Herman Moll.

A system of geography; or, A new & accurate description of the earth in all its empires, kingdoms and states. Illustrated with history and topography, and maps of every country .. online

. (page 100 of 176)
Online LibraryHerman MollA system of geography; or, A new & accurate description of the earth in all its empires, kingdoms and states. Illustrated with history and topography, and maps of every country .. → online text (page 100 of 176)
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m'borg, the chief City of th-.- Sucdith Carelia,
ftands at the bottom of a Ray of 'he Fimi^l,^ Golf
about 40 mihr. South- Welt fiom K.cxhohn'^. h \\
a Place of great 1 ride, ar.d the See of a Bfv.op ;
has a convenient Haven, and \% fortified ivi'.h Tren-
ches, Forrs, and a ftrong Cadle, h)- the mean*
whereof it has often rcfiftcd the furious Attacks of
the Mufcovitcs.

Mtla ftands about 30 miles Scuth from IVilor^,
on a fmall Bay that reaches to Kfxholm, and falls
into the Lake Onega.

I^ekelax is a Szi Vn-.i on the Finr)icl{_ B-iy, about
60 miles Weft from H^iborg.

Helfingfcrs the chief City o^ Nylnndiit, ftands near
the Mouth of the River Pf^mda, wliich falls into the
Finnick Gulf, 150 miles Weft from PViborg, and
about 90 Eaft from Abo.

Borgo, another Port- Town, ftands at the Mouth
of a fmall River, about 20 miles Eaft from Helfmg-
fors.

Tavaflhus, called alfo Croneburg, the Capital of
Tiivaflhia, is a ftrong Forcrefs built by Berjerus Jcrf,
the Suedilh General in 1250. when he had con-
quer'd this Country and eltablifh'd Chr.ftianiry
there. It ftands 70 miles North from Hclfingfori,
and about 90 North- Weft from Abo.

Haubo ftands on a Branch of the Lake ^etide,
which extends almoft the length of this Province,
about 20 miles North from Tavnftl.'iit.

Padnfioski ftands on the Lake Jtnde, about jo
miles North-Eaft from Haubo.



Towns of this Province, but by the Maps Saminge,
which ftands on the Banks of the fame Lake, a few
nftles South from Nyflot, as Humal does about 30
miles more to the Weft, feems rather to deferve
the Charadler.

Lexa, in the North part of the Province of f(ex-



Abo, the Capital of South Finlnnd, ftands on the
River Aviorl^i, near the Balticl^-Sez, and about 50
miles from the Gulf of Finland, in the Latitude of
61. o. Longitude 44. o. and 160 miles North-Eaft
from Stocklwlm. It is the See of a Bilhop, and
adorn'd with a Univerfity ; and is alfo a City of



holm, ftands on the Banks of a Lake in the Latitude good Trade

of 65. 40. Longtitude 55. o. Biomeburg, the chief Town of Norrh FirJand,

K^exholm, which gives name to the Province, but ftands on the Coaft of the Bothnick, Gulf, 90 lijies

called by the Ruffians, Carelogorod, ftands on the North from Abo.

Weft-fide of the Lake Ladoga, in the Latitude of I{aumo and 'Nykirhy ftand both on the fame Coaft,

61. 10. It is a ftrong Town, and with the Pro- the former 30 and the latter 60 miles South from

vince, formerly was fubjed to the Mufcovite, 'till Biomeburg.

about the beginning of this Century, when the Masko ftands about i o miles Weft from Abo.

Czar promifed Charks IX. King of Sueden to fur- I^eifeborg ftands on the Gulf of Finland, 50 miles



render this Town and Country to him if he would
aflift him againft the Poles, by whom he was then
hardly befet ; but being freed from the Danger,
refufed to perform, which made the Swecds Invade



Eaft from^^f. It is by forae Geographers reckon'd
to ftand within the Limits of K;Lindi.i ; and has
fometime had a Territory belonging to it which
conftituted a Principality.



CHAP. VI.

LIVONIA or LieJIand.



LIVONI A, or as it is called in the Language
of the Country, LEIFLAND, is a Fer-
tile Country, lying on the South fide of
the Gulf of Finland, having a part of the Bal-
tick^ Sea, denominated the Gulf of Higa, on the
Weft, Mtifcovy and Ingria on the Eaft, the Dutchy
of Courland, and fome part of Lithuania on the
South, and as we have faid, the F/««/c: Gulf on the



North. So that it is furroundcd on the \V eft and
North with the Sea, on the Eaft hath the great Lake
of Peibus and on the South the commodious River
Dmna; which riling in MufcoT^, ralTcs by the Con-
fines of Livonia, dividing it trom CcUT..tnd, and
thereby the convenience of N.ivig.ition is afforded
to every part of this Province : In the middle of it
are three other Lakes, and many fmairRivers, which

water



5^(



S V E D E K



Liefland.



water the Conntry; and tho m fome Parts it is
marihy. yet in the general 'tis very fruitful, yield-
ing efpecially Corn, Pafture, and Honey in abund-
ance. Its Extent from North to South is about i<5o
miles, and from Ealt to Weft 120 miles The
many Conquefts this Country has lufFered render its
Inhabitants a mixture of Mufcovites, Suedes, Polan^
ders and Germnns, the latter whereof being the moft
num'erous makes their Language generally fpoken.
In its ancient State the Dutchy of Courknd and ^^-
rnhnUia were reckon'd parr oi Livctia; but the
Suedes having this, and the Poles thofe, it has, for
fome time flood thus divided. From the firft Con-
verfion of this Country, the Archbilhop of I{iga and
the Teutonick Order feem to have had the Govern-
ment of it, 'till about 1 5 57- "pon a Difference be-
twecn the Archbilhop and the Grand Matter, the
Czar of Mufcovy invaded Livonia ; but the Suedes
being cali'd in to affift the Lieflanders, drove out
the Mufcovites; and the Poles having Pretenfions to
this Country, for ibme time a Conteft was carried
on between them, 'till by the Mufcovites gaining
Ground, they pcrceiv'd their Miftake and agreed j
and finally, in the Year i66c. this Province was
reCgned to Sueden by "^ohn Cafitnir King of Poland.
It is to be noted, that the moft fouthern Part of
Liefland is ftill fubjcd to Poland. It is divided in-
to three Parts, i . Eften or EJlhonia, which takes
up all the northern Parr. 2. Odepoa, the middle ;
And, 3. Let ten or Letitia, the fouthern Parr. Ej-
thonia is again divided into five Pares, vi:(. Alen-
takitt, Wiria, Harria., Wicia, and Jervia. The
chief Towns in this Province are thefe,



In Elllonla,
diMded



thife Parts,



fub-.
into^



Alentakja,
TViria,

Harria,

Vika, IViciay
or PPikJ(e,

Jervia,



In Odefo



In Letten,



^ Narva.

ZNiept.

C Wefenberg.

< Tolsburg.
CBorcholm.
^Hevel.
ZBadis.

C Habfel.
"v Lehal.

CTVickel orffycl^.
C Wittenfiein.

< Of erf alen,
<.Lan.

f Parnav).

I Derfat or Derp.

I Hitigen.
^ Odefol.
1 Nienhaufen,
1 Marienburg.
1 Tarneft.
'\__Fellin.

r K'g"-

^ Dunanuind.

jKofkeihaus.
\lValtner.
aWendtn.
*- Sevold.



N4rva is feated on a River of the fame name
(which feparates Livonia from Ingria, and here falls
in the Finnic Bay) in the Latitude of 59. o. Longi-
tude 50. o. at the diftance of 170 miles from RJga
to the North-Eaft, and 1 00 from B^vel to the Eaft,



and is called the Germnn Narva, to diftinguifh it
from the Rjtjfian Naiva. It is a place cf greac
Strength and Confideration, and well garifon'd by
the Suedifo Soldiers ; it is alfo defended by a ftrong
Caftle, named Juanogorod, which ftands on the
other fide of the River in tngria, and was taken by
Guflavus Adolphus'in 161 7. In general it is reckon'd
one of the beft Fortrefles in this Country. The
Town was built by tValdemar II. King of Denmark
in 1223. was taken by the Mufcovites in 1558. re-
cover'd by the Suedes in 1581. and granted to them
by Treaty in 1599. It has a convenient Port to
the Gulf of Finland, and is a place of Trade.

Niejlot or Neufchlos is a ftrcng Fort on the River
Narva, near the Lake Peipus.

Borcholm ftands about 60 miles Weft from Narva'.

fVefenburg, 20 miles North- Weft from Borcholm,
near, the River iVeifenaa, is a place of Strength,
and was taken from the Mufcovites by the Suedes
in I 581.

Tolsburg, a Port-Town on the Finnic Gulf, is
about 12 miles diftant from iVefemburg to the
North.

I{evel or B^valia, anciently the Metropolis of
Liefland, is a fmall but handfome and well fortified
City, feared on the Finnic Gulf, about 60 miles
from Tolsburg, and about 100 from Narva to the
Weft. It is one of the moft confiderable Mart-
Towns in thcfe Parts, and is adorn'd with a Gymna-
fmm or fmall Univerfity, wherein Profeflbrs and
Tutors are maintain'd to teach the Liberal Arts.'
It was formerly an Epifcopal See, but fince Luthe*
ranifra has been eftablifli'd here, a Superintendanc
governs the Ecclefiaftical Aflairs. The City was
founded by Waldemar II. King of Denmark^ in 1230.
r-s fold to the great Mafter; and in 1561. being
in danger of falling into the Mufcovites Hands, it
l^ab)ci5ied its felf to the Suede, who has ever fince
had the Pro'-edlion of it, but it ftill enjoys large
Immunities, and is very confiderable on account of
its Trade and commodious Haven.

Badis or Padis, is a Fort feated on the River Affa^
about 20 miles Weft from l{evel.

Habfel, Seated on a fmall Gulph of the Balticl^^
to which it gives Name, over againft the Ifland
Dagho, 30 miles South- Weft from Padis, and about
40 South- Weft from ^evel, was formerly fubjedt to
the Danes, but in 1 572. being taken by theMufco-
vite, was gained by the Suede, in 1581. and was
fometime the See of a Bifliop.

Lehal ftands alfo on the Baltick, 1 5 miles South
from Habfel, is a place of Strength, and has a Caftle
of good Force.

ivick.el or lVyl{e, is another Fort in the fame Neigh*
bourhood. — -

M^tttenflein, 70 miles Eaft frotij Lf/j^j/, and 45
South-Eaft from/^ew/r As alfo Oberpalen and Lan-
ate, all Places of Moment for Strength.

Parnow, Parnavia, feated on a River of the fame
Name, which here falls into a final] Bay of the
Baltick^, at the diftance of about 50 miles from I{«-
velio the South, 90 from fy'ga to the North. It is
a fmall City, but a Place of good Trade, great
quantity of Corn efpecially being Ship'd hence for
the Netlyerlands. It is pretty well Fortified, bur
owes it's Strength chiefly to its Citadel . The Po-
landers made this the Capital of one of their Pala-
tinates, when it was under their Jurisdidlion ; but
fince the Year, 16 17. it has been fubjedl to the
Suede, after having been taken and re-taken many
times in the faft Age,

Derpat



In



gri



1.



S ZJ E D E N.



:6i



Derpat or Derft , Torpatufn , a large and ancient
City on the River Embcck^, 1 5 miles from rhc Lake
Peipiis, and fomewhat more fiom the I4^erc;(er-:^ec
another Lake, 1 00 miles from Parnoro to the Ealt, and
120 from Hjgn to the North-Eaft. It was formerly
the See of a Biftop, and is at prefent adorn'd with
an Univcrfity founded by Gnftaviis Adolplm in \6^z.
on account of its being a pleafant , healthy Place,
and abounding with Provi(ions and all NccelTaries :
The Buildings are of Scone and Brick, but not fo
well maintained and inhabited as they have been.
It has a ftrong Caftle for its Defence, feated on a
Hill, but has however been fubjedted to many Ma-
fters, for the leui-onic Knights took it from the Muf-
covitcs in 1280, the Poles took it in i 582, afterwards
the Suedes drove them out, but in 1603 they re-
gain'd and kept it till 162 '5, when the Suedes finally
took it again, and have ever fince poffelTed it.

M^nrheck. ftands on the Mouth of the River Em-
heck, near the Lake Peibtis

Nienhnus 40 miles South from Derpt, on the Bor-
bors of Mufcovy. And

Marienbwg , about 20 miles South-well from
Nienh-ius, are all three Forts of good Strength.

Odenpol, 1 2 miles South from Derpt , is a fmall
Town , and only confiderable for giving Name to
this Divifion oi Liven if..

Fcllin iVands on a fmall River that pafles from the
JVerc^er-v(^ee to Pernaxv, 50 miles from that City to the
Eaft, and as many from Derpt to the Welt.

Bjngen is a Fort 3 5 miles diftani from FeUin to the
South.

Tarnefi is another Fort formerly very ftrong when
in the Hands of the Mufcovites, but fo demolilhed
when the Poles took it , that tho' the Suedes have
fpent much in repairing it , is not yet arrived to
what it was.

I^iga called I(iig by the Inhabitants, and I{igen by
the Germans, is the Metropolis of Livonia, the See
of an Arch-bilhop, and a great Emporium. It is
feated on the River Dui>?a near its Mouth which
makes a commodious Haven, from the Gulf of the
Balticli^ Sea that cakes its Name from this City, in
the Latitude of 57. o. Longitude 46. o. and at the
diftance of 90 miles from Pemaxv, and 120 from
Hevel to the South, 25 from Mittaw in Courland to
the North , not above 4 Leagues from the Gulf of
I{iga to the Eaft, and about 80 Leagues from Stocl(_-
holm to the Sourh-Eaft. It is a very confiderable
City, being well built, full of Inhabitants, and a



place of vaft Traffick for Corn, Hemp. Flax, Pitch,
Tar, Planks, Skins and Furs of all lores, all' which
with many other necclfary Commoditits are brought
hither on Sledges oVer the Ice and Snow in the
Winter, and Itor'd up for the EngliOi, Dutch .md
German Merchants, who fend large F.'ecrs of Ships
in the Summer-time to fetch thcfe, and carry the In-
habitants the other Goods of Southern Countricf.
The City was firft founded about the htter end of
the Twelfth Century, and in 121 ■;. w:s made a Me-
tropolitan See by Pope Innocent III. It was (omc-
time the Seat of the Great Mafler of the Temonick
Order, and afterwards cntrcd in the Hanfeatick
League, and was for fome Years a free Town, un-
der the Protedion of the Emperor ; in 1581. it was
taken by the Poles, and foon after endowed with
large Immunities : The Suedifh King, Charles IX.
twice attempted it, and his Son Guflavus /Idolpbus
finally took it, fince when it has always been fubjed
to the Suede.

It is a large City, but however well fortified,
having ftrong Walls, Bulwarks, and a very large
Trench on the Land-fide, and a ftrong Caltlc on
the River, wherein relides the general Governor of
Livonia. The Haven is furthermore fecurely guard-
ed by the

Dunamund-FoTt, or as it is called, the Dunamun.
der Schans, feated about 2 Leagues below the City
near the Mouth of the River Dxvina, as its name
declares, and is a Forcrefs of great Importance,
having the command of the Paflbge to l{iga ; fo
that without leave from the Governor no Ship can
fail thither. It was always efteemed a Place of
great ftrength , but could not however refift the
Courage of the King of Poland's Saxon Army, who
by general Aflault took it in the Year 1699.

IQikenhufen or Ksckehaus, is a ftrong Fort feated
on the River Dwina, 60 miles Eaft from J{igd .- It
was anciently the Refidence of the Archbilhop.

Sexvold or Segenwold, ftands 30 miles, and ^f^'enden
4 5 miles, North-Eaft from I^iga, both on the South-
fide of the River Teyder : And,

IVolmer ftands on the North-Bank of the fame
River, 60 miles North-Eaft from I{iga.

Many lefler Towns and Forts are found in this
Country , particularly Dunenburg, feated on the
Dwina, 60 miles above IQtkenhaufen ; but this be-
ing fubjedl to Poland, may be more properly fpoken
of there.



CHAP. VII.
I N G R I A.



INGIi^IA or INGE ROMANIAN D is a
fruitful and pleafant Province lying on the
North-Eaft of Livonia, having on the North
the Lake Ladoga, the River Nieva (which divides
it from Carelia in Finland) and the Gulf of Finland,
on the South and Eaft Mufcovy, and on the Weft
Livonia. Its Extent from Eaft to Weft, is near 1 50
miles, and from North to South about 80 miles. Jt
is a good Country, free from Lakes, but water'd
with Rivers, and produces the Ncceffaries for Life.
I: abounds with Cattle and Beafts ; and has efpe-



cially a great number of Elk.s, who in the Summer
Seafon change their Quarters and fwim over the
River Nieva into Carelia ; but at the approach of
Winter return the fame way. This Country was
formerly fubjccfl to the Mufcevite, but added to
Sueden by Guftavus Adolphus, to whom it was entire-
ly refign'd by the Czar Michael Federoxif:(, in the
Treaty of Stockjjolm, A. D. i6i8. which was af-
terwards confirm'd in 166 1. Irs Situation renders
it very confiderable, being a Communication be-
tween Finland and Livonia, and a Frontier againft
B b b Mujcc^j.



5^2



S V E D E N.



Mttfiovy. It is by fome Geographers divided into
three Parts, i. Ingrin, i. Ingermama, and 3. So-
luskia. The chief Towns in rhis Province are,
Nottehurg, or Oreska-Z Uvanogorod.
Coporio. S LJamagorod.

■Notteburg, called by the Ruffians, Oreska or Nut,
from its compadnefs and ftrength, is feated on a
fmall Ifland, in the Mouth of the River Nteva near
the Lake Ladogn, in the Latitude of 60. o. Longi-
tude 54. o. 3eo miles from I^iga, and 120 from
fiarva to the North-Eaft. It is the chief Town of
this Province both for Trade and Strength, being
very well fortified, and befides well fecured by the
breadth of the River. When Guftavm Adotfhus be-
fieg^d it, in the Year 16 14. it made fo vigorous a



Refiftance, that 'till an unhappy Diftemper feized
the Inhabitants, he was by no means able ro take it.

Ivanogorod, called alfo the Ruffian Narva, is feat-
ed over againft Narva, and buiJt on a Rock in an
Ijlhmus, made by the Confluence of two RiverSj
and is a Place of very great Strength,

Coporio, a ftrong Fort, ftands on the Finnick^ Gull^
30 miles North from Ivanagorod.

Jamagorad, another Fortrefs, is feated on the Ri-
ver Laga, about j 5 miles fvomlvanogerod to theSouth-
Eaft.

Thefe and feveral other Towns and Forts, toge-
ther with the whole Country, were delivered up to
the Suedes by the Mufcovites, at the Treaty above
mentioned.



CHAP. VIII.
* The ISLANDS belonging to Sueden are thefe.



G



OTHLAND Me, fituate in the Balttck^,
io Leagues from the Coaft of Gothland to
the Eaft, about 60 Leagues from Livonia
to the Weft, and in the Latitude of 56. It is a
narrow Traeft of Land , ftretch'd out in length
from North to South about 70 miles, and not above
20 in breadth. It is fruitful, and affords good
Pafture ior Cattle, efpecially Horfes and Oxen.
This Ifland was formerly fubjed tc Denmark,, but
granted to the King of Sueden in 1645. in 1677,
re-taken by the Danes, and in 1679, rer:ored by
Treaty to the Suedes.

fVisby or Visburg, the chief Town of this Ifland,
and the Seat of its Governor, was heretofore a
large and farr.ous Mart, containing 10 Charchcs,
and 4 Monafteries, but is now much decayed. It
is reported, that Hydrographical Tables and Sea
Charts, and the Rules for Navigation were firft
Printed here.

OELAND, a narrow flip of Land over againft
the Continent of Gothland, from which it is diftant
not above 5 or 6 Leagues, is in length about 70
miles from North to South, but hardly 10 miles
broad. The Soil affords good Pafture, ?nd many
Herds of Oxen, Horfes, and Fallow Deer.
The chief Pkice upon the Ifland is Bnmholm or
Barkjjolm, a ilro-ag Fortrefs feated in the middle
of the Ifle, juft over agaitift Calmar. There are
many other Forts and Caftles to defend this Ifland,
which has been often attack'd ; in 1536. Frede-
rick_ III. King of Denmark^ took it ; foon after it
was rcgain'd by the Suedes, but being loft again,
Guflavus Adolphus finally recovered it in i6i3.'fince
when it has been conftantly potTefs'd by the King of
Sueden,



OESEL and D AG HO two Iflands lying off
the Coaft of Livonia, make the Gulf of ^iga ; the
former is much the larger of the two, being about
40 miles Jong and 20 broad ^ whereas the other is
hardly 20 miles either way. Oefel lies about 15
Leagues Weft from Pemaw, and has on it the City
of Arnsburg, fortified with a Gaftle, and another
Fortrefs called Sonneburg.

Dagho lies to the North of Oefel, about 7 Leagues
Weft from Lehal; it is of a Triangular Form, and has
on it two Caftles, called Padem and Dagheroart.

ALAND, an Ifland in the Mouth of the Gulf
of Bothnia, iurrounded with a great number of
fmaller Iflands, lies between Vplandia to the Weft:,
and Finland to the Eaft, in near the fame Latitude
with Vffal, and in the Midway between Stockholm-
and Abo. It abounds with Pifli, and has fome Cat-
tle; on it ^znds the Von of C aft leholm.

HVENA, a very fmall Ifland in the Ore Sun j,
juft over againft Landskroon, Lat. 56. 20. On it
ftands Vranihiirg, a fmall City and Caftle, built at
the Coft of the King of Denmark^, for the ufe of the
famous Mathematician Tycho-Brahe. It was fur-
rendred to the Suede by the Treaty in 1660.

I{VGEN, an Ifland on the Coaft of Pomeraniit
in Germany, is alfo fubjecS to the King of Sueden ^
but of that, as alfo of V S E D O M and WO L-
L IN, having already fpoken in our Account of
Germany, need not here be repeated.

To the King of Sueden are alfo fabjedlfome part
of Germany, as the Vpper Pomerania, and the Dutchies
of Bremen and Ferden ; which have likewife been
fpoken of in their proper Places.

As alfo the Province of Bahus, whereof we have
fpoken already in our Account of Norway.



POLAND.




^^,— >«li



CHAP. I.

Of POLAND in General



TH E Kingdom of POLAND which is now
of vaft Extent, was at firft (according to
Cluverius) not above 310 Miles long, and
140 broad, confifting at that time only of that part,
which for diftindlion, isufually Named, Poland pro-
perly fo called, but it hath lince Received great
Additions.; Litbuanij,th<i LclTer or I{ed.[{uJJia, Podo-



lia, Volhinia, P»Uft», MaffovU, Pruffla, SMUg,ni
and part of Livonia, having been annexed to it.
IheSarmau, as the fame Author Ihews, were thefirlt
Inhabiters of ir, and the Country anciently Namd
Sarmatia. It owes it's prefent Name, as i^f/iV"^
particularly fays, to fome Colonies ol the ScUvi
who came into that Country-, and either drove out
flbb 1 ' or



3^4



POLAND,



or mingled themfelves, with the ancient Sarmatx, and
called the Land Pole, which fignified in their Lan-
guage, a Plain. Tho' fooie are of opinion, that the
word Polackj, is as much as to fay, the Pofterity of
Lechus. This Nat.on, as Puffendorf fays , did for-
merly Inhabit nearer to Tartary ; but after vaft
numbers out of Getmany enter d the Homan Provin-
ces, their places were fupplied by the Nations be-
hind them J and it feems that Poland being in the
fame manner left by its Inhabitants , which were
then the Vetiedi or Upends, they made roonn for the
next that took their place. Thefe then as it is faid,
■having taken Pofleflion of this Country, about the
year 550 did under the Condud of Lechus Jay the
Foundation of a new State.

Poland as it is now extended, is bounded on the
North w\ih Livonia, Mujcovy, and iht Bait ick^; on
the South with Upper Hungary, Tranfilvania, and
IValachiai on theEaft with Mufcovy, and the Little
Tartary; and on the Welt with Germany. It's Ex-
tent is from the Frontiers of Silefia in the Weft, to
the Frontiers of Tartary in the South-eaft, above
700 Miles; and from the Frontiers of Livonia, to
the Carpates or Kjempach Mountains, which are the
Limits of Hungary, above 500 Miles. And its Situation
is between the 48th. and the 27th. Degree of Latit.
commencing in Longit. at the 37th. Degree from
Teneriff, and exterdingto the 55th. Degree: And
fome part of Volhynia, even 2 Degrees more.

By the Situation it may be guefled that the
CLIMATE is Temperate, and the AIR not
exceiTive Cold, as in effed it is, except in the Nor-
thern part of Lithuania. The SOI L alfo is gene-
rally very FertiJ, fit for Tillage and Pafture, and
produces vaft quantity of Corn and Cattle ; even
enough to Feed the Populous Nation of Holland, who
yearly fend vaft Fleets to Dant^ick_ to Buy the Corn
and Oxen, fent down thither from the feveral parts
of Poland. Lithuania produces Hony, Wax, Hemp,
Flax, Leather, Potafhes, Salt, Woad , Saltpetre i
Vitriol, and Quickfilver. With thefe Staple Com-
modities they purchafe thofe of other Nations, *;;^.
Wines, Cioath, Stuffs, Wrought-Silks, (^c.

It is a plain flat Country, rather enclining to
Marfti than Mountain Lands, fothat no confiderable
Mourttains are found here, except thofe that make
the Frontier to Hungary, which is a craggy Ridge
of 300 Miles in Length, and called the Carpates or
t^rempach Moiimains. But RIVERS it abounds
with, the moft confiderable whereof are the Vijlula,
the Niemen or Chronus, the Nieper or Borijihenes, the
Niefier or Tyrat, the Bog or l^egus, whofe Springs
and Courfes, are more diftindly perceiv'd by
Viewing the Map , than by giving account of
them.

As to the GENIUS of the People, they are,
as Puffendorf obferves, commonly Downright and
Honeft; very fcldom guilty of Diflimulation, of a
Generous Spirit and exped a great deal of Refpecft,
to which they make you fuitable returns. They
are alfo fierce and extravagant, much inclin'd to an
uncontroled Liberty, or rather Licentioufnefs and
Petulancy, which produces frequent Fadions and
Confpiracies. They do nor want Courage, hut are
more fit for fudden Adion than the long Fatigue
of a War: This is fpoken of the Gentry. But
the meaner fort are Poor Spirited, and therefore the
Peli/h Infantry are not valuable, but Cojfachj, or
Foreigners are made ufe of on all occafions of
War. This abjed Spirit of the Peafantry proceeds



from the Servile Vaffalage they pay to their Lords,
who exercife it with all the Haughtiijels imaginable^
and not only does the poor Labourer never acquire



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