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Biblico-theological lexicon of New Testament Greek online

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uTToaToXoi eKKX-rjaMv ; Phil. ii. 25, v/j,5)v divoaToXo^. (h) As a tc7'm. tcchn. to denote
the apostles. This perhaps is connected with the use of n'^ty in post-biblical Hebrew to
designate the priests and rulers of the synagogue, describing them as delegates of the
churches or of God ; see Levy, C'hald. Worterl. uhcr die Targ. under rh^, who quotes
Kiddush 23&, "The priests are in the sacrifices to be regarded as sent by God; they
cannot be regarded as sent by us, for we of ourselves dare not offer any sacrifice ; " and
herewith cf. Berachoth v. 5, irmo3 Dlt< ht> ^n'b^, " he who is commissioned by any one is
as he who commissions himself." Elsewhere n^'hv^, the overseer of the synagogue, the
president of the Sanhedrim, is the person " delegated," i.e. by the community. If
AiroaToXoi thus includes rxh^, there is in the term an abrogation of 0. T. institutions;
cf. Matt. xix. 28. — ^ ATTocrToXrj is (a) active, a sending forth, letting go, liberating, Eccles.
viii. 8 ; (6) passive, a thing sent, jjresent ; (c) the office of apostle. Acts. i. 25.

X T o i')(^elov, TO, from crTot;i^o?, row, aToi')(kw, to put or go in a row = one of a series,
KaTo, oToiKelov, in (alphabetical) succession, Curtius 195. In usage it signifies (a) a letter



X'Toi.'xeiov 878 ^Toi-yelov

of the alphabet, not as a written sign but as one of a series, a constituent part, or one of

tlie primary elements or beginnings of syllables and words. Plat. Crat. 434 A, ra

aroiy/ia e| wy t^ TrpcoTa ovojxaTa tk ^vvdijcrei ; Deff. 414 E, (noiyela (pcov!]<; (f)a>vr]

aavvOero'; ; Cornut. theol. grace, epit. 2 2, 7r\€ovd^ovTo<; tov a-TOL^eiov ; Aristot. et al.,

ra arof^eia, the alphabet, Xen. Mem. ii. 1. 1, aKoirwfiev dp^dfievot airo T7i<; rpo^rj';

(liCTTTep UTTO Ta)v <7T0t^£iCi)z/ . . . AoKei jovv (J-oi 7) Tpo<prj dpyrj elvai,' oiiSe jap ^wrj 7'

ay Tt? et ^?) Tpe^otTo. (h) Since Plato it signifies the iirst principles, elements, of

which the world and all in tlie world consist ; Plat. Thcaet. 201 E, ra Trpcbra oLovvepel

crroL^eia i^ &v ■rjp.ei'; re ^vjKel.p.e6a koX raWa ; since Aristotle to be distinguished from

the synonymous ap-^^ai as the causae materiales of the formales ; cf. Bonitz, ind. Arist. s.v.,

hence a/3%at' re kuI a-roi.'x^ela often conjoined; Plut. de plac. phil. i. 2 (875 C), crTOLxeta,

fiev KaXovfj,ev yPjv, vScop, dipa, Trvp. But earth and water are derived from the vXr]

ap.op^o<i Kol aetSjj'?, i.e. their dp')(fi, for dp')(a'i he Xeyofiev on ovk exeo Tt Trporepov e^ ov

ryevvaTai. Hence to. (TTOL')(a,a in the common language is = that of ivhich the world

consists; Cornut. 26, rov "ArXavra . . . e^^eiv Kiova's fiaKpd<i, Ta<; rwv aToixelmv

Svvdp,ei<i, Kad' a? ra p^ev dvaxpeprj icrri, tcl Se KaTox^eprj. In 0. T. Greek only thus,

and in the LXX. only Wisd. vii. 1 7, elBevai avaTacrw Kocrp,ov kol ivepyeoav aTOLyeiwv ;

4 Mace. xii. 13, tow op.oMiraOel'; kol sk tmv avTuv yeyovora'; aToiyeioiv ; xix. 18,

hi eavTwv yap to, aroi'^ela fiedapfio^o/Meva. Often in Philo and Josephiis. In 2 Pet.

iii. 10, 12, ovpavoi and o-rot^cta are twice named as distinct things; and crrot^eta here

are not the stars, as in later Greek ovpdvta aToi^ela (Justin M. Apol. ii. 5 ; Theophil.

ad Autol. i. 4. 9), and as the stars are perhaps thus designated by aTOi')(da alone, but

very seldom; aTOL-^e'ta here denotes the earth, this part of creation; cf. ver. 13, where

Kaivov<; ovpavov<; Kal Kaw'qv yrjv are employed instead of ovp. koI a-Too'^ela, because this

latter would be inappropriate to the concluding words ev oh hiK. KaToiKel. Cf. Just. M.

dial. c. Trypli. 285 G, fj on Trpo? eavrov eXeyev 6 6<; Uoi-qacofMev ... 77 OTt Trpo? ra

aToij(ela, Tovrecrn rr/v yfjv Kal to, ciXka 6p,oicoi e^ av voovp-ev tov dvOpooirov yeyovevai.

— Later (c) aT0i')(ela is also employed to designate the first principles, the fundamental

elements of knowledge, etc. ; rarely in Attic Greek, and usually with the genitive,

e.g. Cornut. 1 4, aroi'^elov TratSeta? ian to d<f)opav Trpo<i to Qeiov k.t.X. ; Plut. de puer.

educ. 16 (12 0), hvo yap Tama wairepel crToix^la t?}? dpeT7]<; elaiv, iXirk re Tt/i'j}?

Kal (pojSo'i TipQ}pia<;. Cf Diog. L. x. 37, Troirjaaadai hel Kal TOLavTrjv tlvcl i-n-UTopJrjv

Kal a-Toi'^eicoaiv twv okoov ho^cov. Ibid. 4lA. = " instruction in first or elementary

principles ; " cf. Galen in Wetstein on Gal. iv. 3, p,7)h& to. aTOL-^Cia Trp 'iTnroKpdTov;

Texvvi i-n-LaTdp,evo<;. Without the genitive, Plut. Marcell. xvii. 5, uTro^eo-et? . . .

KadapcoTepoK cTTOi'xeiot,'; ypa^6p,evai,. In this sense Heb. v. 12, hiSdaKeiv riva toi,

c7Toi)(ela TTj'; dp-)(fi<i Toiv \oyiwv tov 9eov, where t?}? ap^- strengthens the conception

= " the first elements of all ; " compare the contrast between hihdaKa\o<; and I'j^Vto?,

vv. 12, 13. In this sense as peculiar to later Greek it must be taken also, as the ore

^fiev vrjTnoi shows, in Gal, iv. 3, and in ver. 9 also; likewise in Col. ii. 8, 20; Gal. iv. 3,

20



XTOLj(etov 879 X'TOL'xelov

ovTcoi . . , sc. ft>? KX.Tjpovofj.o'i e(f> bcrov ^povov vrj-irio^ i(7Tiv, vwo eTtiTpoiroK edTVV
. . . Koi ■^fiel'; ore ^fj,ev vi^irioi, vtto to, aTOij^eia tov Kocrfiov i]/j,eda SeSov\a>/J,evot.
Cf. iii. 24, 6 vofio'; -TraoSayoiiyb'i rjixSsv yer/ovev ; iv, 4, tov<; vtto vofiov. That the point
of the comparison does not lie simply in SeSov\a>/j,evoi, but that the ar. t. k. answers
to the eTTtT/joTTot? K.T.X, and therefore denotes the law, is confirmed by ver. 9, ttoj?
iTrLcrTpecf)eTe ttoXiv eVl rd acrdevrj koX ■jrroi')(a aTOi'^ela ol? vaXiv dvcoOev hovXevcrai,
dekere ; cf. ver. 1 0, rjixepa'; irapaTrjpelcrde km, fj,rjva<; koL icaipov<; koI evLavTov<;. Had
the apostle meant that, because the law had to do with days, months, etc., there was
a servitude to the elements of which the world consists, he would not have used
SeBovKccfiivoi, but probably oh 'rrdXcv BovXevetv 0eX., for this expression would have
denoted idolatry. If this be taken as answering to the former heathenism of the
readers (ver. 8), the apostle would be placing the law of Israel — for it is of the time of
this law, and of the past of the Israel of God (vi. 16), that he is certainly speaking
in ver. 3 — on a par with heathenism, and the question would remain, in what way
could he designate servitude to the law as servitude to the material elements of
which the world consists ? These elements are not days, sabbaths, feasts, etc. There is
no warrant for appeal to the earUest exegesists, for they by aroiK. r. k. understood, not
so much the elements, but primarily the stars, etc., acccrding to which days, etc. are
regulated, see Suicer, Thes. s.v., and only secondarily water and fire. It is evident that
TOV KocTfiov is not in keeping with this view; and how little such an explanation suits
Col. ii. 9, 20, is clear from ver. 17, where of these crrot^j^eta it is said, a eanv crKid rwv
fieWovTcov, TO Be c7a)/j,a XpiaTov. Theophylact, moreover, recognises another explanation,
Tivh Be TOV (TTOi')(eiwBri koI elcrdycoytKov vofiov ivoTjaav, and this is the true one. In
relation to what the 'rrXrjpwju.a tov '^povov accomplished. Gal. iv. 4, viz. the vvv Be
lyvovTe'; 6e6v, fioKXov Be 'yvwadevTe'} vtto Oeov, the times past provided in the law,
intended for the childhood and minority of the heir, only <TTOL')(ela, dements. Eegarded
as a person, the law was TraiBaycoyo'; and eVtV/aoTro?, in its contents it presented only
(TToi^eta (cf. Heb. vii. 19, ovBev yap eTeXeiaaev 6 vojMo'i), and these are only TTTw^j^a
Koi dadevrj a-Tou^ela, ver. 9 (cf. Heb. vii. 18, Bih to avTrji; aaOevh Kol avcocfieXi';) ;
for they give no idea of the whole, they contain nothing of the possessions in store for
the heir, but merely a cr/cta tcov fieXKovTwv, to Be crasfia tov XpKTTov, Col. ii. 16, and face
to face with the full salvation they may, nay must, be designated merely a-T0(,'^6ia tov
Ko(7fiov. This genitive is not indeed gen. part, as in err. iraiBeia'i, Te'^vrjt, but the gen.
pass, or qualitatis. The law is characterized according to that which it presents, as
Koafio<; to j3aa-iXeia t. 6. (1 Cor. xv. 50), to to, iirovpavia (cf. iv. 21 sqq.), to XpiaTO';
(Col. ii. 20), to the sphere of life of those who belong ek Xpca-Tov (Gal. iii. 24), who are
raised with Him to a new hfe, and through Him have entered upon the free possession
of the inheritance. The a-Toi'xeta which the law presents possess, as its purposes also
show, the features of the Koaixo'i, because they have to do with life cosmically conditioned
and formed, Cf. Col. ii. 20, el diveddveTe avv XpiaT^ dvo twv a-Toi'^elav tov koo-ijlov



^Toi'^ewv 880 'A'77oaTpe(f>Q}

(cf. Gal. vi. 14, Si o5 ifiol Koa/jLo<; i(7Tavpa)Tai Kayo) Koa/Jbrp), tI w? ^wyret ev tcoajjiui
BoyfiaTL^eaOe ; The law constitutes and gives elementary nurture and instruction to
those who have at present no other sphere of life save the icoaiio'i, and therefore these
aTot,')(da are such, belonging as they do to the sphere of the K6(Tfjio<i, and partaking of
its nature ; hence Col. ii. 8, Kara ttjv irapdhocnv dv6poo7ro)v, Kara ra aToi'^eia tov
Koafiov Kal ov KaTo, Xpicrrov, where aroix- '''■ «■• characterizes as to its contents what
nrapdhoai.'s dvOp. designates as to its origin (not identical here with the v6p.o<i •n-aohayooyo';).
The a-Toi-)(e'la are the elements which bear in them the nature or character of the world,
and not of Christ. For the earlier literature, see Wolff, Gurae fhilol. on Gal. iv. 3 ; for
the later, Meyer = Sieffert on Gal. iv. 3, and Grimm, Olavis, s.v. Compare also Delitzsch,
"Horae Hebr. et Talm." in the Zeitschr. fur die gesammU Lutlwr. Thiol. 1878, p. 404 sqq.,
who explains ur. t. k.. as " having to do with things of the outward visible world," and
refers to to dyiov Koa-jjuKov, Heb. ix. 1.

S T p ecjici). Lachm., Tisch., Treg., Westc. read a-rpacpuaov for eTria-Tpaipuxnv in John
xii. 40. Cf. 1 Kings xviii. 37, earpeilra'; rrjv KapBiav tov \aov tovtov omcro) ; cf Acts
vii. 39. But the difficulty remains that the direction is not stated. We must compare
the absolute aTpeipeaOai, = to turn oneself from the course prescribed, as in Ps. Ixxviii. 9,
iarpdfprjcrav iv v/jiepa TroKe/xov, the main point being not the whither but the whence,
the change or turning. In the LXX. = ?|Qn (also = dva-, aTro-, i/c-, iiri-, Kara-, jiera-
arpecfxi), p^erajBdWo}). The word denoting moral and religious change is aiB'; see
dirocrTpecpeLV, e-ma-Tpecpetv.

'Air o a- T p ecf) CO, aor. d'lrecTTpeyjra ; perf direcrTpo(J3a ; aorist middle and passive,
dTrecTTpdcpTjv; future, d'jroaTpa<^rj(Topi,ai, Num. xxv. 4, xxxii. 15 ; 2 Sam. xi. 15, et al. ;
while the future middle diroaTpe^ylrofiai does not appear in biblical Greek. Primarily
transitive = to turn away from, to cause any person or thing to turn; then intransitive,
to turn oneself, to turn round. Passive, to turn oneself from or away, hence, for example,
to shun any one; then also = to flee, to fall away from, according to the situation
indicated, but never absolutely, of moral conversion or improvement. Homer, Herod.,
Xen., Soph., Plutarch. That the passive is to be taken as a middle passive, and not as
a middle, is clear not only from the future dm-oa-Tpa^rja-ofiai peculiar to biblical Greek,
and the aorist found in Greek usage throughout d'jrecrTpd<^v, but also from the other
compound KaTaarpe^ca, whose middle has a middle sense = / resign myself to, while the
passive is = J am made subservient to, see (c). The word is as rare in W. T. Greek as it
is frequent in the 0. T., where it is = l^iD Hiphil, ino Hiphil, natr HiphH, TiD, 33D Kal
and Hiph., HiD, et al. ; but especially = ^w Kal and Hiphil, which more frequently is =
iTTLarpicpa) ; also = dvaaTpecfxo, eTravaa-rpicfxa, vnToaTpe(pQ), and often is rendered by other
synonyms. (I.) Transitive, (a) to turn away from = T'On^ e.g. fxaKanlav otto tlvo<;,
Ex. xxiii. 25 ; Job xxxiii. l7, dvdpwjrov diro dBi,KLa<?. Prov, iv. 27, tov iroBa diro oSov
Kaicrf'i. = 1''lDn, always in the combination to Trpoa-wirov aTro rtfo?, or merely to



'^TTOo-Tpe^w 881 'ETTia-Tpecfio)

"TTpoawTTov, Ex. iii. 6, Deut. xxxi. 17, 18, xxxii. 20, and especially in the Psalms
(sometimes in this combination also = l''pi], 2 Ohron. xxx. 9 ; non, Ezek vii. 22 ;
Isfi. xxxviii. 2, et al. ; yf\}, 1 Kings ii. 16, et al.). "i'':?.Sjn and '^''?}^[}, top ocjidaXfiov,
Ps. cxix. 3 7 ; Prov. xxviii. 2 7 ; Isa. i. 1 5. Thiis in the IST. T., tt}v aKofjv airo Trj<;
okrjOeM'i, 2 Tim. iv. 4; cf. Jer. xliv. 5 ; Kom. xi. 26, airocTpi-^^et dcreySeta? a-rro 'laKO)^
(from Isa. lix. 20); cf. Ezek. xxiii. 48. — Luke xxiii. 14, dx; airoaTpiifjovTa tov \aov =
to alienate; cf 2 Chron. xviii. 31 ; Jer. xli. 10, in another situation, (h) To turn round,
to cause one to turn round, therefore = to bring or lead back = a'C'n, Gen. xxiv. 5, 6, 8 ;
Deut. xxviii. 68 ; 1 Sam. vi. 21 ; Jer. xxx. 3, et al. Thus in the K T. Matt, xxvii. 3,
TO, TpiaKovra apryvpLa (Tisch., Treg., Westc, eaTpeyjrev) ; xxvi. 52, aTroa-Tpeyp-ov tt]v
udxaipdv (TOV eh rov rovov avrfj';. Further = ^''E'n, to make to cease, Gen. xxiv. 5, 6, 8 ;
Deut. xxviii. 68 ; 1 Sam. vi. 21; Jer. xxx. 3, et al. n^aB'n Ezek. vii. 24, xii. 23,
xvi. 40, xxiii. 27, 48, xxxiv. 10; Hos. ii. 11. (a) Passive = to be turned; hence = to
remove, to avert oneself ; then = to he turned round, to turn round or baelc. That this is
to be taken as the medial passive, and not as the middle, is clear from e.g. Ps. xxxv. 4,
a'7rocrTpacf>et,r](rav eh to, oiricrw koX KaTai<j')(yv6el,rjC7av ol Xoyi^ofMevol p-oi KaKa; xl. 15,
Ixx. 3, cxxix. 5, with Isa. xlii. 17, avrol Be aTreaTpd<f>r]a-av et? ra oirlaco (here every-
where = JID). The connection shows whether it is used in a passive or in a reflective
sense; in the former, e.g., 1 Sam. xxx. 22; Gen. xliii. 12, et al. ; in the latter.
Josh. xxii. 16, 18, 29, aTrocrTpacjifivai dirb Kvpiov = "nD ; syn. dTroa-Trjvai. Jer. xxv. 15,
dirodTpd^-qTe eKacro'; diro t?}? oBov avTOv. Ps. xviii. 38 and often = aiC. 1 Kings
x. 14 = nJD. In the N. T. only d-iroaTpecpeadal rtva, to turn oneself from one ; in the
LXX. almost always diro or m with the Ace. Isa. xv. 6, a-v a7re<TTpd(pT]'i fie, Xeyei
KvpLoi;, oTTiaoi itopevarj = c'DJ. Hos. viii. 3 = nit, in classical Greek only sometimes with
the Ace. Ar. Pax, 666, avTo<; diroaTpa^rjcreTai, ainov 6 Trar^p. Eur. Suppl. l7l.
Xen. Cyr. v. 5. 36, ^ koI (piXr^cra) ae ; koX ovk dirocrTpe-ilrr) fie wavep dpri. Later often,
e.g. Polyb. ix. 39. 6, ttjv AItcoXmv (piXiav, to give up, to refer hack. In Plut.
d'iToaTpe<\)eadal ri, to ahhor something. Matt. v. 42, jov deXovTa diro a-ov BavlcraaOai
/MT] d'Ko<7Tpa^fi<;. Philo, quod det. pot. insid. i. 209. 23, o Be are dr/adb<; wv koI tXeto?
Toiis i/cera? ovk diroaTpe<^eTai. Heb. xii. 25, ol tov dir ovpavwv dirocrTpe^oiievoi,.
2 Tim. i 15, iv. 4; Tit. i. 14. (II.) Intransitive, to turn oneself from, to turn lack or
round, e.g. diro t;^? dvofj^la'^, eK rwv dvofiiSiv, eK rrj'i BiKaioavv7]<;, Ezek. iii. 19, 20, and
often; even side by side with the transitive d., e.g. Ezek. xviii. 8, 17, Ttjv %et/3a
diroarpe^eLV diro dBiKla<; ; cf. with vv. 21, 23 = aiB*. So in the N. T. Acts iii. 26,
eV TO) dvocnpei^eiv eKaarov diro tuv 'TTovr^piav vfiuv. — Absolutely, in a moral and
reh'gious sense = to turn oneself, syn. with jxeTavoelv, e'jn<npej>ei,v, it does not occur
except in Isa. xxx. 1 5, otuv dTroaTpa^elt; crrevd^rj's, t6t6 craiOrja-ri ; in some MSS.
Jer. iii. 12, d'n-oaTpe(f)ea-6ai, ivpoi tov Kvpiov, but Vat. and Alex, read eincTTp. As synon.
with fieTavoelv, but not in the religious sense, it stands by itself, 1 Sam. xv. 29, ovk
d-rroa-Tpeypet, ovBe fieTavorjcrei, Kvpoo<;, — 'ETriaTpicpeiv occurs in the passive as = to he



'ATTocTTpicjxa 882 TeXo?



turned ; cf. the act. trans. 2 Chroii. xix. 4, eireaTpe-'^ev avTov<; eVt Kvpiov Oeov tmv
varepcov avTOiv, in 1 Pet. ii. 25, rjre co? irpo^ara irkavutp-evoi, aXX' iTreaTpd(pr)re vvv inrl
Tov -rrooniva k.tX,; cf. Lam. v. 21 (Isa. xlix. 6; Ezek. xxxiv. 4, 16). Usually, however,
reflective, see Hos. xiv. 2, 3, Joel ii. 12, yet mostly in the active.

5* w ^ ft) = b)!: Niphal and Hiphil, D^D Piel, Niphal, and Hiphil, and especially T^''.
The frequent use of a (otij p in the Pastoral Epistles must be traced back to the usage
of the 0. T., where the word is always joined with the genitive of the object ; and its
rare employment in the other N". T. writings with reference to God is owing to its
employment in profane Greek as a name for Zeus. — 5* cottj p oa in the LXX. is, as a
rule = V^l r\m], nmn, = no"^^, 2 Sam. xv. 14; Dan. xi. 42. — SoTijpio'; in the LXX.
is the tervi. tecJm. for the ^''v^f, the thank-offerings ; and analogously in profane Greek.

Sufia is in the LXX. = "i'?*?, see adp^; also = 12, H'lj, 1 Sam. xxxi. 10, 12; n'?2:,
Dan. X. 6 ; Deut. xxi. 23 ; Josh. viii. 29 ; 1 Kings xiii. 22 sqq. O&h Dan. iii. 28, 29,
iv. 30, V. 23, vii. 11.

T air e i,v6<i is in the LXX. chiefly = ''W (usually = Trroy^o';, also ttsVt;?, aaQevq'i),
Ps. xviii. 28, Ixxxii. 3; Isa. xiv. 32, xxxii. 7, xlix. 13, liv. 11, Ixvi. 2; Jer. xxii. 16 ;
Amos ii. 7; Prov. iii. 34. — TaTretvoco is used in the LXX. specially of the humbling
of the sinner by divine chastisement, 1 Kings viii. 35; 2 Chron. vi. 26; Ps. cxix. 67,
71, 75, 107 ; Isa. ii. 11, 17, iii. 16 ; Hos. v. 5. Compare also Job xxii. 23; Ps. Ii. 19 ;
Isa. Iviii. 3, 5, 10. Also = njy, j}:3 Hiphil and Mphal; occasionally = nan Piel, bh,
Qf al. — Taire(,vcoai<; occurs actively in Aristotle, Rhet. Alex. 4, twv fiev ivSo^ccv
TairelvwaK, twv 8e d^o^cov av^rjaK. It nowhere occurs in biblical Greek of disposition ;
cf. Prov. xxvi. 19, Kpeiaacov ■7rpavdvfio<; fjLera Twireivaiaew'i rj o? Biaipelrai, a-KvXa fiera
v^piaTMv. In the LXX. = "'31', Gen. xvi. 11, xxix. 31, xxxi. 42, xli. 52 ; Deut. xxvi. 7;
1 Sam. i. 11; 2 Sam. xvi. 12; 2 Kings xiv. 26; Neh. ix. 9; Ps. ix, 14, xxii. 22,
xxv. 18, ei al, always denoting a condition evoking the pity of God.

TeXoi; is in the LXX. Eccles. vii. 3, Isa. ix. 7, t?}? elpijvrj'; ovk earov reXo? = fp.
Prayer of Azarias 10, p,r} irapah&'i r]p,a<; eh reXo? Bia to ovop,d aov. Eh reXo^ is
specially used in the LXX. as = nvap, and occasionally otherwise ; always = to the end.
Job xiv. 20, XX. 7, xxiii. 7; Ps. ix. 7, 19, x. 11, xliv. 25, and often. {TeXo';, on the
whole, occurs seldom in the LXX., save in adverbial combinations.) Eccles. xii. 13,
Te'Xo? Xoyov deov ^o^ov = f\SD. In the sense, tax = D313, ^°^^, Num. xxxi 28 sqq. ;
Lev. xxvii. 23. — TeXieo, cf Isa. Iv. 11, eco? av TeKeaOfj oaa av rjdekrjaa. Thus synon.
with TfK'qpovv, of the fulfilment of prophecy. — TeXeio';, see Ex. xii. 5, of offerings.
Cf. 1 Cor. ii. 6 with 1 Chron. xxv. 8, e^aXov KXijpov; Kara tov fiiKpov koX Kara tov
p,eyav, TeXeiwv Koi fiavdavovTojv, T'P?fi"DV r?P. Sometimes = DPB'; always in the com-
bination KapBi'a TeXeia, 1 Kings viii. 62, xi. 4, xv. 3, 14; 1 Chron. xxviii. 9 (see
■jfXripT}^, 2 Kings XX. 3; 1 Chron. xxix. 9; 2 Chron. xv. l7, xvi. 9, xix. 9, xxv. 2);



Te\o<} 883 UepireiMva

also = D^»l;i, which is usually rendered d/j.w/j.o';. — TeXeio)?, Judith xi. 6; 2 Mace,
xii. 42; 3 Mace. iii. 26, vii. 22. — Te\ei6r7}<:, Prov. xi. 3 = nan. — TeXeioco is in
1 Kings vii. 21, xiv. 10 = DDJl. In John xix. 28 the verb denotes the final or con-
cluding accomplishment of prophecy with reference to Christ's sufferings as a whole, "va
Te\ei(o6f} r) ypacj)'^, as distinct from Lva ■jr'XrjpcoOfj. What had occurred was not TeKelov
untn this was done. — TeXelcocm is usually in the LXX. (like reXeoovv ra? %e'/3ct? =
K^t? ; elsewhere irXripovv) = Q''^pD, of the sacrifice upon admission to the priest's office,
Ex. xxix. 22 sqq. ; Lev. vii. 37, viii. 21 sqq. — TeXettoT???, in Heb. xii. 2, signifies
"who brings faith to its goal;" cf. Polyb. ii. 40. 2, ^9 ap-^rj'yov fJ-ev Kal naQ'' ■r]<^i)p.6va Ti]<;
oXt;? eVt/SoX?;? "Aparov vofitaTeov . . . ar/coviaTTjv Be koI TeXecriovpyov t% irpd^ew; K.r.X.
— SvvTeXeco is in the LXX. the usual word for n^3 ; occasionally = nby, DOn, th^, d al.
— SvvriXeia in the LXX. is often = ^y^ ; occasionally also 1*1?., Dh, et al. Cf. Ecclus.
xi. 27, iv avvTeXela avOpojirov a7roKaXv\jri,(; epyav avTov ; cf. ver. 28, irpo TeXei'T:^? ;
xxi. 11, cTVVTeKeia tov ^o^ov Kvplov aocpia; xxxiii, 24, xxxix. 28, ev Katpai awrekeia^ ;
not, therefore, anywhere in an historico-redemptive sense.

T e fiv CO, TejXQ}, ere/xov, reT/jirjKa, iTfj,i]d't]v, to cut, in biblical Greek only in the LXX.
and Apocrypha, and seldom there = "iDr, of pruning the vine. Lev. xxv. 3, 4 ; Isa. v. 5 ; =
nn, 2 Kings vi. 4 ; Dan. ii. 45 = J'Vp, Ex. xxxix. 3. Elsewhere Wisd. v. 12; 4 Mace,
ix. 17, X. 19.

KaT ar o jjurj, 97, a cut.ting moay, or asunder, only in later Greek and actively.
In biblical Greek only in Phil. iii. 2, passively, /SXeTrere Tr)v KaraTo/iijv ; cf. ver. 3, ^jctet?
yap i<7/j,ev t] irepiTo/jur) ol irvevfiari 0eov Xarpevovrev, to denote the Jewish false
teachers, ol iv crapKi ireiroiOoTe';, since their irepuTOfirj by their opposition amounted to
a KaTUTOfiij, i.e. not " to a mere cutting which had been inflicted on the body " (Hof mann,
Meyer; cf. Kararefiveiv, Lev. xxi. 5, 1 Kings xviii. 28, where Karar. also signifies to
cict asunder or off, as in Isa. xv. 2), but to a cutting off which excluded from the Church
of God ; cf. Deut. xxiii. 1, ovk elaeXevaerai, 6\aBia(! ovBe a'7roK€Ko/j,fievo<; et? eKKXrjaiav
Kvpiov ; see aTroKoiTTw. Further compare Isa. Ivi. 3.

n e pire fivco, to cut rowid, to cut off, to circumcise, LXX. = ^^iD, interchanged with
Tvepucadapi^eiv, Deut. xxx. 6 ; cf. Lev. xix. 23, and so exclusively and /car' e^. for
circumcisio?i, that when ^1D is used with another object, s.s = to cut off, as in Job xiv. 2,
Ps. xc. 6, cxviii. 10, 11, 12, another rendering is chosen (eWtTrrco, airoTri-TTTco, afivvofiat),
though profane usage would have allowed the rendering -rrepiT., especially in Ps.
cxviii. 10,11,12. Only once does 'jrepir. stand with another object than aKpo^vaTta
or adpKa, dpa-evLKov, vlov, etc., namely in Ezek. xvi. 4, tov ofi(f>aXov = ma, which in
Ex. iv. 25 is used of circumcision kut e^. In Jer. iv. 4 it answers to IID Hiphil, but
still in the sense of circumcision, irepiTjX'nO'nTe (iPbn) rw 6ew vfi&v koX irepnifiveaOe
(l-ipn for ■jTepoeXecrdat.) ttjv <TKXr)poKapBlav vp.Siv. Everywhere else = ^1D, Gen. xvii. 10,



Uepnefjivai 884 IlepLTofi,'^

11, 12, 14, 23, 24-27, xxi. 4, xxxiv. 15, 17, 22, 24; Ex. xii. 44, 48; Lev. xii. 3;
Deut. X. 16 ; Josh. v. 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 ; Jer. iv. 4, ix. 24. Thus in Herod, the middle = !;o
circumcise oneself; ii. 36. 2, ra alSola &Wol fiev ewcrt w? iyevovTo, ifKip oaot uTrb tovtcov
efiadov, AlyvTrTiot 8e "TrepLTafjivovTai, ; ibid. 104. 1, fiovvoi irdvTwv dvdpcoTroov KoX^oi koX
AlyuTTTioi Koi, AWloTre'} rrrepiTa/jLvovTai, air ap'^rj^ to, alSoia. In like manner the middle,
Diod. Sic. iii. 32; Josephus, c. Ap. i. 22. 5, ii. 13. 4, 5, 6; Anf. 1 10. 5. The active.
Ant. i. 12. 2, the passive there also. The middle in Philo. In the LXX. the active.
Gen. xvii. 23, 27; Ex. iv. 25, xii. 44, 48; Lev. xii. 3; Josh. v. 2, 3, 4, 7. In the
Apocrypha, 1 Mace. i. 60, 61; 2 Mace. vi. 11 ; 4 Mace. iv. 25. The passive.
Gen. xvii. 10, 12, 13, 14, 26, xxxiv. 15; Josh. v. 8; Jer. ix. 24; Ezek. xvi. 4. The
middle with aorist middle. Gen. xvii. 24, 25, xxxiv. 17, 22 ; Deut. x. 16 ; with passive
aorist or future. Gen. xvii. 11 ; Jer. iv. 4; Judith xiv. 10. In the IST. T. the active,
Luke i. 59, ii. 21 ; John vii. 22 ; Acts vii. 8, xv. 5, xvi 3, xxi. 21. In Paul's writings
only the passive or middle^l Cor. vii. 18; Gal. ii. 3, v. 2, 3, vi. 12, 13; Col. ii. 11; cf.
Acts XV. 1, 24. — Cf. Winer, Bealworterh. i. 156 sqq. ; Tdehm, Handworteri. 168 sqq. ;
von Orelli in Herzog's Encyldop. 2nd ed. ii. 343 ; Oehler, Theol. des A. T. § 8^ sqq. In.
the N. T. it is used mostly in its historico-redemptive meaning with reference to the
covenant people (Judith xiv. 10, 'TrepieTefiero ttjv adpKa ttj? aKpo^va-Tia'; airov koI
TrpoaeTedri Trpo<; tov oIkov ^Icrparfk ; cf. Joseph. Vit. 23, tovtov^ irepiTe/MvecrOai, tcov 'lovBaioov
dvajKa^ovrmv, el deXovaw ehai ■Trap' avrol'i), to denote their obligation under the law (cf.
Acts XV. 1 ; Gal. V. 2, 3 ; see 6(jieiXeT7]';), and in keeping with their symbolism. Col. ii 1 1 ;
compare Philo, Dc sacrificantibus, ii. 258, 5 sqq.; De migr. Ahr. i 450, 41 sqq.

n ep LT ij,ri, 7], circumcision, very seldom in profane Greek, = the cutting round ; in
biblical Greek, except in Jer. xi. 16, of the circumcision, so called Kar e^., of the



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