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Biblico-theological lexicon of New Testament Greek online

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as selt-governing^ existence (cf. the Aristotelian definition of life as vis se ipsum movendi),
which God is, and man has or is said to have, and which, on its part, is supreme over all
the rest of creation. Hence follow the other limitations which Tholuck explains in his
Comment, on Rom. v. 12; in the N. T., of God and of men only. — (I.) In a physical
sense of earthly existence. Acts xvii. 25 ; Luke xvi. 25 (i. 75, Rec. text) ; Acts viii. 33 ;
1 Cor. XV. 19, eV ^wfi TavTrj ; Phil. i. 20; Heb. vii. 3; Jas. iv. 14; 1 Cor. iii. 22;
Eom. viii. 38. These are the only texts wherein ^arj denotes the earthly life of the
individual, or rather existence in the present state, with which St. Paul contrasts the
6Vtq)9 ^0)77, 1 Tim. vi. 19 (cf. Luke xii. 15). It is the life which does not continue as it
is (cf. Jas. iv. 14), and is contrasted with (II.) a f&)^ a.KaToXvTO's, Heb. vii. 16, which is
not merely a temporary, but a perfect and abiding antithesis to death. By virtue of this
antithesis, and on account of the close affinity between the conceptions life and happiness
{unhindered and free existence, see ^rjv), there is concentrated in the conception of life
every good which man can desire or enjoy; thus in Prov. xii. 28, xiii. 14, xiv. 27, ii. 19,
V. 6 ; Ps. xxxiv. 13, cf Ps. xxvii. 13, Triareva) tov IBelv ra ayaOa Kvplov iv 'yfj ^(ovtcov ;
Ps. xxxvi. 11 ; Jer. viii. 3 ; Deut. xxxii. 47 ; Ezek. xviii. 21, xx. 11. See especially,
Deut. XXX. 19, TT]v ^arjv Kal rov OdvaTOv hkhutKa irpo Trpoado-Kov vfi&v, ttjv evXoyt'av Kal
TTjv Kardpav' eKKe^ai ttjv ^wtjv <j\) k.t.X., cf. ^cooiroteiv, Eccles. vii. 3. Life is not only the
opposite of death, but a positive freedom from death, Acts ii. 28 (fromPs. xvi. 11) ; 2 Cor.
V. 4, Tva KaraTTodfj rb Ovtjtov viro t?}? i^aji<;. It is possession in the highest sense, the
first and the last blessing of man, and, as has been well said, the essence of all happiness
(see John x. 10). While in the profane sphere, in all times, this life has been confounded
with the present form of human existence (cf. the sayings collected in Stobaeus, Floril.
119, 121) ; in Scripture, and in the N. T. particularly, it is clearly distinguished there-
from, cf. 1 Cor. XV. 19, iv rfj ^'w^ '^o-vrri, usually tacitly and by implication, but some-
times characterized by the addition of amvia, and in 1 Tim. vi. 19, 17 ovt(o^ ^cc^.
Synonymous with a^Oapata, 2 Tim. i. 10. So ^ecij. Matt. vii. 14, over against d-n-cokeia,
cf. xviii. 8, 9, xix. 17; Mark ix. 43, 45 ; Acts xi. 18; Eom. v. 17, 18, vi. 4, vii. 10,
viii. 2, 6, 10 ; 2 Cor. ii. 16, iv. 12, v. 4 ; Phil. ii. 16 ; Col. iii. 3, 4 ; 2 Tim. i. 10 ; Jas.
i. 12 ; 1 Pet. iii. 7, 10; 2 Pet. i. 3. Zwrj altovio'i (first in Dan. xii. 2 ; for other refer-
ences, vid. aloovco'i) describes life, not so much as distinct from our present earthly exist-
ence, but rather as directly and in the clearest way contrasted luith death in its widest range,
ct. Eom. V. 21, "va mairep i/3acri\eiia-6v rj dfiaprla iv tcC Oavdra, ovtco'; kuI rj ydpi'i ^aai-
Xevaj] Bta BiKaiocruvT]'; eh ^cotjv almviov ; vi. 22, cf. vv. 21, 23.

In this sense life is described as the sum of the divine (Eph. iv. 18) promises under
the gospel, Tit. i. 2, eV eXTrt'Si fco^? alwviov, fjv i-n-i^yyetXaTO 6 d'^p-evhrj's ^eo? Trpb p^pwcoj/



amviav; 2 Tim. i. 10, KaT iirayyeXiav fwi}? ri)? iv XpiaTw 'Itjaov, cf. Acts ii. 28 ; and of
the revelation of grace, Tit. i. 2 ; 1 John i. 2, j? ^airj icpavepcadrj k.t.X.; Acts ili. 15, tov
o-pxvyov T?}? ^wij? aveKTelvare ; and even of gospel preaching, 2 Tim. i. 1 0, (^wrlcravro^
^wrjv Kal a<pdap(T[av Bia tov evayj. ; 1 John i. 2. Hence the expression, to, pij/xara t?}?
f&)?5? TavTi??, Acts V. 20, cf. John vi. 63, 65. X070? fwj??, Phil, ii 16 ; 1 John i. 1, 2 ;
Tit. i. 2. Cf. 2 Cor. ii. 16, oafirj ^wtj? et? ^. Cf. John vi. 35, 48, 6 dpToi t?}? ?d^?, cf.
ver. 51; John viii. 12, to ^co? tt)? ?«'??; Eom. xi. 15. It is closely connected with
Christ, Eom. vi. 23 ; 2 Tim. i. 1. And Christ is. Col. iii. 4, ^ ^cor) -^fiuv. Cf. John
i. 4, iv avTO) ^aiT] r)v Kol r] ^. r)v to (^w? tuv avQpanraiv ; 2 Cor. iv. 10, 11, 'iva Kal rj ^o)r)
TOV ^Irjaov . . . (paveptady. As a Messianic blessing, it belongs to the ala}v ip)(6p,€vo?, Mark
X. 30 ; Luke xviii. 30 ; and as blessedness in the future, it is the object of Christian desire
and hope ; cf. f. at. K\.7jpovofieiv, Matt. xix. 2 9 ; Mark x. 17; Luke x. 2 5, xviii. 1 8 ;
elaeXOeiv ek ttjv t, Matt, xviii. 8, 9, xix 17 ; Mark ix. 43, 45, cf. Matt. vii. 14, xxv. 46.
(As God's saving gift, it is the antithesis of Kpiat,';, opyrj 6eov, a-rrdXeia.) So in the
synoptical Gospels, Jude 21 ; Jas. i. 12 ; while in the writings of St. Paul and St. John
it is indeed, similarly and distinctively, afutti7-c Messing, — John iv. 14, 36, v. 29, vi. 27,
xii. 25 ; 1 John ii. 25 ; Eom. ii. 7, v. 21, vi. 22 ; Gal. vi. 8 ; 2 Cor. v. 4 ; Phil iv. 3 ;
1 Tim. iv. 8, vi. 19 ; Tit. i. 2, iii. 7 ; cf. Eom. v. 10, — but at the same time belonging
to those to whom the future is sure, already in the possession of all who are partakers of
the N. T. salvation " that leadeth unto life," and who already in this life begin life eternal.
See for this also, Acts xi. 18, xiii. 46, 48. Cf. Matt. xix. 16, "va e^a ^wr)v at., — a
Johannine expression, for which Tischendorf reads <r-)(S3.

In the writings of St. Paul fco?? is the substance of gospel preaching (see above, fco^
6eov, Eph. iv. 18), the final aim of faith, 1 Tim. i. 16, the possession and state of those
who receive the gospel, 2 Cor. ii. 16, and of the justified, Eom. v. 17, viii. 10 ; hence
BiKai(oai,<; fco?)?, Eom. v. 18, corresponding with the opposite connection of sin and death,
— a state which exerts an influence upon the conduct of the subject of it (Eom. vi 4),
and which stands in the closest mutual connection therewith, Eom. vui. 6, 10. There
is, however, a difference between this state and the outward condition and ch'cumstances
of the believer, just as between "the iaward and the outward man," 2 Cor. iv. 10, 11,
16-18, and the solution of this difference is reserved for the future, especially for the
second coming of Christ, CoL iii 3, 4.

In the writings of St. John, life, which primarily and essentially belongs to God and
Christ, and, indeed, to God as revealing Himself in redemption as the Father and the Son,
John V. 26, is the subject-matter and aim of divine revelation, John v. 39, xii. 50, is described
as present in Christ, i. 4, x. 10, xiv. 6 ; 1 John v. 20 ; as given to the world through Him,
vi 33, 35, 48, xvii 2 ; and especially through His death, vi 51, iii. 15, in the posses-
sion of those who by faith have come to Him, iii 15, 16, 36, v. 24, 40, vi. 40, 47, 51,
53, 54, XX. 31 ; 1 John v. 13 ; cf. viii 12, x 28 ; 1 John iii. 14, 15, v. 11, 12. (On
John xvii. 3, see yiv(o<7K(o.) But a reference to the still future consummation of the plan
2 M



Za-^ 274 Za>oyovito

of redemption is everywhere apparent ; e.g. in the contrast between life and condemnation,
John T. 24 ; and aTrdoXeia, iii. 15, 16 ; opyr) 6eov, iii 36, but especially in the connec-
tion between hfe and the future resurrection, v. 29, vi. 40. C£ the passages cited
above.

There remain still to be named the combinations /3t/S\o9 ^m^?, Phil. iv. 3 ; Eev.
iii. 5, xui. 8, xx. 15 ; 0i^\iov ?., Eev. xvii. 8, xx. 12, xxi. 27 (opposed to Kpiae(o<i, cf.
Eev. XX. 12) ; <7Tetpavo<; ^arj?, Jas. i. 12 ; Eev. ii. 10 ; ^vXov r. ^., Eev. ii. 7, xxii. 2, 14,
19; vScop f., Eev. vii. 17, xxi. 6, xxii. 1, 17, comp. Ezek. xlvii. — In its distinctively
Messianic sense, ^co^ is an exclusively N. T. word.

Z (o ov, TO (by Lachm. always written ^a>ou, which is the more correct spelling, but
less frequently used), animal, Heb. xiii. 1 1 ; 2 Pet. ii. 12; Jude 1 0. Properly a living
creature ; and this essential meaning — which also occurs elsewhere still in profane Greek,
where ^uov, a post- Homeric word, generally signifies living creature, and only in special
instances a beast, 6r]plov = animal, as embracing all living beings — must be retained in
the Eevelation, where four ^wa are represented as being between God's throne and those
of the elders which surround it, Eev. iv. 6-9, v. 6, 8, 11, 14, vi. 1, 3, 5-7, vii. 11,
xiv. 3, XV. 7, xix. 4, the description given of which, iv. 6-8, resembles that of the ni'H in
Ezek. i. 5 sqq. ; the cherubim in Ezek. x., cf. Ps. xviii. 1, xcix. 1, Ixxx. 2 ; 1 Sam. iv. 4 ;
2 Sam. vi. 2 ; 2 Kings xix. 15. They are named " living creatures " here and in Ezek. i.
on account of the life which is their main feature. They are usually the signs and tokens
of majesty, of the sublime majesty of God both in His covenant relation and in His rela-
tion to the world (for the latter, see Ps. xcix. 1), and therefore it is that they are assigned
so prominent a place, though no active part, in the final scenes of sacred history, Eev.
vi. 1—7. The a^Dpearance of four represents the concentration of all created life in this
world, the original abode of which. Paradise, when life had fallen to sin and death, was
given over to the cherubim. They do not, like the angels, fulfil the purposes of God in
relation to men ; they are distinct from the angels, Eev. v. 11. We are thus led to
conclude that they materially represent the ideal pattern of the true relation of creation
to its God. Cf. Biihr, Symholik des Mos. Cultus, i. 340 sqq. Also Hofmann, Sclirifthew.
i. 3 6 "i sqq. ; Kurtz in Herzog's ReaUncycl. ii.

Z (0 ojovem, to give birth to living creatures. In general also = to vivify, to make
alive. Thus opposed to davarow, 1 Sam. ii. 6, Kvpioi; Oavarol koX ^woyovei, Kardyei et?
dBov teal dvayei. 2 Kings v. 7 = n^n, Piel. In the N. T. 1 Tim. vi. 13, 'n-apajyeWo)
cov ivQ)TrLov Tov Oeov tov ^(ooyovovvTO's to, iravra, with reference to the preceding admoni-
tion, eTTiXa^ov TTJi alwvlov ^o)?5? ; cf Neh. ix. 6. Then in a weakened sense, in the
LXX., to leave alive, to let live = n'^r\, in Piel, Ex. i. 17, 18, 22; 1 Kings xx. 31 ; Hiphil,
Judg. viii. 19. In the N. T. Acts vii. 19, Luke xvii. 33, o? eav dirdkeay, ^woyovrjo-ei
avT't]v (sc. TTjv ^jrv^i^v) = to retain life ; cf the parallels in Matt, xvi, 25 = ado^eiv rfjv ffr. ;
X, 3 9 = evpiaKeiv ; John xii. 2 5, rrjv ■^. el^ ^oorjv al. chvXdo'O'eip,



ZcoowoLea 275 ' Hfiipa



ZmoTToiea, to make alive, to vivify, Jolin vi. 63, to nrvevfid ianv to ^woirotow ;
1 Cor. XV. 45 ; 2 Cor. iii. 6. For the most part in the N". T. of raising; the dead to life,
1 Cor. XV. 22, 36 ; Eom. iv. 17, viii. 11 ; 1 Pet. iii. 18 ; John v. 21. Generally in a
soteriological sense, answering to the Pauline connection between BiKaioavvr} and fw??,
Gal. iii. 21, el yap iBodr] vofio<; 6 Bvvdfievo'i ^aoTroiriaai, outw^ e« vofiov av yv r] hmaLoavvq.
The law promised life, ver. 1 2, but did not give it. From this universally to be acknow-
ledged fact, St. Paul argues what was necessary with reference to justification. Cf. 2 Cor.
iii. 6, TO yap ypd/x/Ma airoiCTelvei, to 8e irvevfia ^(aoirotel; vid. ypdpLp^a. See Job xxxvi. 6,
o Kvpioi . . . acre^rj ov jirj i^cDOiroiriarj, Kal Kpifxa tttco^mv Bwcrei,.

Z eo), to seethe, to bubble, connected with ^?jXo?, zeal, with the German Gischt, of
boiling water, of the roaring and foaming of the sea, of the fermentation of wine, etc.
Aristotle explains ^e<n<; as vveplSoXr) 6epii6r7)To<;, as opposed to Trij^t?, De gener. et corrupt.
ii. 3. Figuratively, of mental states and emotions, especially of lorath, as eK^eca, ava^eo), etc.,
e.g. Plat. Bep. iv. 440 C, OTai' dhiicelaQaL tk rjyrjTai, ovk iv toutm ifet re Kal '^aXe-jraivei Kal
^ufifiayel TaJ Zokovvti SiKalto ; cf. Aristot. de anim. i. 1, rj opyr] ^eai,<; tov Trepl ttjv KopSlav
a'tfiaToi Kal Oepfiov; of voluptuousness, Vlut. Mor. 1088 t, ^Bovr) ^ecraaa iirl aapKt,; of
youth, ibid. 791 C, ^eovaav ev Bij/jlo) veoTTjra; Aeschyl. Sej^t. 708, vvv 8' en ^el, sc. Bai/iav,
for which the Schol. eKjiaivei-aL, aK/j^d^ei. It denotes also an enhancing or climax o*"
emotion or impulse. Cf. also the passage cited by Bretschneider, Act. Thorn. 34, ^eovcra
aydTTt]. — In the N". T. Acts xviii. 25, ^icov -^u) irvevp.ari, ekd'K.ei Kal eBiSaa-Kev aKpi^w to.
Trepl TOV 'Irjcyov, either of the impulse to this activity making itself felt in the mind
with power, or of the affection of the spirit, of the inner life, as Apollos, Kar-r^'^rip.evo'i ri^v
oBov TOV Kvplov, possessed it. Comp. Acts ii. 2-4. In Eom. xii. 11, the warning, taken
quite generally, toj irvevixaTi ^eovTe<;, between rfj airovBy /xr) oKvTjpoi and too Kaipoi
BovXevovTef, reminds us primarily of the impulse to love, ver. 9, cf. Hofmann in loc, yet
should not be limited to this, because ver. 12 regulates and determines the high standard
of the inner life required by the tc3 Trvevp^aTo feoi'Te?, and the entire conduct of those
who are said tqI Kat.pm Bov\evovTe<:.

Z e a-T6<;,i], ov, cooked, seething, hot. Figuratively in Eev. iii. 1 5, ovt6 ->|rv;)^po? el, oiJTe
feo-To?; ver. 16 ; cf, Luke xii 49, xxiv. 32 ; Matt. xxiv. 12.

H

'H fie pa, 17, the day, Eev. viii. 12 ; Luke vi. 13 ; and often qualitatively in distinc-
tion from the night, and quantitatively as a division of time. Also sometimes used of a
longer space of time, yet simply as a more vivid designation, e.g. Aristot. Rhct. ii. 12, 13,
concerning the aged, elal Be ^iKo^woi Kal fioKiaTa eVt tTj TeXevTala rjfiepa. Elsewhere
only in poetical language. In the N. T. we might take the expression rifx.epa a-ooT7]pia<i,
2 Cor. vi. 2, in the same manner, if it did not designate a definite time when help and



ealvation would appear ; cf. Isa. xlix. 8 ; and as borrowed from this passage in the N. T,,
the time following thereupon is described as a continuing rjfiepa a-a)T7]pia<;. Peculiar to
the N. T. is (I.) the figurative use of the word " the day" being the season of unhindered
work and labour, John ix. 4, the time for that morally pure, wakeful, and conscious action,
Eom, siii. 13, which has the blessing of the light (John xi. 10), is conditioned by the
light, and has nothing to conceal. Job xxiv. 16 ; 1 Thess. v. 5-8 (cf. 1 Cor. iii. l?>,-n
•yap rjiMspa hrj\a)<Tei). Day is the time of light ; light is the emblem of salvation ; there-
fore the day is the time of salvation (Eom. xiii. 12 ; cf. 2 Pet. i. 19), corresponding with
the use of ^w? and ctkoto?; cf. Job iii. 4, v. 14, xvii. 12 ; Ezek. xxx. 3 sqq. ; Amos v. 8,
x'm. 9 , Isa. xxxviii. 13. — (II.) The expression rjii. rov Kvpiov, and the various epithets
applied to it, especially in the 0. T. The phrase itself, n Vl^epa rov Kvpoov, in 1 Thess. v. 2,
2 Thess. ii. 2, 2 Pet. iii. 10, Acts ii. 20, is = nin; Di'', Isa. ii. 12, xiii. 6, 9 ; Ezek. xiii. 3,
xxx. 3; Joel i. 15, ii. 1, 11, iii. 4; Amos v. 18, 20; Obad. 15; Zeph. L 14, ii. 7.
This expression denotes in prophecy the end of everything hostile to God, the day whose
import and significance shall consist in the self-assertion of the God of revelation and of
promise against all beings hostile to Him among or external to His people. It is called
r/nepa firiaKOTrri';, Isa. X. 3 ; 1 Pet. ii. 12 ; 17/Li. 0/37%, Zeph. i. 15, 18, ii. 2, 3 ; Isa. xiii.
1 3 ; Ezek. vii. 19; cf. Eom. ii. 5, 57/t. 0107159 icaX airoK.dXvy^^w'; SiKaioKpicriai tov deov ;
again, ij ^p,. 17 iJi,e<ydXv, Eev. vi. IV, xvi. 14 (Jiide 6 ; Acts ii. 20); cf. Jer. xxx. 7; Joel
ii. 11, 31 ; Zeph. i. 14; Mai. iii. 23. In the K T. still 17 tov Oeov fjpi., 2 Pet. iii. 12 ;
■fjp,. Kptaew, Matt. X. 15, xi. 22, 24, xii. 36 (Mark vi. 11, Eeceived text) ; 2 Pet. iii. 7 ;
1 John iv. 17; cf Eom. ii. 1 6, ev 17/u.. ore Kpivel 6 6eo<; K.r.\. ; Jude 6, et? Kpiauv fieyaXTjv
■nii. Further, eKeivn v W-> Matt. vii. 22 ; Luke x. 12 ; 2 Thess. i. 10 ; 2 Tim. i. 12, 18,
iv. 8. Absolutely, 17 vi^epa, 1 Thess. v. 4 ; 1 Cor. iii. 13 ; Heb. x. 25 ; cf. 1 Cor. iv. 3,
"va . . . avaicpiOw . . . viro av6pwiTW7)<; ripuepa'; ; in contrast with this rjij,. icvpiov, vid. ver. 4. For
eaxarai, rjp,., see '4a')(a-To<;. While, for some, this day is the terrible end, to be anticipated
with dread, for others (the oppressed people of God in the 0. T.) it is the hoped-for
beginning of a new and better state, of a new order of things. This latter aspect, how-
ever, is comparatively seldom dwelt upon, see Isa. Ixi. 2 ; Zech. xiv. 7 ; cf. Ezek. xui. 5 ;
Jer. XXV. 29, xlix. 12 ; Ezek. ix. 6. But in Eph. iv. 30 it is called rjp^epa a-n-oXvTpwcrea^
lor the church of Jesus Christ, cf. Luke xxi. 8. In that day Christ is to be judge (Matt,
vii. 22) ; by Him the resurrection of the dead wUl be accomplished, John vi. 39, 40, 44,
54 ; cf. John v. 27 ; He on this day will appear in the glory of the Father (the Father of
our Lord Jesus Clirist = nin'', see Kvpioi), Matt. xvi. 27. This day is therefore called ^
Tj/M. TOV Kvpiov rjfiwv, 1 Cor. i. 8 ; tov Kvp. 'Irjaov, 2 Cor. i. 14; 77/tt. 'Ir}<70v Xpia-Tov, Phil.
L 6 ; XpuaTov, Phil. i. 1 ; Luke xvii. 30,^ rip,. 6 vm tov uvOp. a-n-oKoXinrTeTai ; cf.
ver. 31 ; Matt. xxiv. 36, 42, 44, 50 ; Luke xxi. 34, cf vv. 27, 28, xvii. 24, answering to
the irapovaia (which see). In this designation, however, we discover a difference between
the day spoken of in the 0. T. and that mentioned in the N. T. In the latter, the element
of hope preponderates, and the distinction between rip,epa tov Kvpiov and ■^p.epa tov Kvpiov



'Hfiipa 211 0eos

'Ir](rov Xpia-Tov is analogous to that between the two lines of prophecy, the one connect-
ing itself with the stem of David, the other looking towards the coming of Jehovah. —
The rjfiepai, rov vlov tov av6p., Luke xvii. 22-26, cannot, as the connection shows, refer
to the days of His earthly life. One might be tempted to take ver. 22 as referring to
the time when the irapovaia should begin, but ver. 26 obliges us to fix upon a time
previous to this ; for as the r^jxepa on which Noah entered into the ark (ver. 2 1) is
distinct from the ri/Mepai<; N&e, so the day of the Son of man is distinct from the daps of
the Son of man. The days of the Son of man denote a time defined by the still impending,
as well as by the actually present, -irapovaia. — In John viii. 56, 'A^paap, rj<yaXkia<Taro
Xva iBr) TTjv rj/Mepav rrjv e/M'ijv, Christ (as it appears to me) has still in His mind the day of
His ever approaehing manifestation in glory (see irapa/SoX-^). Concerning rjfiipa alwvo'i,
2 Pet. iii. 18, see amv.



0€o?, o, God; Doderlein (Synonymih, vL 101; Rom. Gloss. 2500) and Curtius
{Gnmdzilge der Griech. Etymol. 230, 450 sqq.) derive this word from the root ^e? in
Geacraadat., " to implore " (Pindar, Hesiod) ; because, as the latter proves, the usual
derivation of the word with the Latin deus, from the Sanscrit div, " to give light," d6vas,
see haifiatv, is decidedly false. 0eo9 therefore is = He to ivhom one prays, who is implored,
an appellative for the Being who is absolutely raised above the world and man, their
dependence on whom mankind acknowledge. Others refer the word to duo/iai, davfm,
Tidrifii, etc., as forms connected with the same root as ^eo?. Herod, ii. 52. 1, 6eov<! Be
"Trpoawvofiaadv cr^ea? awo tov toiovtov oti koct/xco 6evTe<i to, Travra 'Trp'^jfiara Kal Tratra?
voiMa<; el^ov. This last explanation, which A. Gobel in the Zeitschr. fiir verrjl. Spraclv-
forsehung, xi. 55, adopts, Curtius describes as hardly in keeping with the Greek views of
the Godhead. As to the German word Gott, it is still doubtful whether it springs, with
Wuvtan, Odin, from vatan, to go, and signifies, perhaps, " the world-travelling light ; "
cf. Simrock, deutsche Mythol. p. 150, " The root-meaning of the name Gott (Gothic, Guth),
Grimm, deutsche Mythol. 12, says is undiscovered; and he still rejects its connection with
the adjective giot (Gothic, gods), which has a long vowel. In the Gesch. der detitschcn
Spr. 541, he owns that recently (Ernst Schulze's goth. Gloss, p. xviii.) a path has been
opened which may lead to this connection which the conception demands and language in
its laws of rhythm indicates, since it calls God the good and kind." Hebrew = bn, which
is akin to h^ti, so that the frmdamental thought is the strong one ; = ^''^^., which Flirst,
indeed, derives from the same root ; but according to the latest and apparently conclusive
investigations (Delitzsch, Fleischer bei Delitzsch, Genesis, pp. 30, 64), the true root is to
be recognised in the Arabic aliha, whose fundamental meaning is " helpless wandering,"
" refuge-seeking terror." As a nom. infln. from i^?K in this logically established meaning,
r^ii'^!, Aram, i^?^., signifies fear or terror, and then (like ^^SJ which is synonymous with it,



060? 278 ^609

in Gen. xxxi. 42, 63, and N'^iO, Ps. Ixxvi. 12; Isa. viii. 12sqq. ; cf. 2 Thess. ii. 4) tlie
object of fear, Delitzsch as above. Cf. N"ji3, Ps. cxi. 9 ; Dvn, dream. The plural is the
plural of abstraction, like D''>n, life, from "'n, living.

We must, however, notice Hupfeld's observation (on Pa. viii. 6) : " DTi^K, like" W, is
contrasted with man Qif^^ and D'lX), with reference to His power and His position,
especially in the expression ^''^ ^] 7^?, Hos. si. 9 ; or ?i< t<?] D^x, Ezek. xxviii. 2, 9 ; Isa.
xxxi. 3, which is employed when man in his pride forgets his true limits, and imagines
himself like God." Cf. Acts xii. 22 ; Gal. i. 10 ; John x. 33.

(I.) As an appellative: that which is divinely reverenced, regarded as God, Acts xii. 22,
6eov cjjcovri KoX ovK avOpcoTTOv; xvii. 23, ayvcocTTa 6ew; xxviii. 6, eXeyov 6eov airov elvai ;
2 Thess. ii. 4, 6 avTuceiiievo^ zeal v7repaip6/j,evo<i ivl TrdvTa XeyofMevov 6eov r) ae^acr/na. Cf.
Dan. xi. 36, 37 ; 2 Cor. iv. 4, o ^eo? tov alMvo<; tovtov, — who assumes the place of God.
Hence o, rj decxi (Acts xix. 37, otherwise Oea, xix. 27), deoi in the pagan sense. Gal. iv. 8,
oi (pvaei /jlt) oWes deal; Acts vii. 43, xix. 26 ; 1 Cor. viii. 5 ; Acts vii. 40, and often.
Akin to this is the peculiar use of deoi, like Q'''!'?^, John x. 34, 35, of judges and magis-
trates, Ps. kxxii. 1, 6 ; Ex. xxi. 6, xxii. 8, 9, 28, so far as anything belongs to them
which is distinctive not of man but of God. But in the sphere of revelation the principle
ever holds, ovSel? Oeof eVejOo? el firj eh, 1 Cor. viii. 4 ; and thus 6e6^, cnbn, is appellative,
referring exclusively to the God of revelation, especially in the 0. T. Deut. vii. 9 ; 2 Sam.
vii. 22 ; 1 Kings xviii. 39 ; 2 Kings v. 15; Ps. xviii. 32, xxxiii. 12, cxliv. 15, xc. 17,
c. 3, and often in the second part of Isaiah. Cf. Euth i. 16 ; Isa. xxxvii. 16.

(II.) Hence ^eo?, o 6e6^, is a proper name, GOD, who is the God of revelation or of
redemption (" DTil'K has been made known to man from the beginning as Q'^rhn nins and
nirT' as dti^x in an exclusive sense," Hofmann). Accordingly, Kvpi,o<: 6 0e6<i is = DTi^K nin\
Luke i. 16 ; Acts vii. 27 ; 1 Pet. iii. 15 ; Eev. i. 8, iv. 8, xxii. 5, 6 ; cf Matt. iv. 7, 10,
xxii. 37, and other places. Without the article, as Winer observes, oftenest in the
Epistles, when it is dependent on another substantive without the article. Matt. vi. 24,
xiv. 33 ; Luke xi. 20 ; John i. 12 ; Eom. i. 4, 7, 16, 17, 18, etc. Described according
to His attributes by the addition of li-v/fttrTo?, Mark v. 7 ; Luke viii. 28 ; Acts xvi. 17 ;
Heb. vii. 1 ; iravTOKparap, Eev. xix. 15, cf. i. 8, etc.; Oeo<s ccoTijp, 1 Tim. i. 1, ii. 3 ; Tit.
i. 3, iii. 4. For other additions, see Eom. xvi. 26, 27; 1 Tim. i. 11, 17; Tit. i. 2. —
2 Cor. xiii. 11, o 6e6<; xij? aydTTiT;; 1 Pet. v. 10, o d. irdcnj'; p^a/jtro? ; 2 Cor. i 3, Trao-?;?
iTapaK\r}aeu)<; ; Eom. xv. 1 3, tjjs e\7rt8o?, c£ ver. 5, t?}? vij-ofiovri'^ ; Eom. xvi. 2 ; Phil,
iv. 9 ; Heb. xiii. 20 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 33, 6 6. t?5? elpi]vr]<;. ©eo? especially is often joined
with the genitive of the person, fiov, aov, v/moov. Matt, xxvii. 46; Heb. xi. 16; Eev.
xxi. 3 ; cf. ver. 7, eaofiat avrS 6e6^, cf. Heb. viii. 1 ; Eom. i. 8 ; 1 Cor. i. 4 ; 2 Pet. i. 1 >
Eev. vii. 12, xix. 5. In explanation of this, cf. Acts xxvii. 23, tov 6eov ov el/j,i, & koX
Xarpevoo, dyyeXo'i, and Eev. xxi. 3, avTo^ 6 6eo? etrrat fier avTcov 6eb<; avT&v. Expression
is given to the connection wherein the person stands to God and God to him, so that
both exist for each other, c£ Phil. iii. 19 ; Matt, xxii 32, ovk euTip 6 6eo<i deoi veKpwv.



0e<5? 2'? 9



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We must especially notice the historical and even Christian relationship expressed by the

genitive of the person, which affirms that God has shown in reference to the person

named what He is and will be ; o ft 'A/Spad/M, 'laaaK, 'Iukco^, Matt. xxii. 32 ; Mark

xii. 26; Luke xx. 37; Acts iii. 13, xxii. 14,» viL 32, 46; Heb. xi. 16; tov ^laparjX,



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