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'building. It could not be more conspicuous anywhere
outside the central Reading Room, and the selection of
such a subject as Government is therefore peculiarly
appropriate. In every sort of library the fundamental
thing is the advancement of learning illustrated in the
Reading Room dome, as the visitor will see later but in
a library supported by the nation the idea of government
certainly comes next in importance.

The painting in the central tympanum, over the door
leading into the Reading Room, is entitled simply Govern-
ment. It represents the abstract conception of a republic
as the ideal state, ideally presented. The other tympa-
nums explain the practical working of government, and
the results which follow a corrupt or a virtuous rule.
The figures in these four tympanums are therefore
appropriately conceived somewhat more realistically.
The decoration to the left of the central tympanum
illustrates Corrupt Legislation, leading to Anarchy,
as shown in the tympanum at the end of the lobby, over the elevator. Sim-
ilarly, on the other side, Good Administration leads to Peace and Prosperity.
In all five, the composition consists of a central female figure, representing the
essential idea of the design, attended by two other figures which supplement
and confirm this idea.

In the first painting, Government, the central figure is that of a grave and
mature woman sitting on a marble seat or throne, which is supported on posts
whose shape is intended to recall the antique voting-urn a symbol which
recurs, either by suggestion or actually, in each of the other four tympanums.
The meaning is, of course, that a democratic form of government depends for
its safety upon the maintenance of a pure and inviolate ballot. The throne is
extended on either side into a bench, which rests, at each end, upon a
couchant lion, with a mooring-ring in his mouth, signifying that the ship of
state must be moored to strength. The goddess for so, perhaps, she is to be



considered is crowned with a wreath, and holds in her left hand a golden
sceptre (the Golden Rule), by which the artist means to point out that no
permanent good can accrue to a government by injuring another. With her
right hand she supports a tablet inscribed with the words, from Lincoln's Get-
tysburg address, " A government of the people, by the people, for the people."
To the right and left stand winged youths or geniuses, the first holding a
bridle, which stands for the restraining influence of order, and the other with
a sword with which to defend the State in time of danger, or, if one chooses,
the sword of justice it may be taken either way. The background of the
group is the thick foliage of an oak tree, emblematic of strength and stability.

In the second panel, Corntpt Legislation is represented by a woman with a
beautiful but depraved face sitting in an abandoned attitude on a throne the
arms of which are cornucopias overflowing with the coin which is the revenue of
the State. But this revenue is represented not as flowing outward, for the use
and good of the people, but all directed toward the woman herself. The artist's
idea was that when revenue is so abundant, as here depicted, that it greatly
exceeds the needs of government, then government becomes a temptation to all
kinds of corrupt practices.
The path in front of the
throne is disused and
overgrown with weeds,
showing that under such
a corrupt government the
people have abandoned
a direct approach to Jus-
tice. With her right
hand, the woman waves
away, with a contempt-
uous gesture, a poorly clad
girl representing Labor
who comes, showing
her empty distaff and
spindle, in search of the

work which should be hers by right, but which she cannot obtain under
a government inattentive to the wrongs of the people. In her left hand the
woman holds a sliding scale used as being more easily susceptible of fraud
than a pair of balances, and the proper emblem therefore of the sort of justice
in which she deals. A rich man is placing in it a bag of gold ; he sits con-
fidently beside her, secure of her favors in return for his bribe. At his feet
are other bags of gold and a strong box. together with an overturned voting-
urn filled with ballots, signifying his corrupt control of the very sources of
power. In his lap he holds the book of Law, which he is skilled to pervert to
his own ends. In the background are his factories, the smoke of their chim-
neys testifying to his prosperity. On the other side the factories are smokeless
and idle, showing a strike or shut-down ; and the earthen jar in which the sav-
ings of Labor have been hoarded lies broken at her feet.

The logical conclusion of such government is Anarchy. She is represented
entirely nude, raving upon the ruins of the civilization she has destroyed. In
one hand she holds the wine cup which makes mad, and in the other the incen-
diary torch, formed of the scroll of learning. Serpents twist in her dishevelled



hair, and she tramples upon a scroll, a lyre, a Bible, and a book the symbols,
respectively, of Learning, Art, Religion, and Law. Beneath her feet are the dis-
located portions of an arch. To the right, Violence, his eyes turned to gaze
upon the cup of madness, is prying out the corner-stone of a temple. To the
left, Ignorance, a female figure, with dull, brutish face, is using a surveyor's
staff to precipitate the wreckage of civilization into the chasm which opens in
the foreground. Beyond, lying in an uncultivated field, are a broken mill-
wheel and a millstone. But the end of such violence is clearly indicated ; no
sooner shall the corner-stone be pried from the wall than the temple will fall
and crush the destroyers ; and beside the great block on which Anarchy has
placed her foot lies a bomb, with a lighted fuse attached. Such a condition,
says the painting, must inevitably contain the seeds of its own destruction.

On the other side of the central tympanum, Good Administration sits holding
in her right hand a pair of scales evenly poised, and with her left laid upon a



shield, quartered to represent the even balance of parties and classes which
should obtain in a well ordered democracy ; on this shield are emblazoned, as
emblems of a just government, the weight, scales, and rule. The frame of her
chair is an arch, a form of construction in which every stone performs an equal
service r- in which no shirking can exist and therefore peculiarly appropriate
to typify the equal part which all should take in a democratic form of govern-
ment. On the right is a youth who casts his ballot into an urn. He carries
some books under his arm, showing that education should be the basis of the
suffrage. To the left is another voting-urn, into which a young girl is winnow-
ing wheat, so that the good grains fall into its mouth while the chaff is scattered
by the wind an action symbolical of the care with which a people should
choose its public servants. In the background is a field of wheat, a last touch
in this picture of intelligence and virtue, and, in itself, symbolical of prosper-
ous and careful toil.


In the last panel, that of- Peace and Prosperity, the central figure is crowned
with olive, the emblem of peace, and holds in her hands olive-wreaths to be
bestowed as the reward of excellence. On either side is a youth, the one to
her right typifying the Arts, and the other, Agriculture. The former sits upon
an amphora or jar, and is engaged in decorating a piece of pottery ; behind
him is a lyre, for Music, and in the distance a little Grecian temple, for Archi-
tecture. The other is planting a sapling, an act suggestive of a tranquil,
just, and permanent government, under which alone one could plant with any
hope of enjoying the shade and fruit of after years. The background of the
picture is a well-wooded and fertile landscape, introduced for much the same
purpose as the wheat-field in the preceding tympanum.

Still another piece of symbolism is expressed in this interesting series of pic-
tures by the trees, their foliage forming the background against which the cen-
tral figure is placed. The oak in the central panel has been spoken of. In


the design representing Peace and Prosperity, an olive-tree typifies not only
Peace but Spring ; in the next panel, that of Good Administration, the tree is
the fig, and the season summer ; in that of Corrupt Legislation, the autumnal
vine, hinting at a too abundant luxury, and with its falling leaves presaging
decay ; and in that of Anarchy, bare branches and Winter.

The Second Floor Corridors. Returning again to the Entrance Hall
proper, the visitor may most conveniently continue his tour of the Library by
ascending the Grand Staircase to the beautifully decorated corridors of the
second-story arcade, on his way to the public galleries of the Main Reading
Room. The corridors are arranged like those which the visitor has already
passed through on the first floor, but their greater height and the brighter tone
of the decoration give an effect of considerably greater spaciousness.

The Decoration of the Vaults. The floors of the corridors are kid in
mosaic of varying patterns. The ceilings are uniformly a barrel vault, with


pendentives the same, that is, as those of the North, East, and South Corridors
below. The vaults are covered with a painted decoration of Renaissance orna-
ment which for variety and interest is hardly surpassed anywhere else in
the building. The decorative scheme which has been adopted was planned
throughout by Mr. Casey, and elaborated, especially in the matter of color,
and carried into effect, by Mr. Garnsey, working under Mr. Casey's direction.
In addition, each corridor contains, as a distinctive accent of color and de-
sign, a series of paintings by a specially commissioned artist in the West
Corridor by Mr. Walter Shirlaw, in the North Corridor by Mr. Robert Reid, in
the East Corridor by Mr. George R. Barse, Jr., and in the South Corridor by
Mr. Frank W. Benson. In the side corridors, also, at the west end, the arch of
the vault is spanned by a broad band of stucco ornament containing a series of
octagonal coffers, ornamented in relief by Mr. Hinton Perry.

The decoration is varied, of course, from corridor to corridor, in order to
prevent any monotony of impression, but the main principles on which it
is based are everywhere the same. Thus the color scheme which was sug-
gested in part by the beautiful Library in Sienna comprises in every corridor
blue in the pendentives, golden yellow in the penetrations, and a grayish white in
the body of the vault. The only exception to this rule is in the West and East
Corridors, which are terminated by double arches instead of ending directly upon
a wall. Here the end penetrations are red and the pendentive yellow. The others
remain as before. The delineation of the spaces is at bottom very simple, and
though more elaborate, a good deal like that already noted in describing the
mosaic in the lower corridors. The penetrations are outlined by a bright
colored border, on which, where the lines converge to a point at the top, rests a
a border of greater width, enclosing the entire vault in a single great rectangle.
This, in turn, is divided into compartments by bands of ornament, varying in
number according to the requirements of the decoration, but always occurring im-
mediately over the columns of the arcade. These bands, coming where they do,
perform a vital service for the decoration in continually reminding the visitor,
if only by a painted arabesque, of the importance of the arch in such a piece of
construction as a vault. In the spaces between them are garlands and wreaths,
and panels for paintings and inscriptions the whole making part of one great
arabesque, which is as easily intelligible and coherent as it is various, but
which would have been bewildering in its wealth of ornament and color if it had
not been for the fundamental service performed by these various bands and
borders and broad masses of color.

The penetrations and pendentives are richly embellished with a great variety
of ornament, both conventional and otherwise. The treatment differs in differ-
ent corridors, however, on account of the varying relative position of the paired
columns which support the arcade from which results first a series of wide
and then a series of narrow pendentives. Where the former occur in the
West and East Corridors they are ornamented with the decorations of Mr.
Shirlaw and Mr. Barse ; while the narrower pendentives on the north and south
carry simple medallions and tablets, and Mr. Reid's and Mr. Benson's paintings
find place in the arabesque of the ceiling vault and in circular frames along
the wall beneath. The balance is restored, however, by introducing a series of
medallions, corresponding to Mr. Benson's and Mr. Reid's, though smaller and
of less importance, in the vaults east and west, and by ornamenting the penetra-
tions in the side corridors with greater richness and elaboration.



The Printers' Marks. The most interesting decoration of the penetra-
tions, however, is a series of " Printers' Marks " which is continued through all
four corridors. Altogether there are fifty-six of them sixteen in each of the
side corridors, ten in the West Corridor, and fourteen in the East Corridor.
They are painted in black outline, and are of a sufficient size, averaging about a
foot and a half in height, to be easily made out from the floor. By a printer's
mark, it should be explained, is meant the engraved device which the old
printers used in the title -page or colophon of their books, partly as a kind of
informal trade-mark guarding against counterfeited editions, and partly as a per-
sonal emblem, such as a publisher of good standing would like to see on a long
list of worthy books. For this latter reason, and in order to be able to add an
interesting piece of ornament to the title-page, the mark has been revived of
late years by a considerable number of modern publishing and printing

Very often, as the visitor will see, the printer's mark is, in its way, a really beau-
tiful piece of design ; many have an interest as being associated with the reputa-
tion of a famous printer like Caxton, or Aldus, or Elzevir ; while others de-
pend mainly for their point upon some special symbolical meaning, very fre-
quently taking the form of an illustrated pun. Thus, in the West Corridor, the
mark of Letter which means "vagrant" in German is a mendicant sup-
plicating alms. In the South Corridor, the mark of Geoffrey Tory commem-
orates the death of his little daughter the broken vase, with a book sym-
bolizing the literary studies of which she had been fond.

There is no necessity, however, of describing the marks in detail, for, with
the exception of two or three American examples, they were all taken from
Mr. William Roberts's Printers' Marks (London, 1893), in which they are
illustrated and explained. Those thought best adapted for decorative effect
were chosen throughout, although the marks of as many of the better known
printers as possible were included. Occasionally a border or a motto was
omitted, but in the main Mr. Roberts's engravings were pretty exactly copied.
In the West Corridor the marks are mostly those of German printers ; in the
South Corridor, French; in the East Corridor, Italian and Spanish; in the
North Corridor, English and Scottish and American. 1

1 The following is the list, beginning, in each corridor, at the left-hand end of the outer wall. The
dates appended to the names are from Mr. Roberts's book : West Corridor Wolfgang Koepfel
1523; Fust and Schoeffer, 1457; Craft Mueller, 1536-62; Conrad Baumgarten, 1503-5; Jacobus
Pfortzheim, 1488-1518; Cratander, 1519; Valentin Kobian, 1532-42 Martin Schott, 1498; Melchior
Letter, 1491-1536; Theodosius and Josias Rihel, 1535-1639. South Corridor Rutger Velpius
(Flemish), 1553-1614 ; F. Estienne, 1525 ; Simon de CoUnes, 1520 ; Franjois Regnault, early part of
the sixteenth century ; Simon Vostre, 1488-1528; Sebastien Nivelle, latter part of the sixteenth cen-
tury; M. Morin, 1484-1518; Sebastien Gryphe, second quarter of the sixteenth century; Andr6
Wechel, 1535 ; Geoffrey Tory, 1524; Guillaume Chandiere, 1564 ; Pierre Le Rouge, 1488; Mathurin
Breuille, 1562-83 ; Etienne Dolet, 1540; Jehan Treschel, 1493 ; Jehan Petit, 1525. East Corridor
Paul and Anthony Meietos (Italian), 1570; Gian Giacomo de Leguano (Italian), 1503-33;
Juan Rosenbach (Spanish), 1493-1526; Andrea Torresano (Italian), 1481-1540; Valentin Fer-
nandez (Spanish), 1501; Christopher Plantin (Flemish), 1557; Daniel Elzevir (Dutch, the mark
of the Sage), 1617-1625 ; the Brothers Sabio (Italian), early part of the sixteenth century; Melchior
Sessa (Italian), sixteenth century; Ottaviano Scotto (Italian), 1480-1520; Giammaria Rizzardi
(Italian), latter part of the eighteenth century; Filippo de Ginuta (Italian), 1515; Lucantonio de
Giunta (Italian), 1500; Aldus Manutius (Italian), 1502. North Corridor D. Appleton & Co.; the
DeVinne Press ; Charles Scribner's Sons ; Harper & Brothers ; Houghton, Mifflin & Co. (the River-
side Press); the Century Co. ; J. B. Lippincott Co.; Dodd, Mead & Co. ; William Caxton, 1489;
Richard Grafton, 1537-72: Thomas Vautrollier (Edinburgh and London), 1556-1605; John Day,
1546-34; William jaggard, 1595-1624; A. Arbuthnot (Edinburgh), 1580; Andrew Hester, 1550;
Richard Fynson, 1493-1527. Of the marks in this last corridor, those on the north are of American
houses, all contemporary, and on the south, of early English and Scottish printers and publishers.


Mr. Hinton Perry's Bas-Reliefs. Mr. Perry's bas-reliefs, at the west
end of the north and south vaults, have already been referred to. They are four
in number, and measure three feet eight inches from one side to another. Taken
as a series they represent what may be called, for lack of a better title, Ancient
Prophetic Inspiration. The chief figure in each is a sibyl or priestess Greek,
Roman, Persian, Scandinavian in the act of delivering the prophetic warn-
ings which have been revealed to her in the rapture of a divine frenzy. She is
regarded as the mouthpiece of the god, and therefore as the fountain of relig-
ion, wisdom, literature, art, and success in war all of which are typified, in
one panel or another, in the figures of her auditors.

Beginning in the South Corridor, the first panel shows the Cumsean or
Roman Sibyl. She is represented, in accordance with the ancient histories, as
an old and withered hag, whose inspiration comes from an infernal, rather than
a celestial source. Two figures, as in all the panels, complete Mr. Perry's
group, one male and the other female. The first is clad in the splendid armor
of a Roman general ; the woman is nude, and stands for Roman Art and Lit-
erature. At her feet is a box of manuscripts, and she takes in one hand an


end of the long scroll (representing one of the Sibylline Books, so famous in
Roman history) which the Priestess holds in her lap. The panel on the other
side of the arch represents a Scandinavian Vala or Wise Woman, with streaming
hair and a wolf-skin over her head and shoulders. She typifies, in her bold
gesture and excited gaze, the barbaric inspiration of the Northern nations. To
the left is the figure of a Norse warrior, and to the right a naked woman lies
stretched upon the ground, personifying the vigorous life and fecundity of
genius of the North.

In the North Corridor, the subjects of Mr. Perry's two decorations are
Greek and Persian Inspiration. The former is represented by the Priestess of
the world- renowned Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. She is seated upon a tripod,
placed above a mysterious opening in the earth, from which the sacred fumes
rise to intoxicate the Priestess, and fill her with the spirit of prophecy. On one
side of the panel, an old man, standing for Greek science and philosophy,
takes down her words on a tablet ; on the other is a nude female figure, per-
sonifying Greek art and literature. In the second panel, that of Persia, the
face of the Sibyl is veiled, to signify the occult wisdom of the East. A man


prostrates himself at her feet in a fervor of religious devotion, and a woman,
nearly nude, stands listening in the background. With her voluptuous figure
and her ornaments of pearl and gold a fillet, anklets, armlets, and necklace
she represents the luxuriance and sensuousness of Eastern art and poetry.

Mr. Shirlaw's Paintings. The subjects of Mr. Shirlaw's figures in
the vault of the West Corridor are, on the west, beginning at the left :
Zoology, Physics, Mathematics, and Geology ; and on the east, again beginning
at the left : Archaeology, Botany, Astronomy, and Chemistry. Each science is
represented by a female figure about seven and a half feet in height. The fig-
ures are especially interesting, aside from their artistic merit, for the variety of
symbolism by which every science is distinguished from the others, and for the
subtlety with which much of this symbolism is ex-
pressed. Not only is each accompanied by various
appropriate objects, but the lines of the drapery, the
expression of the face and body, and the color itself
are, wherever practicable, made to subserve the idea
of the science represented. Thus the predominant
colors used in the figure of Chemistry purple, blue,
and red are the ones which occur most often in
chemical experimenting. In the pendentive of Geo-
logy, Mr. Shirlaw employs principally purple and
orange ; the former is the ruling color in many of the
more common rock formations when seen in the
mass and naturally ; and the latter is the color of the
ordinary lichens one finds on boulders and ledges.
In the matter of line, again, the visitor will notice a
very marked difference between the abrupt, broken
line used in the drapery of Archeology, and the
moving, flowing line in that of Physics. In both
cases it will be found that the line is in very complete
sympathy with the character of the science depicted.
The method of archaeology is largely excavation car-
ried on among sculptural and architectural fragments.
The swirling drapery of Physics is suggestive of
flame and heat.

Zoology is represented with a lion seated beside
her, her hands clasping his mane. She is the hunt-
ress and student of wild life, and her body is power-
fully developed, like an Amazon's. She is clad in the
pelt of an animal, the head forming her cap, and in
buskins of skin. She stands on a rocky piece of ground, like a desert. The
chief colors employed in the pendentive are the typical animal colors, browns
and yellows.

Physics stands on an electric globe, from which emanate rays of light. She
carries a torch in her left hand, and she holds up an end of her drapery in her
right in such a way that it seems to start from the flame and flow in sympathy
with it over her whole body, so that it conveys the idea of the unceasing mo-
tion of fire. The same colors as those used in the pendentive of Geology,
purple and orange, are used here also, but in this case standing, of course, for
the colors of flame.



Mathematics, the exact science, is represented as almost entirely nude,
like " the Naked Truth" of Mr. Walker's tympanum on the floor below. Her
right foot is on a stone block inscribed with the conic sections, and on a shield
which she holds are various geometrical figures. Her scanty drapery is appro-
priately disposed in the severest lines.

Geology, a sculpturesque figure, stands squarely and firmly upon a mountam
top, beyond which is seen the setting sun. A fold of her drapery forms a
receptacle for the specimens she has gathered. In her left hand is a globe,
and in her right a fossil shell. Her hair is confined by a head-dress of bars erf
silver and gold. The embroidered pattern of her garment has a suggestion
of fossil forms and of the little lizards which are found among the rocks.

Archeology is clad in the Roman costume, and
wears the helmet of Minerva ; the helmet is wreathed
with olive, the emblem of peace, which was sacred to
Minerva, and is here used with special reference to
the peaceful character of the science, which can pur-
sue its labors only in an orderly society. The figure
stands on a block of stone, the surface of which is

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