When the printing form is
placed upon the press bed, it is not yet ready for
printing. Some words and lines tend to print heavy.
Cuts, especially if mounted on wood, may not be
exactly type-high. They may come out gray unless
the pressure is exceedingly strong. All such inequal-
ities must be adjusted. This adjustment is called
the make-ready. When the make-ready is rightly
done, the printed side of the paper shows an even
color and the reverse side shows an even impression
thruout.

9. Correcting the proof, — The first impi^ession



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jrr* ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES

tak»i of type matter often contains a numb^ of
errors. When the proof is "pulkd," the copy is
usually read aloud by a copy-holder and the errors
corrected on the proof by the proofreader. A skilled


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Online LibraryHerbert F. (Herbert Francis) De BowerAdvertising principles → online text (page 15 of 19)