Herman T[yson] 1865- Lukens.

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THEFIFTH
SCHOOL YEAR



HERMAN TLU KENS




Class __LB-L5i5-5



Book



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GopightN!'.



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT.




FLOOR MAP SHOWING DENSITY OF POPULATION

(See December Geography, p. io8)



The Fifth School Year



A Course of Study with Detailed

Selection of Lesson

Material

Arranged by Months and Correlated

BY

HERMAN T. LUKENS, Ph. D.

Head Training Teacher South-Western State Normal School.
California, Pennsylvania



THEODORE B. NOSS, Ph. D.

General Editor of the Series

Principal of the South- Western State Normal School
California, Pennsylvania



CHICAGO
A. FLANAGAN COMPANY



NOV i iSOS



Copyright 1905

BY

A. Flanagan Company



%
^



o

j
■A



PREFACE BY THE GENEEAL EDITOE



^' The Fifth School Year ^^ is one of the School Year Series,
prepared by the trainijng teachers of the South-Western State
Normal School, at California, Pa.

Of the special qualifications of Dr. Ltikens to write a book of
this sort, it is unnecessary to speak. His fruitful and important
work for several years -as a teacher of fifth-grade pupils and of
student teachers practicing in the same grade, gives him a van-
tage ground of personal experience for such an undertaking
that few men of imiversity training possess. The work of the
general editor on this book and others of the series, has been
confined to suggesting the general plan and urging others to
undertake the execution.

It is not strange that teachers should be somewhat reluctant,
as ours have been, to put in print their actual grade work for a
school year. A teacher's ideal of what such work should be is
always changing, and is always in advance of what he is able to
set down in print. Yet in the all-important field of matter and
method of instruction, how can progress better be made than by
recording fearlessly the best one can do to-day and using it as
the basis of to-morrow's betterments?

THEO. B. NOSS.
California, Pa.



PEINCIPLES ON WHICH TO BASE
A COUESE OF STUDY

After 7'cadmg " The Fifth School Year " in manuscript, my
friend Dr. Charles E. Browne said to me : " You should state
at the beginning of your hooh what principles you believe in,
so that your readers may the better understand what your work
meansf'

1. The course of individual development corresponds to the
main stages of race development.

2. Thruout the curriculum the subjects should be presented
historically.

3. The psychological order is of greater importance in ar-
ranging material than the logical order.

4. The supreme aim of school activity should be to develop
right interests and ideals.

5. The suitable material for any given age is such as most
deeply rouses the natural interests of that period.

6. Learning is essentially an active motor process and not
one of passive sense-impression.

7. The work in every subject should as far as possible be or-
ganized with the depth of interest and the unity of connection
that attaches to real life. Superficiality of treatment inoculates
against all lasting interests.

8. The social life of the child is the basis of correlation.
Cooking, sewing, manual work, etc., are types or fundamental
forms of social activity and therefore form the proper medium
for the child^s introduction into the more formal subjects of the
curriculum.

9. There is no sequence of studies in the ideal curriculum.
10. The process of education is also its goal.



CONSPECTUS



CONSPECTUS OF





NATURE STUDY


GEOGRAPHY


HISTORY


SEPTEMBEE


Distribution of Seeds.
Food of Insects.
Food of Birds.
Bird Census.
Weather : Barometer.


The Mediterranean.

The West Coast of
Europe.

Directions and Dis-
tances from Home.

Equinoxes.


The Homeric World.
The Ptolemaic World.
The Northmen.
The Crusades.


OCTOBER


Tree Census.
Oak Tree.
Ventilation.
Weather: Winds.


India and the East.

Africa.

S. Hemisphere vs. N.
Hemisphere.

Latitude and Longi-
tude.

Proofs that the Earth
is Round.


The World of Marco

Polo.
Prince Henry.
Columbus.
Vasco da Gama.


NOVEMBER


Leafless Trees.

Branching.

Hibernation.

Cocoons and Chrysa-

lids.
Life Histories.
Weather: Clouds ;

Temperature.


The Atlantic Ocean.
The Solar System.
South America and

the Pacific.
The Philippines.


Columbus.
Americus.
Magellan.


DECEMBER


Geologic Fauna and

Flora.
Coal Formation.
"Footprints."
Weather: Moon.


Mexico, Peru, Florida.
Constellations.
Winter Solstice.
Hudson Bay and St.

Lawrence.
The Floor Map.
The Gulf States.


Spanish Conquests :
Cortes, Pizarro, De
Soto.

Other Explorations by
French and Eng-
lish.

Fall of Spanish
Power.



10



FIFTH YEAE WORK



LITERATURE



NUMBER



Iliad and Odyssey.
"The Golden Age."
"Lays of Ancient

Rome."
"Thrall of Leif the

Lucky."
"Skeleton in Armor
"Discoverer of North

Cape."
"The Birds of Kil-

lingworth."



Dialog of Marco

Polo's Return.
"Building of the

Ship."
" C o 1 u m b u s." — Joa

quin Miller.
Sinbad Stories.
Raymond's "Drama of

Columbus."



Raymond's "Drama of

Columbus."
Irving's "Columbus."
Sun and Moon Myths.
Fiske's Account of

Magellan.



Prescott and Fiske.
"Stories in the Con-
stellations."
"Reynard the Fox."



Roman Notation and

Calculation.
The Circle and De

grees.
Time Measure.
Problems in Dates.
Height of Trees.



The Sphere — Area of

Its Surface.
Distances on Globe

Calculated from

Scale.
Altitude of North

Star.
Longitude and Time



The Distances in the

Solar System.
Numeration of Large

Numbers.
Areas of the Oceans.
Scale Drawing of the

North Atlantic.



Enlargement of Map
of Southern States
with help of Metric
Ruler.

Density of Popula-
tion.

Problems in Cotton,
Sugar, Lumber.



LANGUAGE



Literary Society
thruout the Year.

Historical and Geo^
graphical Atlases
Each Month.

Grammar : Parts o f
Speech. Stibject and
Predicate. Objecl
Complement.



Condensation.
Grammar: Attribute
Complement.



Order of Words,
Pauses, and Inflec-
tions, use the Nat-
ural Diagramming
of the Oral Sen
tence.

Gratnmar : Objective
Complement.



Selections Written out
from Memory.

Grammar : P r e p o s i -
tional Phrases.



THE ARTS



Music: "But the Lord
Is Mindful of His
Own."
"There's Music in

the Air."
"Just for To-Day."

Drawing : Rapid
outline sketching.

Making: Bird-houses,
ants' nest, clock
face, viking ship,
articles for acting.



Music : Columbus
Songs.
"Song of the

Waves."
"Farewell to the

Forest."
"Farewell to the
Birds."
D r azv i n g : Human

face.
Making: Windmills,
wind-vanes, junks,
caravels, etc.



Music: "The Spacious
Firmament."
" Queen of the Si-
lent Night."
"The Harp that
once thru Tara's
Halls."
"From Greenland's
Icy Mountains."
Drawing: Objects in
motion. Trees and
birdseye views.
Making : Astrolabe,
lung tester, relief
globe, Saturn mod-
el, etc.



Music: "He Shall
Feed His Flock."
"Softly Now the

Light of Day."_
"Day is Dying in
the West."

Drawing: Suggestive
lines and lines of
force.

Making : Raising of
cotton, rice, orange
trees, etc. State
maps. Geological
model. Historic
dolls. Cotton gin.



11



CONSPECTUS OF





NATURE STUDY


GEOGRAPHY


HISTORY


JANUARY


Foods and Stimulants.
Pets and Domestic

Animals.
Weather: Sunrise and

Day's Length.


The Atlantic Coast.
Middle Atlantic

States.
South Atlantic States.


The Settlement of the
Atlantic Coast from
the Hudson to
Florida.

Indian Fur Trade.

Piracy Along the
Coast.


FEBEUARY


Ants.

Systematic Collection
of Insect Pictures
on Card Catalogue.

Weather: Highs and
Lows.


New England.

St. Lawrence Valley.


New England.
New France.


MARCH


Pond Life.

Aquarium.

Ice Age.

Preparation of School

Garden.
Weather: Rainfall.


The Central States.

Recalling o f Fourth
Grade Work o n
Prairies, Portages
and Fur Trade.


The French in New
France and Louisi-
ana.


APRIL


Tadpoles.

Frogs and Birds.

Bird Calendar.

Arbor Day.

Preparation for June
Flower Show and
Planting of Garden.

Weather: Irrigation.


The Western States.

Recalling of Fourth
Grade Work o n
California, the Yel-
lovt^stone, and the
Cliff Dwellers.


The Louisiana Pur-
chase.

Lewis and Clark, Fre-
mont, Pike, Powell,
Bering, Mackenzie.

The Northwest Pas-
sage.

The Panama Canal.


MAYandJUNE


Brooks.

Picnics to the Woods.
Jurbe Flower Show.
School Garden.
Weather: Climate.


Commerce and Manu-
factures of the
United States.

Foreign Commerce.


Review of the Work
of Three Centuries
i n Discovery o f
America.



12



FIFTH YEAR WORK — Continued



LITERATURE



"Knickerbocker's His-
tory."
"Gulliver's Travels."
The Jungle Books.



The Jungle Books.
"The Courtship o f

Miles Standish."
"Snow-Bound."
"Among the Hills,"

etc.



"New England Trage-
dies."

Parkman or Fiske on
La Salle.



Review of Portions

of "Hiawatha."
Thompson-Set on's

"Wahb and Tito."
"Land of Little

R a i n," by Mary

Austin.



L o n sf's "School of

the Woods."
Robert's "Kindred of

the Wild."
Poems of Nature.



NUMBER



Enlargement of Map
of the Middle At-
lantic States.

Problems in Foods.

Day and Night Chart.

Square Root in Popu-
lation Charts.

Coal Charts.



Enlargement of Map
of New England.

Measuring Areas with
Paper Units.

Ratios in Areas.

T^er Cent in Areas.

Density of Population.



Enlarged Map of
Central States.

School Garden to
Scale, using Metric
Measures.

Percentage i n Geo-
graphical Problems.

Density of Popula-
tion.



Enlarged Map o'
Western States.

Problems in Popula-
tion, Area, and
Irrigation, Involv-
ing Square Root,
Ratio, Percentage,
etc.



Comparison of United
States with Foreign
Countries i n Area,
Population, and In-
dustries.

Review and Summary
of the Year's Work.



LANGUAGE



Condensation and Re

writing.
Teaching by Use.
Grainmar : Infinitives

in Noun Construe

tions.



Rhyming.

Grammar: Infinitives
i n Adjective and
Adverb Construe
tions.



Rehearsal of Good
Colloquial Dialogs

Committing Prose to
Memory.

Grammar : Participles
in Adjective Con-
structions.



Story-Telling.

Grammar:. Participles
in Noun Construc-
tions.



Correspondence with
Other Schools on
the Work of the
School Year.

Grammar: Conjuga-
tion.

Summary o f Year's
Work.



THE ARTS



Music: "Ring out,
Wild Bells."
"Kind Words."
"Abide with Me."
"O, Come, Come
Away."

Drawing : Memory
drawing and simple
perspective.

Making : Sand table
models of James-
town, etc.



Music : "The Blue

Bells of Scotland."

"The Battle Hymn

of the Republic."

"My Old Kentucky

Home."

Drawing: Brush work
for St. Valentine's
Day. Outline draw-
ing.

Making : Scenes for
the plays, models
of Old Boston or
Plymouth. Re-
assembling the
parts of a clock.



Music: "Jerusalem the
Golden."
"Now the Day is

Over."
"Robin Adair."

Drawing : Scenes from
nature study, ge-
ography and history.

Making : School gar-
den plan, b i r d-
boxes, models of
reaping machine,
blast-furnace.



Music: "All Thru the
Nicrht."

"Crossing the Bar."
"We Lay Us Down
to Sleep."

Drazuing: Outdoor
sketching and illus-
trative drawing.

Making : The school
garden.



Music: " O. Rest in
the Lord."

"Soldiers Chorus."
"Decoration Day."
Music festival.

Draiuing : Outdoor
sketching and illus-
trative drawing.

Making: School gar-
den. Boats.



13



THE FIFTH SCHOOL YEAR

INTRODUCTION

The leading work of the fifth school year is the story of geo-
graphical discovery, from the earliest times down to the expan-
sion of the United States into a world power, with the digging
of the Panama Canal, which opens Columbus's attempted
westerly route to the Orient. It is history, but it is the history
of geography. In the spring, the geography becomes industrial,
but altho it is chiefly the geography of the present, it still
correlates with the history. The literature is in the closest
association with the history and the geography.

The topic for the year in nature study is the inter-dependence
of animals and plants, and in the main follows the seasonal
changes. A daily weather record is kept. The work on this
furnishes motive for considerable number work, astronomy,
geography, and English. The pupils have organized the Cali-
fornia Junior Naturalist Club, and manage in this way a con-
siderable part of the nature work.

The work in number, language, drawing, writing, singing,
making, modeling, etc., grows out of the work in geography,
history, or nature study. Besides the simpler correlations in
minor matters, the geography makes its chief demands for aid
from the arithmetic in the scale drawing of maps and statistical
charts. In the latter part of the year this work becomes the
preparation of a statistical atlas of the United States.

All the songs selected are good, being in many instances
classics from the great composers. Children have no time to

17



18



INTRODUCTION



waste on shallow, evanescent tunes, that fail to inspire even
if they do not actually degrade. The drill exercises should be
directed to the mastery of the difficulties found in the songs.

The English work grows out of the needs and opportunities of
the Literary Society and the preparation of the historical and
statistical atlases. For the society, besides the usual readings




A GROUP AT WORK



and recitations, a periodical is edited, including prose and
rhyme, stories, current events, advertisements, puzzles, conun-
drums, and illustrations.

School work never should be commercial in its nature; the
products of the school garden, of the work bench, of the weaving,
of the cooking and the sewing are not to be gauged by the price
the goods bring when exposed for sale. The purpose lies in the



INTKODUCTION



19




LITTLE WOMEN — ACT I, SCENE I



development of the pupil, not in the material product. If we
train for commercial skill, we shall hinder development.

The main problem of our schools is properly to select and
adapt the culture and material achievements of the- race to meet
the needs of development in the growing and immature pupil.
This involves the element of idealized make-believe. The school
life is not the actual life of the world, but idealized life as
presented on a stage. The past culture and achievement of the
race must be presented as a drama, idealized in thought.



20



INTRODUCTION



pictured by the imagination, true to nature, intensely inter-
esting, and acted out in the motor, activity of school exercises.

Thus, the actual activities of the past struggle for existence
become the play activities of the present education. In this
sense the child in play recapitulates the history of the race.




LITTLE WOMEN — ACT II, LAST SCENE



We must aim, therefore, so to organize this play that it will
be as earnest as any work, as real as any experience, as true as
any facts, as interesting as actual life. What Miss Dopp is
doing for the industries in education* somebody must also do

* " The Place of Industries in Elementary Education," published by the Uni-
versity of Chicago Press. See, also, her " Industrial and Social History Series,
Rand, McNally & Co., publishers.



INTRODUCTION 31

for the nature study, the literature, the mathematics, and the
language work.

We have need of another Shakspeare to dramatize American
history. The usual school dialogs and special-day exercises are
not fit to be treated as literature. Longfellow's " New England
Tragedies '^ are not wholly appropriate in theme for school pre-
sentation. Prof. Eaymond's " Columbus " might be slightly re-
modeled and be made fairly usable, but it has too little of the
element of humor. If we had such plays as Shakspeare's
'^ Julius Csesar," but treating the dramatic episodes of our own
history, we should have the material in proper form for
school use. Facts are well stated in our present text-books, but
what the children need is dialog and acting. We must have
scenes, councils, town meetings, elections, conferences, treaties,
plots, street parades, cabinet meetings, colonial assemblies,
courts, schools of the olden time, games, etc.

The life of De Soto or of Magellan would make as immortal
a masterpiece as the tragedy of Julius Caesar. Whoever shall
worthily dramatize the life of William Penn will do more for the
teaching of Pennsylvania's history than anybody has yet done.
But it will require an artist of the first rank to see the essentials,
idealize the true, and re-create the life of the past.

Do not degrade the drama or the dialog to exhibition purposes.
The patrons of the school should be welcome at all times, but
nothing should be rehearsed until it can be given as a public
entertainment, and least of all for paid admission. It is
intended that the acting of the " Drama of Columbus " and the
other plays here recommended shall be done but the once, with-
out any committing of lines, or even without a previous
rehearsal. Such acting is a means of presenting vividly the
matter of history so that it will be like the real events of life.

The teacher, as prompter, stage-manager, and invisible spirit,
must be everywhere to direct, altho nowhere is he to be tliought



<^<^ INTRODUCTION

of as part of the presentation. The children that take the act-
ing parts repeat after the teacher just what he says^ and take
their cue in acting from him. This consumes but little more
time than would be required for one reading of the text. ' As
soon as the scene is finished, always give opportunity for ques-
tions and discussion, to make sure that it is rightly understood.

For the geography stereoscopic views are of the greatest value
in aiding in the formation of correct notions of distant scenes,
landscape effects, geologic formations, buildings, streets, elevated
railways, harbors, ocean steamers, volcanoes, means of transpor-
tation, dress, fruits, flowers, irrigation, harvesting, manufactur-
ing, mining, fishing, lumbering, sea beaches, etc. With a large
collection of these views the children may store up correct
images of the other parts of the country they have not seen.
They may even write a " Diary of Our Journey thru North
America,^^ describing the actual scenes shown in the stereo-
scope.*

In the training of children opportunity must be given for
individual initiative. The formation of a strong, healthy char-
acter depends upon such opportunity. The class should often
be left by itself for short periods. Definite work may be
assigned, monitors may be put in charge, or no direction what-
ever may be given, according to the degree of self-control
possessed by the pupils. Give the children as much freedom as
they can stand. A great deal of voluntary work should be
secured and much work should be done ahead of time. Culti-
vate the feeling of responsibility. The work of learning is the
learner's own work. Teaching can never take the place of
learning. Without the pupils there would be no school, but
the teacher is not essential all the time, and had better some
of the time be absent.

* The stereographs furnished by Underwood & Underwood, 3 & 5 West Nine-
teenth Street, New York, are of excellent quality.



INTRODUCTION



33



The school should be homelike. No expense should be
spared to make it attractive and healthful. Time was when
scholars had to be driven to school and flogged into learn-
ing, but " went storming out to playing.^^ There is something
radically wrong in a school to which the pupils do not like to go.
If the children are better off in vacation than in school, the
school is not doing its duty.

Our long vacations of from two to four and even five or six
months are a vestige of a by-gone age when education was not




WOOD SPECIMENS AND STEREOGRAPHS.



conceived as conscious evolution. The summer is the best time
of all the year to go to school, if the school is adapted to the
season as it should be. The long vacation is for most children a
time of enforced idleness and wasted opportunities — too apt to
be spent in mischief and the acquiring of bad habits. The
effectiveness of school-time is very largely counteracted by the
waste of vacation.



24 INTRODUCTION

Pupils should ask questions of the teacher, rather than the
teacher ask questions of the children. Of course, the question
is also a pedagogical tool of the first importance in the develop-
ing method of teaching ; but things are never at their best unless
the pupils are thinking and caring to know. When that is the
case, they will be asking questions. Always respect a child's
question and give him satisfaction so that he will come again.
I have learned more from observing what my pupils ask about
and how they frame their questions than from any other study
of method.

Avoid the fragmentary, short answers that result from piece-
meal questions from the teacher. Accustom the children to
speak connectedly on a matter until they have finished their
thought. It is very desirable, also, that they volunteer to add
other connected thought, without waiting for the teacher to call
for it. This shows most strikingly in the work of the Junior
Naturalist Club and the Literary Society, which are intended
primarily to furnish natural conditions for individual initiative.

No school that does not see its main purpose in character-
building can be doing its whole duty to the children. It is
possible to learn the book facts alone by reading. School life,
however, is necessary to develop punctuality, honesty, order,
neatness, care, thoughtfulness, kindness, respect for others,
politeness, grace, self-control, and self-sacrifice. A hermit may
be a scholar, but it takes contact with others to make a man or
a woman.

Of course, it is not intended that any one class shall in a year
do all that is here outlined for the Fifth School Year. The
teacher using this book is expected to find suggestions in it for
her own work, but it is not to be followed as a course of study
for the year. Hence, there is an abundance of material offered,
far more than the average boy or girl of eleven years can assimi-



INTRODUCTION" '^O

late. The details of a yearns work should vary from year to year,
and should have a local coloring and an individuality.

Do not assign new topics or so many pages in the text-book for
home workj exj^ecting to hear the recitation of the lesson next
day. The home work should be the finishing of the work pre-
viously planned, discussed, and begun at school. The pupil's
supreme need of the teacher is felt at the opening of a new vista
in a*new thought realm, in attacking a newly found problem, in
adjusting his thought and feeling to the epochs of history, in
deciding on the best methods of procedure, and in the over-
coming of doubts and uncertainties. These matters demand
the cordial sympathy of class work. For home work, on the
other hand, all forms of Avritten drill, recapitulation, summary,
and individual study or memorizing are appropriate.




NATURE STUDY



Let the children begin the collecting of insects. Have them
keep diaries and note down the names of bushes^ trees, or other
plants that they find the caterpillars eating. The important
thing is to note the surroundings and what the insect is doing.
Note its feeding habits, mode of cutting the leaf, postures, time
of feeding, means of escape or defence. Have vivaria at school,
and illustrate life histories whenever possible. Mount the in-
sects by the method described in Hodge's " Nature Study and
Life," Chapter IV.

Hodge's grouping is natural: 1. Insects of the Household;
2. Insects of the Garden; 3. Insects of Field and Forest; 4.
Beneficial Insects ; 5. Insects Beautiful and Interesting. Such
classification is at present more to the point than that into

26



NATURE STUDY 27

orders and families. Teach something of the immense number
of insects, both the individuals of each species and the millions
of species. Look up the arithmetic work on page 65 of Hodge's
book, where he calculates that a single female mosquito may
produce between one and two million female mosquitoes in a
single month.

In studying the harm wrought by insects, try to give definite
ideas by comparisons. For example, it has been calculated that
the insects destroy about half of all the produce of the soil, thus
dividing with man about equally all the crops. Prof. Riley
estimates the number of insect species on the earth at 10,000,000,

This gathering up of the testimony of havoc wrought by in-
sects should be followed by the consideration of the means by


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Online LibraryHerman T[yson] 1865- LukensThe fifth school year ; → online text (page 1 of 13)