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mine this required standard for the given concern. Reference
can then be made to the scale and a standard time for per-
formance in the tests can be fixed upon. Candidates may then
be selected in order, by their grades, from the highest scores
down, until the required number have been secured. The em-
ployment manager may stop at the "minimum score" in the
tests corresponding to the minimum standard of efficiency
required for the job and then attempt to procure a new group
of applicants in order to secure applicants who can pass the
tests with better than minimum grades, or if the supply of
possible applicants is limited, he will at least have clear in-
formation, at the start, as to what he may expect of those
whom he is forced to select from the group who obtain inade-
quate scores in the tests. Even here he is able to make the
best of a bad situation.



f

SOME EMPIRICAL TESTS IN VOCATIONAL SELECTION 41

APPENDIX

1. The supervisor as a judge of abilities.

In correlating abilities in performing tests with other abil-
ities it is often impossible to obtain objective measures, of in-
dividuals in a group, in exact terms of output or of a definite
quality and quantity of a particular capacity or ability, in
which case measures of abilities are estimated by a teacher or
supervisor. The following analysis of a particular super-
visor's estimate of abilities may contribute, in some small
way, to the reliability which is to be attached to such meas-
ures.

The supervisor of the work of groups 2 and 3 was asked to
arrange the subjects in each group in an order of merit series
for typewriting ability. Emphasis was placed upon the neces-
sity of the supervisor basing his judgments on typewriting
ability only and to exclude all other factors. The supervisor
was in posession of a copy of all the records of the output.
The following table gives the correlations of his judgment
with the measures of abilities according to output.

Group 2. r.

Daily average for five weeks .74

Daily average for best week .61

Best day's performance .59

Group 3.

Daily average for 5th & 6th weeks .53

Best day's performance .42

The correlations tend to show that the supervisor was a
better judge of ability which manifested itself over a long
rather than a short period of time. He was either a poor
judge of ability which manifested itself in spurts rather than
ability which manifested itself in steadiness from day to day,
or he based his estimates on something else than pure ability,
or both alternatives may be true. In conversation with the
supervisor, he realized that there were other things which
he had taken into consideration in making the judgments,
although he tried to judge for actual typing ability only, such
as steadiness and general reliability of output, attendance,
conduct, ability of the subject to make herself an agreeable
member of the group, etc. In other words he was incapable
of judging actual typing ability and his estimates were based
on the general desirability of the subject to the concern.



42 SOME EMPIRICAL TESTS IN VOCATIONAL SELECTION

This is a problem which every investigator who obtains
measures of abilities by means of some one's estimate of those
abilities, must confront. It is probably impossible for the
general run of supervisors to grade for pure ability and to
omit all other factors. This may be a favorable point if
tests are sought which will be indices of an individual's
total value on a job.

2. Averages of the scores in the tests arranged according to
age and education.

In the following tables group M is made up of all the sub-
jects who were tested in the Extension Department of Colum-
bia University and group N is made up of all the subjects who
were tested in the industrial concern. The number of subjects
in each sub-division is small and the deviations from the aver-
age are high, so that, a good amount of caution must be exer-
cised in any interpretation.

When all the evidence is evaluated no difference with age
and performance in the tests is found.

Since the comparison, in group M, in education, is made
between college graduates, high school graduates, and gram-
mar school graduates, only those subjects who had reached
their twenty-second year are used in the group. The tables
show that there is a difference between education and per-
formance in some of the tests, but where there is a difference
it does not appear to be strongly marked.



SOME EMPIRICAL TESTS IN VOCATIONAL SELECTION 43



AGE
Group M



16

17

18

19

20

21

22-25

26-30

31-44



16
17
18
19
20
21



16
17
18
19
20
21



Education
Gram. sch. grad.
y 2 yr. high sch.

1 yr. high sch.

2 yrs. high sch.

3 yrs. high sch.

4 yrs. high sch.
combining,
Gram, sch grad.
y-2.-\ yr. high sch.
2-4 yrs. high sch.



Gram. sch. grad.
High sch. grad.
College grad.



f
1

3
14



1

*M

O



35.8
36.33

28.47


-8

f

pQ
1

30.6
32.60
31.38


|

o

03

29.4
42.20
33.54


4-5

g

S
|

y

44.6
37.07
34.70


M

.s

'o


51.0
55.73
55.04


in

1

b

1

w

107.4
109.47
118.10


12


31.42


34.28


35.53


35.35


54.03


117.67


8


23.68


30.65


29.30


32.45


52


.65


110.75


8


29.78


28.50


28.65


31.50


56


.15


98.45


10


25.56


28.06


26.74


30.42


50


.14


89.86


9


25.69


33.53


30.18


34.42


56


.18


112.04


12


28.08


36.19


29.92


37.12


52


.52


132.98




Group


N












13


39.78


39.32


43.86


51.52


62


.20


176.20


40


38.92


36.79


38.35


47.16


62


.21


177.40


28


43.00


37.62


39.23


51.07


58


.13


196.92


14


41.13


35.74


35.47


39.79


63


.93


195.87


5


42.88


37.36


33.72


47.24


65


.04


183.72


15


44.40


38.88


41.51


48.36


62.33


176.60


Groups


M & N combined


14


39.50


38.70


42.83


51.03


61


.40


171.28


43


38.74


36.49


38.62


46.46


61


.67


172.66


42


38.14


35.54


37.33


45.61


57


.10


170.65


26


36.65


35.07


35.51


37.77


59


.36


159.75


13


31.06


33.23


31.00


38.14


57


.41


138.82


23


39.31


35.27


37.03


42.49


60


.19


149.42


EDUCATION


Group N


54


44.51


39.12


41.74


51.03


63


.12


186.76


9


37.40


32.88


35.07


43.87


62


.09


190.31


21


35.81


39.01


35.35


41.43


59


.17


187.62


19


42.15


36.31


43.25


48.82


62


.51


195.14


8


35.50


32.05


37.05


50.38


59.82


154.53


4


37.70


37.75


37.45


50.20


64


.15


158.60


54


44.51


39.12


41.74


51.03


63


.12


186.76


30


36.29


37.17


35.27


42.16


60


.05


188.43


31


39.28


35.39


40.90


49.40


62


.01


179.94


Group M


8


34.04


30.64


38.84


45.36


59


.88


180.08


14


26.23


31.30


27.54


33.41


50.93


107.64


11


25.11


26.47


25.82


30.87


52


.44


95.93



44 SOME EMPIRICAL TESTS IN VOCATIONAL SELECTION
3. Sample of an Army Trade Test. (12).*

Welder, Cutter

Cutter, Oxy-acetylene Operator
Oral

1. Q. What is it called when the edges of metal sheets are welded to-

gether in different spots to hold them in place for welding?
A. Tack (spot). Score 4.

2. Q. What chemical is mixed with water to form acetylene gas?

A. Carbide. Score 4.

3. Q. What metal do you use to braze brass and cast iron together?
A. Brass (bronze). Score 4.

4. Q. What will happen if oil gets on the oxygen regulator or hose?
A. (1) Explode (blow up). Score 4.

(2) Catch fire (burn up). Score 4.



18. Q. What is put in the acetylene tank to prevent explosions?

A. Acetone. Score 4.

Rating the candidate

19 and below N

20 and 21 A-f-

22 to 35, inclusive A

36 and 37 A+

38 and 39 J

40 to 55, inclusive J

56 and 57 J-f-

58 and above E

There is no E or E-f- rating.



*Vol. 2, p. 148-150.



SOME EMPIRICAL TESTS IN VOCATIONAL SELECTION 45



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48 SOME EMPIRICAL TESTS IN VOCATIONAL SELECTION

VITA OF THE AUTHOR
Born Kennebunkport, Maine, 1890.

B. S., Columbia University, 1915.
A. M., Columbia University, 101.fi.
Ph. D., Columbia University, 1921.

Psychologist to the Charles William Stores, Brooklyn, N. Y., Septem-
ber, 1916 May, 1917.

"Tests for stenographers and typists." Jour, of Appl. Psy., Sept.,
1917.

C. A. C., U. S. A., May, 1917 September, 1919.

Devised an instrument to measure the accuracy of heavy gun pointers
and observers to keep the crosswires of their telescopes on a moving
target. Fortress Monroe, Va., July, 1917.

Devised a new type of code used by the Army during the war. Wash-
ington, D. C., December, 1917.

Labor Administrator for the district of New England, U. S. Army,.
January, 1918 March, 1918.

Certificate in Psychology, University of Paris, June, 1919.

Instructor in Psychology, Yale University, 1920 .

Married Margaret E. Cobb, Ph.D., April 8, 1922.



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