Copyright
Herbert Small.

Handbook of the Library of Congress online

. (page 1 of 13)
Online LibraryHerbert SmallHandbook of the Library of Congress → online text (page 1 of 13)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


HANDBOOK

OF THE



IN WVSHINGTON



IVSTRATED



BOSTON
CVRTIS & CAMERON

MCMIX




The Musicians Library




THIS notable series has been planned to embrace all
the masterpieces of song and piano literature ; to
gather into superbly-made volumes of uniform size
and binding the best work of the best composers, edited
by men of authority. Each volume is independent, com-
plete in itself, and sold by itself.



FORTY-SIX VOLUMES ISSUED



SONG VOLUMES

BRAHMS, JOHANNES Forty Songs. High
Voice. Low Voice. Edited by James Huneker.

FRANZ, ROBERT Fifty SOUKS. High Voice.
Low Voice. Edited by William Foster
Apthorp.

GRIEG, ED VARD Fifty Songs. High Voice.

Low Voice. Edited by Henry T. Finck.
HANDEL, GEORGE FRIDERIC Vol. I, Songs

and Airs for High Voice. Vol. II, Songs and

Airs for Low Voice. Edited by Ebenezer Prout.
SCHUBERT, FRANZ Fifty Songs. High Voice.

Low Voice. Edited by Henry T. Finck.
SCHUMANN, ROBERT Fifty Songs. High

Voice. Low Voice. Edited by W. J. Henderson.
WAGNER, RICHARD Lyrics for Soprano.

Edited by Carl Armbruster.
WAGNER, RICHARD Lyrics for Tenor. Edited

by Car! Armbruster.
WAGNER, RICHARD Lyrics for Baritone and

Mass. Edited by Carl Armbruster.



FIFTY MASTERSONGS High Voice. Low Voice.
Edited by Henry T. Finck.

FIFTY SHAKSPERE SONGS. High Voice. Low
Voice. Edited by Charles Vincent, Mus. Doc.

MODERN FRENCH SONGS. High Voice. Low
Voice. Vol. I, liernberg to Franck. Vol. II,
(ieorges to Widor. Edited by Philip Hale.

SEVENTY SCOTTISH SONGS. High Voice. Low
Voice. Edited by Helen Hopekirk.

SONGS BY THIRTY AMERICANS. High Voice.
Low Voice. Edited by Rupert Hughes.

SONGS FROM THE OPERAS FOR SOPRANO.
Edited by H. E. Krehbiel.

SONGS FROM THE OPERAS FOR MEZZO-
SOPRANO. Edited by H. E. Krehbiel.



PIANO VOLUMES

BACH PIANO ALBUM Vol. I, Shorter Compo-
sitions. Edited by Dr. Ebenezer Prout.

BACH PIANO ALBUM Vol. IT, Larger Compo-
sitions. Edited by Dr. Ebenezer Prout.

CHOPIN, FREDERIC Forty Piano Compo-
sitions. Edited by James Huneker.

CHOPIN, FREDERIC The Greater Chopin.
Edited by James Huneker.

GRIEG, EDVARD Larger Piano Composition*.
Edited by Bertha Feiring Tapper.

HAYDN, FRANZ JOSEF Twenty Piano Compo-
sitions. Edited by Xaver Scharwenka.

LISZT, FRANZ Twenty Original Piano Compo-
sitions. Edited by August Spanuth.

LISZT, FRANZ Twenty Piano Transcriptions.
Edited by August Spanuth.

LISZT, FRANZ Ten Hungarian Rhapsodies.
Edited by August Spanuth and John Orth.

MENDELSSOHN, FELIX Thirty Piano Compo-
sitions. Edited by Percy Goetschius, Mus. Doc.
With a Preface by Daniel Gregory Mason.

MOZART, WOLFGANG AM ADEUS Twenty
Piano Compositions. Edited by Carl Reinecke.

SCHUMANN, ROBERT Fifty Piano Composi-
tions. Edited by Xaver Scharwenka.

WAGNER, RICHARD Selections from the Music
Dramas. Edited by Otto Singer.



ANTHOLOGY OF FRENCH PIANO MUSIC Vol.
I, Early Composers. Vol. II, Modern Com-
posers. Edited by Isidor Philipp.

EARLY ITALIAN PIANO MUSIC. Edited by M.
Esposito.

TWENTY-FOUR NEGRO MELODIES. Tran-
scribed for Piano by S. Coleridge-Taylor.



Each volume in heavy paper, cloth back, $1.50; in full cloth, gilt, $2.50.

Copies mailed postpaid. Other volumes in preparation. Eor

free booklet, giving full particulars, send to the publishers.

NOTK. These works will lx> sent with return privilege to those with no accounts upon receipt
of price, which will be returned, less postage, if not satisfactory



OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Boston



CHAS. H. DITSON & CO., New York
J. E. DITSON & CO., Philadelphia



..*"'




HANDBOOK



OF THE



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS



COMPILED BY HERBERT SMALL




UBRA



BOSTON
CURTIS & CAMERON

1909



COPYRIGHT 1897, 1901 AND 1909 BY CURTIS & CAMERON



PRESS OF GEO. E. CROSBY CO.

BOSTON.



2-

133



TABLE OF HEADINGS.



J . PAGB

HISTORY OF THE LIBRARY 2

The Burning by the British Troops ......... 2

The Acquisition of Jefferson's Library 3

Development and Organization .. 3

Comparison with other Great Libraries 4

The Old Quart rs in the Capitol 4

Copyright Office 5

THE NEW BUILDING 6

The General Decoration; Mr. Garnsey and Mr. Weinert 7

The General Character of the Building ........ 8

THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING 9

The Fafade ............. 10

THE ENTRANCE PAVILION 1 1

Mr. Hinton Perry's Fountain . . 12

The Ethnological Heads 13

The Portico Busts 16

Mr. Pratt's Spandrel Figures 17

THE MAIN ENTRANCE 18

Mr. Warner's Bronze Doors 18

Mr. Macmonnies's Bronze Door 20

MAIN ENTRANCE HALL . 21

The Vestibule 21

The Stucco Decoration of the Vestibule 22

The Marble Flooring ............22

The Staircase Hall 23

The Commemorative Arch 23

Mr. Warner's Spandrel Figures 24

Mr. Martiny's Staircase Figures 24

The Ceiling of the Staircase Hall 27

The Mosaic Vaults ot the First Floor Corridors 28

Mr. Pearce's Paintings 28

Mr. Walker's Paintings ........... 30

Mr. Alexander's Paintings ........... 33

Mosaic Decorations of the East Corridor . " ~ .- . . . ' . . . 33
The Librarian's Room ...........34

The Lobbies of the Rotunda .......... 35

Mr. Vedder's Paintings 36

The Second Floor Corridors 39

The Decoration of the Vaults 39

The Printers' Marks 42

Mr. Hinton Perry's Bas-reliefs 43

Mr. Shirlaw's Paintings 44

Mr. Reid's Paintings 46

Mr. Barse's Paintings . 48

Mr. Benson's Paintings . 50

The Decoration of the Walls 51

Mr. Maynard's Pompeiian Panels .......0.52

The Inscriptions along the Walls ... r ...... 53

1326

!RAP'



PAG*

THE ENTRANCE TO THE ROTUNDA \ - 55

Mr. Van Ingen's Paintings . . . 55

Mr. Vender's Mosaic Decoration 56

THE ROTUNDA 57

The Importance of the Rotunda 58

The General Arrangement . i . ; . . . . . . . . 60

The Alcoves 61

The Symbolical Statues . . 62

The Portrait Statues 64

Mr. Flanagan's Clock 66

The Lighting of the Rotunda 67

The Semicircular Windows 68

The Dome 70

The Stucco Ornamentation i . . . 70

Mr. Blashfield's Paintings V. . . 71

The Rotunda Color Scheme . . . . ' . ". , ; ; , '. . . . 76

Provision for Readers , 77

The Book-carrying Apparatus .......... 78

Connection with the Capitol. .......... 79

THE BOOK-STACKS 80

Arrangement and Construction 80

Ventilation and Heating .'-*- '- . -*', ' ' . 82

The Shelving 82

Lighting 82

THE LANTERN .84

THE RECTANGLE 84

SOUTHEAST GALLERY 86

Mr. Cox's Paintings 86

THE PAVILION OF THE DISCOVERERS 88

Mr. Pratt's Bas-reliefs 89

Mr. Maynard's Paintings 89

THE PAVILION OF THE ELEMENTS 93

Mr. R. L. Dodge's Paintings 93

THE PAVILION OF THE SEALS 94

Mr. Van Ingen's Paintings 96

Mr. Garnsey's Ceiling Panel 98

THE PAVILION OF ART AND SCIENCE 99

Mr. W. de L. Dodge's Paintings 99

THE NORTHWEST GALLERY . . . . 101

Mr. Melchers's Paintings . . . 101

THE RECTANGLE : FIKST FLOOR CORRIDORS . . . . . .";.'. . 101

Mr. McEwen's Paintings 102

THE HOUSE READING ROOM . . .'-.' '. .- ; . "' . . . 106

Mr. Dielman's Mosaics ........... 107

Mr. Gutherz's Paintings 109

THE SENATE READING ROOM no

THE NORTH CORRIDOR ' c . J' '. .... in

Mr. Simmons's Paintings . . . . . . . . . . .in

SPECIAL ROOMS 112

THE BASEMENT 112



THE NEW
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
' IN WASHINGTON

BY HERBERT SMALL




THE Library of Congress in Washington is not the mere reference
library for the legislative branch of the Government that its name
would imply. It is, in effect, the library of the whole American
people, directly serving the interests of the entire country. It was,
it is true, founded for the use of the members of the Senate and House of
Representatives ; but, although the original rule still holds good that only they
and certain specified Government officials may take books away from the
building, 1 the institution has developed, especially during the last quarter of a
century, into a library as comprehensively national as the British Museum in
London, the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, or the Imperial Library in Vien-
na. It is more freely open to the public than any of these, everyone of suit-
able age being permitted to use its collections without the necessity of a ticket
or formal permission, while in scope it is their equal, however much it may for
the time being be inferior to them in certain branches of learning. Its aim in
the accumulation of books is inclusive and not exclusive.

This development amounts almost to a change of front, in spite of the fact
that the original purpose of the Library as an aid to the legislation and debates



1 Those allowed to take books from the building are: the President; Vice-President ; Senators.
Representatives, and Delegates in Congress; Cabinet Officials; representatives in Washington of
foreign governments; the Solicitor General and Assistant Attorneys-General; the Secretary of the
Senate ; the Clerk of the House of Representatives ; the Solicitor of the Treasury ; former Presidents
of the United States; the Chaplains of the two Houses of Congress; the Secretary and Regents of the
Smithsonian Institution ; the Members and Secretary of the Interstate Commerce Commission ; and
the Chief of Engineers of the Army. No one, however, not even these officials, may take away any
manuscript or map, or any book of special value and rarity. Books are delivered to the order of any
of the persons having the special privileges of the Library, but only for their own use. They have no
authority to give an order in favor of another person. Previous to the erection of the new building,
one of the rules of the Library had permitted the Librarian, at his discretion, to issue books to the
public generally, for home use, on the deposit of a sum of money sufficient to cover the value of
the volume applied for, bat this provision was found to be an embarrassment and has since been
abolished.



of Congress has been fully preserved. The change- has teen brought about in
many ways, but principally by the exchange system of the great governmental
scientific bureau, the Smithsonian Institution, and by the operation of the na-
tional copyright law.

The Smithsonian Institution issues each year a large number of scientific pub-
lications of the highest interest and importance. It distributes these throughout
the world, receiving in exchange a body of scientific literature which comprehends
practically everything of value issued by every scientific society of standing,
both in this country and abroad. With the exception of a small working library
retained by the Smithsonian Institution for the immediate use of its officers, the
splendid collection of material which has been gathered during the forty years
in which this exchange system has been in operation is deposited in the Library
of Congress, forming a scientific library unrivalled, in this country.

By the operation of the copyright law, any publisher, author, or artist
desiring to obtain an exclusive privilege of issuing arty publication whatever*,
must send two copies of the publication on which a copyright is asked to the
Librarian of Congress to be deposited in the Library. By this means, during
the twenty-five years that the law has been in force, the Library has been ena-
bled to accumulate approximately the entire current product of the American
press, as well as an enormous number of photographs, engravings, and other
works coming under the head of fine arts. The possession of this material
would alone give the Library a special national character possible to no. other
library in the country.



HISTORY OF THE LIBRARY.

The Library of Congress was founded in the year 1800, about the time that
the government was first established in Washington. Five thousand dollars
was the first appropriation, made April 24, 1800, while Congress was still
sitting in Philadelphia. Some of the Democratic Congressmen, as strict ob-
structionists, opposed the idea of a governmental library, but their party
leader, Thomas Jefferson, then President, warmly favored it. He called it,
later in life, with a sort of prophetic instinct, the " Library of the United
States," and his support of it from the very beginning was so hearty and con-
sistent that he may perhaps be regarded in the broad sense as the real founder
of the institution.

The Library was shelved from the first in a portion of the Capitol building,
The first catalogue was issued in April, 1802. It appears that there were then,
in accordance with the old-fashioned method of dividing books according to
size, not subject, 212 folios, 164 quartos, 581 octavos, 7 duodecimos, and 9.
maps.

The Burning by the British Troops. The War of 1812 wrecked the
slender accumulations of the first dozen years of the Library's existence. The
collection was entirely destroyed by fire by the British troops which entered
Washington, August 24, 1814.

The Acquisition of Jefferson's Library. Jefferson was then living in
retirement at Monticello. He was in some financial difficulty at the time, and
he offered the Government the largest portion of his library, comprising some



6,700 volumes, for the price which he had originally paid for them $23,700.
The offer was accepted by Congress, although it met with much opposition.
Among those who objected to the bill were Daniel Webster, then a Repre-
sentative from New Hampshire; while Cyrus King, a Federalist member of
the House from Massachusetts, "vainly endeavored to have provision made for
the rejection of all books of an atheistical, irreligious, and immoral tendency"
a curious example of the many attacks of a similar nature made upon Jeffer-
son by his political opponents.

With Jefferson's books as a nucleus, the Library of Congress began to make
substantial gains. In 1832, a law library was established as a distinct depart-
ment of the collection. At present it numbers some 85,000 volumes, but for
the greater convenience of the Supreme Court, which sits in the old Senate
Chamber of the Capitol, it has not been removed from its former quarters in
that building. It is always reckoned, however, as a portion of the collection
of the Library of Congress.

In 1850, the Library contained about 55,000 volumes. December 24, 1851,
a fire broke out in the rooms in which it was shelved consuming three-fifths of
the whole collection, or about 35,000 volumes. A liberal appropriation for
the purchase of books in place of those destroyed was made by Congress, and
from that time to the present day the growth of the Library has been un-
checked.

Development and Organization. In December, 1864, Mr. Ainsworth
Rand Spofford was appointed Librarian by President Lincoln. 1 The general
management of the Library has always been in the hands of a joint committee
of Congress; but the membership of the committee is constantly changing, so
that the Librarian is practically the real head and director of the institution.
During the time that Mr. Spofford occupied his position, not only was the
growth of the collection little short of marvellous, but so many changes of
system were introduced as almost completely to transform the old Library
of half a century ago. The year following Mr. Spofford 's appointment, the
previous copyright law was modified so as to require the deposit in the
Library of Congress of a copy of every publication on which copyright was
desired, the second copy required being deposited elsewhere. The admin-
istration of the law was still divided, however, in that each State had its own
office for copyright some States more than one with the result that the
volumes due the Government were sometimes received and sometimes not.
There was no way to call the negligent publisher or author to account, for no
single office contained the complete information necessary. Such system as
existed was often invalidated by the carelessness of the officials the Clerks
of the United States District Courts in charge in the various States. In

*> 1870, therefore, Congress still further amended the copyright law by consoli-
/ dating the entire department in the hands of the Librarian of Congress, as

/ Register of Copyrights, and providing that of articles copyrighted, two copies

/ are required to be deposited in the Library of Congress to perfect copyright.

( Since then, the law has worked with perfect smoothness, and with the result of

\^

>The list of the previous Librarians of Congress, with the dates when they were appointed, is as follows*
John Beckley, 180*; Patrick Majruder, 1807; George Watterston, 1815; John S. Meehan, 18x9; John G.
Stephenson, 1861.



enormous additions to the Library, numbering, in the year 1905, no less
than 213,498 books, maps, musical compositions, photographs, engravings,
periodicals, and other articles. Only a portion of the deposit since 1870 has
been incorporated in the Library proper; a million and a half items still remain
unincorporated. j.

Comparison with other Great Libraries. For the -interest of com-
parison, the following statistics are given: British Musejjm, London :
Books, 1,800,000; Maps, 200,000; MSS., 95,000. Annual- expenditures :
Books, $122,000; Binding, $10,967 ; Printing of Catalogue, $8,545.
Bibliotheque National, Paris: Books, 2,600,000; MSS., 101,972; Maps,
250,000. Expenditures: Salaries, 436,000 francs; Books, 100,000 francs.
Konigliche Bibliothek, (1661) Berlin: Books, about 1,000,000 ; MSS.,
30,000, of which 13,000 are Orientalia. Expenditures: Salaries, 307,960 M;
Maintenance, 41,760 M; Books 150,000 M. Imperial Library, St. Peters-
burg: Books, 1,192,000; MSS., 26,800; Maps, 19,761. Expenditures :
Salaries and Maintenance, 93,855 rub.; Books, 45,000 rub.

The Old Quarters in the Capitol. For many years the Library had
been kept in the west front of the Capitol. Here there was provision for
perhaps 350,000 volumes. With the great increase, the old quarters had long
been utterly inadequate. The crypts in the basement of the Capitol afforded
room for storage, but the hundreds of thousands of books, pieces of music,
and engravings thus stored were for the most part entirely inaccessable to the
student a serious loss to the usefulness of the Library, in spite of the fact
that, so far as the books were concerned, -only duplicates and such volumes
as were seldom called for were thus laid away. The copyright business could
be kept up to date only by the greatest effort. The rooms regularly devoted
to the Library were so small, and so over-crowded with books, that there was
almost no opportunity for quiet study, while J-he ordinary official routine was
carried on with the greatest difficulty and inconvenience.

In 1897, Mr. Spofford was succeeded as Librarian by John Russell Young,
the well known journalist and diplomat. At the time of Mr. Young's appoint-
ment the Library building had been completed, but the collection had not
been transferred. His brief administration was devoted to the installation
of the Library in its new quarters and in the organization of the staff, increased
by Congress from 42 employees to 108, exclusive of engineers, janitors and
other employees having to do with the care of the Building and Grounds.

The copyright map, manuscript, music and printed collections (the latter
designated by Mr. Young "The Graphic Arts") were set off in distinct
divisions, and an entirely new department, the Reading Room for the Blind,
was established and retained his warm interest.

Mr. Young died January 27, 1899. His successor was Mr. Herbert Putnam,
Librarian of the Boston Public Library, who took office April 5, 1899, Mr.
Spofford having served as Acting Librarian in the interim. Under Mr. Put-
nam's administration the Library service has been further re-organized and a
beginning made upon the arrears of work necessary in order to place the exist-
ing collection upon an effective basis and to provide for its effective develop-
ment.

The organization of the Library now comprises the following Divisions:
General Administration; Mail and Supply; Order (Purchasing); Catalogue



and Shelf; *Card Section; Bibliography; Reading Rooms and Special Collec-
tions; Periodical; Documents; Manuscripts; Maps and Charts; Music; Prints;
Smithsonian Deposits; Law Library: with a total of 235 employees, without
those in the Card Section, under a special appropriation, and now numbering
10. The Copyright Office has 68. This is exclusive of the force under the
Superintendent of Library Building and Grounds, which consists of about 127
engineers, electricians, watchmen, and charwomen. The building also con-
tains a fully equipped printing office and bindery (branches of the Government
Printing Office with a total of nearly 100 hands).

Congress provided the sum of $589,959.94 to meet the expenses of the fiscal
year 1905-1906. (This does not include the allotment of $185,000 for printing
and binding at the Government Printing Office). Over $90,000 of the appro-
priation was reimbursed by receipts of the Copyright Office and sales of publi-
cations, including catalogue cards ; $98,000 was for the increase of the collections ;
$40,000 for furniture and other permanent equipment; $110,000 for fuel, light
and other expenses in the maintenance of the building and grounds: the re-
mainder representing expenses, including service, of the Library proper.

The Library, though greatry lacking in many important departments, has
to-day in mass by far the largest single collection on the Western Hemisphere.
On June 30, 1905, it contained 1,344,618 printed books and pamphlets; 82,744
maps and charts; 410,352 pieces of music, and upward of 183,724 engravings,
etchings, photographs, lithographs, and other prints. The Law Library of
110,978 volumes, while a division of the Library, remains, theoretically, at the
Capitol.

Over 6,000 current periodicals and newspapers are received, of which 2,200
of the former class and 405 of the latter are displayed for use without formality
in the Periodical Reading Room.

The Library of Congress has become the depository of historical manuscripts
of the Government, having received by transfer (from the great collections
formerly in the State Department) the records and papers of the Continental
Congress, the papers of Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Hamilton
and Franklin. Other collections have been added by purchase, others of no-
table importance by gift, among which should be mentioned the papers of Presi-
dents Jackson and Van Buren, of the Breckinridge family, Chancellor Kent,
Elihu W T ashburne, etc. It has now the papers of no less than nine Presidents:
in addition to the six named above those of Presidents Polk, Pierce and Johnson.

Copyright Office. The Copyright Office is a distinct division of the
Library of Congress and is located on the ground floor, south side ; open
9 to 4.30. It is under the immediate charge of the Register of Copyrights, who,
by the Act of February 19, 1897, is authorized, " under the direction and
supervision of the Librarian of Congress,' ' to perform all the duties relating to
Copyrights. The Copyright fees applied and paid into the Treasury for the
calendar year 1905, amounted to $78,518. The total number of entries of
titles during the calendar year was 116,789.

*The Card Section has to do with the distribution of the printed cards. Over 700 libraries are now subscribing
to these cards in order to save themselves the expense of duplicating the work. Thus tbe Library of Congress is
becoming a central cataloguing bureau.



THE NEW BUILDING.

The first act of Congress providing for the construction of the building was
approved April 15, 1886. Its terms adopted the plan submitted by Mr. John
L. Smithmeyer ; created a commission consisting of the Secretary of the In-
terior, the Architect of the Capitol Extension, and the Librarian of Congress,
to have charge of and carry forward the work ; and selected the present site.
The year 1886 was occupied in appraising and taking possession of the ground ;
the next year in clearing the site, making the principal excavation for the
foundations, and laying the drainage system; and the year 1888 in laying one
half of the concrete foundation footings on the plan adopted by the act above
mentioned. On October 2, 1888, a new act of Congress was approved, re-
pealing so much of the act of April 15, 1886, as provided for a commission
and the construction of the building according to the plan therein specified.
This act placed the work under the sole control and management of the Chief
of Engineers of the Army, Brigadier- General Thomas Lincoln Casey, requiring
him to report direct to Congress annually and to prepare general plans for the
entire construction of the building, subject to the approval of the Secretary of
War and the Secretary of the Interior, and within a total cost of $4,000,000,


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Online LibraryHerbert SmallHandbook of the Library of Congress → online text (page 1 of 13)