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Biblico-theological lexicon of New Testament Greek online

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appeared to the LXX. much too profane by any possibility to be used in the place of the

Scripture ^"^p^. " The jubilee trumpets which the priests blew are called once (Josh.

vi. 8), by a free translation, lepal adXiri.'yje'; •, but even in this case, where the externality

of the relation is so fully preserved, it is an airaf \ey6/M€vov. Precisely where the priest

is constantly called iepev';, we might expect the sanctuary at least to be called to lepov "

(query, the priest is called lepeix; on account of the sacrifice). " We find it, however, only

in one passage in Chronicles (1 Chron. xxix. 4) and in one in Ezeldel (Ezek. xlix. 19), where

n^3 in the one instance, and the Aramaic nnw in the other, denoting ' house ' and ' court ' in

the purely external sense, are so translated. But it is probably fine discrimination on the

part of the translator of Ezekiel, when he uses to lepov in speaking of the holy places

of the heathen Tyre (Ezek. xxvii. 6, xxviii. 18). Only the Apocrypha of the O. T.

betrays here the influence of the worldly diction. There lepov is quite the familiar term

for the temple." Zezschwitz, Prof.-Grac. u. hill. Spracligeist, p. 15. In the N". T. to lepov

in the Gospels and Acts is ^temple, and in the same sense as in Josephus, Antt. xv. 11,

Bell. Jud. V. 5, who, following the Greek usage, calls the temple buildings as a whole (Matt.

xxiv. 1, Ta'i olKoSofiai; tov lepov) lepov ; yet he calls the temple itself, as also the Holy of

Holies, vao?. According to Ammon, lepd denotes toii? "Trepi^oKov; twv vawv ; Thucyd. iv. 9 0,

rd^pov fxev kvkXw irepX to lepov Kal tov vewv eaKaiTTov ; i. 134; Herod, i. 183. Cf. Acts

xix. 24, 27 (va6<;, the part of the holy place where the image of the god stands). In no

case can it be said that to lepov denotes also single parts of the temple, as, e.cf., the holy

place, Matt. xii. 5, 6 ; the various courts. Matt. xxi. 12, 23, John ii. 14 ; but it is a name

for the whole. Wliere in any way there is a reference to typical signification, we have,

as in the Apocrypha, vao';, or, as in Hebrews, to, ayia. — 1 Cor. ix. 13, ol to, lepa ipya^o-

fievoi eK rov lepov eadlovcnv, they who perform the holy service eat of the sacrifice. The

adj. only in 2 Tim. iii. 15, t^ lepa ypdixfiaTa, cf. ver. 16, iraaa ypacprj deoirvevcTO'i.

'I e pev<;, eai<;, 6, he who has the care of ra lepd, the sacrifices = ^otij?, dvTt^p, Acts
xiv. 13, lepeiii tov Alb's , . . fjdeKev Oveiv. Priest, whose function among the Greeks
was, according to Aesch. iii. 18, to, ye pa Xa/u-^dveiv ical Tai; evpj^a? inrep tov hr/fiov tt/oo?
Tov<; Oeoii'i ev'xe<j6ai; Plat. Politic. 290 C, D ; Aristot. Polit. vii. 8, Trpwrov Be elvai Bet
TTjv irepl TOV? ^eov? iirifieXeiav, fjv KaXovaiv lepaTelav. The priesthood was among the
Greeks only a calling, not a separate caste or order, Isocr. ii, 6, Tr)v ^aaCKeiav uairep
lepaavvrjv ■navTO'i dvBpo<; elvai vofii^ovaiv ; cf. Nagelsbach, Homer. Theol. v. 5, Nachhomcr.
Theol. Vo 1. 12. — In the histoiy of redemption, also, the priesthood exists on account of
the sacrifice, cf Heb. x. 11, ira^ lepev<s (Lachm. apx^epew) ecnrjKev Ka6' i-jfiepav XeiTovpyoJv
Kal TQ? ai'Ta? nroXXuKi^ irpocrcpepcov Bvaua's, cf. viii. 3, 4. But as with the sacrifice, in
the history of saving grace, so with the priesthood, it also bears the special character of
substitution ; and therewith is connected the setting apart of a priestly order. As sacri-
fice in general, according to its idea, is a rendering to God what is due to him, so, too.



'lepevi 294 'Ap^oepevj

is the priest {lepew) a servant of God, of. Deut. xvii. 12; Eev. vii. 15, Bm tovto ela-iv
ivcoiTiov Tov dpovov Tov deov KoX XaTpevovaiv avrm rj/iepai icai vvkto^ iv t&5 vam avrov, see
6vala. But so far as sacrifice in the history of saving grace is to be distinguished from
sacrifice according to its idea, so far must the same distinction be made in the conception
of the priesthood. What the whole people ought to be, the priests are, cf. Ex. xix. 3-6,
Deut. vii. 6, with Num. iii. 12, 13, 45, Ex. xxviii. 1, 29, ISTum. xvi. Hence Isa. Ixi. 6 ;
Eev. i. 6, V. 10, xx. 6. They undertake the offering of sacrifices which stand for what
man can neither do nor suffer before God, for which Christ must and should appear ;
they stand for the man himself in his relation to God (to, tt^o? tov 6e6v, Heh. ii. 17, v. 1),
cf. Num. viii. 19, ipyd^ecrOai to, epya rcov vlmv 'lapaffK ev ttj aKrjvrj tov fiapTvplov koX
i^CkaaKeaOai irepl tuv viav ^laparfK' koX twv ovk eaTai ev Tot? utot? 'la-parjX Trpoaeyyi^cov
Trpo? TO, ayi.a, — a passage which clearly and distinctly declares the substitutionary character
of the priesthood. This, however, they are able to do only upon the ground of their holi-
ness, which does not belong to them as an inner personal quality, but may be possessed
by them historically only through the divine election and separation of them as God's pro-
perty ; Num. xvi. 5 ; cf. Heb. v. 4. If the nne^D, mc', Ex. xxviii. 1, Deut. xvii. 12, is the
designation of the priest according to the idea of what he is, the import of his oiSce in
the history of redemption is expressed by anp, ''?^ip. Lev. x. 3, xxi. 17, 21, 23; Ezek.
xlii. 13, xliv. 13; cf. Ex. xix. 22, nin;-^K D^B'ajn D^jnbn. (The derivation and original
meaning of the Hebrew 1^3 is doubtful. According to Fiirst, the root meaning is minister,
servant; according to Hofmann, Weissagung undErf. i. 103, it denotes one who wears
ornaments, i.e. one who occupies a distinguished post, as in Job xii. 19; Isa. Ixi. 10.
On the contrary, it is said to be derived from the Arabic root meaning, " to come forward
in the business of another, to act as his plenipotentiary or representative," cf. Ges. Thcs.
p. 661 ; Hupfeld on Ps. ex. Hence the word would be as appropriate to denote royal
officials in 2 Sam. viii. 18, xx. 26 ; 1 Kings iv. 4, cf. 1 Chron. xviii. 17, — mediation
from the higher to the lower, — as also to designate the priestly mediation for the people
before God — from the lower to the higher.) What further belongs to the priestly calling,
the bringing back grace and blessing to the community represented before God, Lev.
ix. 22, 23, Num. vi. 22-27, and the expounding and guarding of the law. Lev. x. 10, 11,
Mai. ii. 7, Ezek. xliv. 23, follows readily from this root meaning. The priesthood in the
histoiy of redemption, and the corresponding sacrifice, find their perfect consummation in
the priesthood of Christ, which is treated of in the Epistle to the Hebrews, v. 6, vii. 1, 3, 11,
14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 23, viii. 4, ix. 6, x. 11, 21. In Eev. i. 6, v. 10, xx. 6, the realiza-
tion of the idea of sacrifice in the N. T. sphere is treated of, cf 6vaia. Further, cf.
lepdTeviia, priesthood, 1 Pet. ii. 5, 9 ; Ex. xix. 6. — In the Gospels and Acts also, Acts
V. 24, cf. 1 Mace. xv. 1, Ex. xxxv. 19, 1 Kings i. 8, the high priest is designated lepev'i.
Cf. Josephus, Antt. vi. 12. 1.

'A p^iepev^, 6, chief priest, high priest, a dignity unknown to the Greeks, intro-



'Ap^tfepevi 295 'lepocrvXico

duced by PLato (de Leg. xli. 9. 47 A) for his ideal state. Designation of the ?il3n jnbn
n wen im Sm'i-bv psv-ifK Vnm, Lev. xxi. 1 ; ijnjn p3 D''?'?lI I['3, from Deuteronomy
onwards simply pb, in later usage c's'in [nb, 2 Kings xxv. 1 8 ; Ezra vii. 5 ; 2 Chron.
xix. 11, cf. xxiv. 6. In the LXX. generally, 6 tepeu? o /J.eya<;, also d lepev'; 6 ■^picrro^
(Lev. iv. 5), 6 I'epei;? ; only in Lev. iv. 3, d ap-)(iepev'; d Ke'^pia-fievo';. Moreover, in the
Apocrypha, Philo, Josephus, where also the derivatives ap-^iepaxrvvq, dp^iepdo/iai,, ap^ie-
parevco, are found. In the plan of redemption historically unfolded the priesthood cul-
minates in the high priest, inasmuch as it was his duty to represent the whole people.
Lev. iv. 5, 16; Lev. xvi. ; Num. xvi. 10. In the N. T. (I.) it designates the 0. T.
high priest. Matt. xxvi. 3, etc. Eelatively to the priestly work of Christ, Heb. ii. 17,
iii. 1, iv. 14, V. 10, vi. 20, vii. 26, viii. 1, ix. 11. — (II.) Perhaps a designation of the
president of the Sanhedrim, John xviii. 19, 22 ; Acts v. 17, 21, 27, and often (Annas);
while in John xviii. 13, 24, it is applied to Caiaphas the high priest proper, cf. Luke iii. 2.
— (III.) Probably also a designation of those descended from the yevo'; ap^iepariKov, cf.
Acts iv. 5, 6 with Matt. ii. 4, xvi. 21, and elsewhere. According to others, a designation
of the heads of the twenty-four classes of the priests, dp')(pv7e<; tcov -jraTpiav twv lepewv,
1 Chron. xxiv. 6; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 14. Cf. Joseph. Antt. xx. 7. 8, Bell. Jud. iv. 3. 6.
According to others, again, it denotes those who had previously held the office of
high priest. Joseph. Antt. xviii. 2. 1, Bell. Jud. iv. 3. 10. Cf. Wichelhaus, Gomm. zur
Leidansgcsch. p. 31 ff.

'I e pov py eco, to do holy service, especially sacra peragere, sacrificare. Herodian, v.
6. 1, V. 13. — Not in the LXX. — In Eom. xv. 16, eh to etval jue Xenovpyov Xpicrrov
^Itjctov et? TO. edvr), lepovpyovvra rb evayyeXiov rov 6eov, it is not figurative = to offer the
gospel, — a sense opposed by the words that follow, wa yevrjrat, r) "Trpocr^opa rwv edva.v
ev-rrpoa-heicTos ; but = to do holy service in tlie gospel, a service by means of which the
sacrifice is prepared. Cf. Theoph. in loc, avTTj jiot lepcocrvvr] to KarayykWeiv to evayye-
Xiov fid')(aipav e')(a> tov Xoyov. dvcrta ecTTe vfiei';. Similarly 4 Mace. vii. 8, toik; lepovp-
yovvTa<; tov vojjiov lBlq> aXfiari. Cf. Plat. Legg. vi. 774 E, oXKtj irepl to, ToiavTa lepovpyia.
— Later used of the ritual of the Lord's Supper, Zonar. ad Can. 1 2 Sardic., lepovpyelv Koi
'irpoa<f)epeiv rrjv avainaKTOv Ovaiuv.

'I e p oTT p e-TT Tji, beseeming the sacred; Sturz, sanctitate religionis dignus; Xen. Conv.
viii. 40, Kal vvv iv Trj eopTrj SoKel<; lepoirpeirea-TaTO'i elvai. — Tit. ii. 3.

'I ep oavXew, to commit sacrilege. The substantive, see Acts xix. 3 7. In Plat.
Bep. i. 344 B, ix. 575 B, in the same category with man-stealing. — Eom. ii. 22, d
^BeXvaa6/j,evo<; rd e'iBwXa lepoa-vXeU, soil, tov deov, cf. Phalar. Ep. 110, cepoavXi^Kare tov<;
deow. The lame explanation of such an apostrophe, referring it to the robbery of heathen
temples, finds no support in Deut. vii. 25, for an Israelite must have thought of the
robbing of his own temple, cf. 2 Mace. iv. 39, 42, xiii. 6. Eather should we refer to
Jer. vii 9—11 ; Matt. xxi. 13, d oIko'; fiov iIko'; irpoa-ev^rjt; KXr}6ricreTai,, ifieh Be aiiTov



' lepocrvKm 296 ^A tplrjixi

TToieire cnrrfKaiov Xrjardov. Paul is referring to the Decalogue (ver. 23), primarily to the
so-called commaiidments of the second table, vv. 21, 22 ; then, in the above expression,
to those of the fii'st table, whereupon ver. 2 3 concludes. Of. Josephus, Bell. Jud. iv. 4. 3,
S.v. Kadapfia.

"I y) III, to set in quick motion towards a certain goal, to send, to throw, etc. In
biblical Greek only in compounds, among which are to be noted some abnormal forms.
There occur, namely, as 3 plur. pres. a(fioov(Ti,v, avviovaiv, Eev. xi. 9, 2 Cor. x. 12, Matt,
xiii. 13, from the theme 'IEI2, for avvuaaw k.tX. So Tisch., while Lachm. 2 Cor.
X. 12 reads avviaaiv, and accentuates the form proparoxytone in other passages, there-
fore traces it back to '1/2, cf. Luke xi. 4, a<^LOfiev (Matt. vi. 12 D, E, d(piofiev; Eec.
ajyUfiev; Tisch. a^iJKa/jLev). Instead of the regular participle /e/?, Eom. iii. 11, Lachm.
reads crwlcov, Tisch. avvtcov. Further, for the imperf. ■>](piov for r)(j)lT]v or ^(j>iovv, Mark
i. 34, xi. 16, a^et?, Eev. ii. 11, for d(p('r]<;, from the theme 'EI2, cf. Tt.6el<; for Ti6rj<i.
Lastly, the 3 plur. perfect pass, acpecovrat for a^elvTai, from a perfect ewKa for elica, " a
Doricism tolerably current, even amongst the Attics themselves." — Buttmann, iV". T.
Gramm. §§ 108, 109 ; Winer, § 14. 3.

'A (f> 7) fit, to send away, to dismiss, to set free, synonymous with ekevdepow, Matt.
iv. 11, xix. 14, and often. Herod, v. 39, 'yvvalKa aj>ievM, to put away a ivife; 1 Cor.
vii. 11-13. In general, to leave anything, to free oneself therefrom, to let alone. Matt,
iv. 20, Ttt BlKTva; v. 24, a^6? e/cet to Baypov aov; xix. 27 ; Heb. vi. 1, etc. See Lexicons.
The hiUical phrase, d(f)ievat to.? d/xa/DTtas, irapaiTTWfiaTa, to forgive sins, occurring also in
the same sense without object, is analogous to the profane Greek idiom, but differs also
in form from it. In profane Greek we find as a rule that dtpdvai is used in the cor-
responding sense with the accusative of the person, dipievai rivd, to express the discharge
or acquittal of an accused ; because, either with or without the judicial sentence, the charge
falls to the ground, or the punishment is remitted, and the guilty person is dealt with as
if he were innocent. Cf. Plat. Bep. v. 451 B, dtjjlefiev ere wcrirep (povov KaOapov eivai,;
Plut. Alex. 13, dcfyrfKev avTov TratrT?? ahla';. (ATToXveiv nvd Tiva is found as often with
the same meaning, aTraXKaaaeiv, e.g. Dem. xxxvi. 25, d(j>rJKe KaldTn]XK.a^e. The synonym
crvyyiyvaxTKeiv Tivi Ti emphasizes the change of feeling.) So in the LXX. Gen. iv. 13,
fiei^cov r) alrla fj.ov tov djteOrjval p,e; Gen. xviii. 26, cf. ver. 24; 1 Mace. x. 29. On
the other hand, d^ievai tivI ti occurs more frequently in the LXX., and always in the
W. T. It is also to be found in Herodotus, e.g. vi. 30, d(prJKev av avrm ttjv alrlrjv; vui.
140. 11, el /Sao"t\6i;? ye o fieya^ jjbovvoiai, vfuv 'EXX'yjvav rai; dfiapTdBa<; ctTrtets edeXet, cjil\o<}
yeveadai] cf. 140. 1, 'Adrjvaloicri ra? dfiaprdBa's ra? e^ eKelvwv ii ifie yevofieva'; irdaai
fieTLT^ixi. This phrase not only better represents the Hebrew = xba, Ps. xxv. 1 8, xxxii.
1, 5, 6, Isa. xxxiii. 24, Gen. 1. 17, Ex. xxxii. 32 = n^D, Lev. iv. 20, v. 10, 13, Num.
xiv. 19, Isa. Iv. 7, but differs from the former in not leaving open the possibility of
actual innocence; whence dtpiivai is often used in combination with propitiation or



"Acjii-niJLi 297 "A^ecTK

atonement, cf. Lev. iv. 20, Isa. xxii. 14 = 1B3. In the religious sense the expression
does not occur in profane Greek, while it is used in biblical Greek almost exclusively
with this signification, answering to the meaning of afj^aprla, and opposed to Xoyl^ecrOai
TO, irapaTTToiiiaTa k.t.X., 2 Cor. v. 19, Eom. iv. 8; to Kpareiv xa? djjb., John xx. 23.
Cf Luke xxiii. 34, a(^€? avroh, with Acts vii. 59, /j,r] crrijcrrj'; avrol^ ravrriv rrjv dfi.
Synonymous with KoXvTrreiv Trjv dp,., Eom. iv. 8, Ps. xxxii. 1 ; Xwiv rivd, Matt. xvi. 19.
For the thing, cf. Mic. vii. 19 ; Isa. xxxviii. 17; especially Jer. 1. 20. The expression
denotes, then, where it does not stand for social proceedings, the abrogation of the divine
legal claims upon man (cf. vttoSoko^, also Mark xi. 25, d^iere el ti ex^Te Kara rtz/o?;
Luke xi. 4, dcf>iep,ev vavrl 6(f)eiXovTi), the remission of the amends due or of the punish-
ment due for imperfect, sinful conduct, — that is, deliverance from suffering the divine
judgment; hence Mark ii. 7, rk Bvvarai, d(f>i,evai dpLapriai el firj eh 6 6eo^ ; ver. 10, eVi
TTj? 7779 d<pi,evai, dp,., see 717 j hence the dcj^ea-t^ dpuiprioov is the object of the N. T. revela-
tion and preaching. There occurs, (I.) d<j>Uvat, tivI ti, and to, ocpeLXijpara, Matt. vi. 12;
cf. oj>eCKrjv, Matt. xviiL 32 ; to Bdveiov, xviii. 27 ; ra TrapaTrT(op,aTa, Matt. vi. 14, 15, Mark
xi. 25, 26 ; ras dp,aprca<;, Luke v. 20, xi. 4 ; John xx. 23 ; 1 John i. 9, ii. 12. Cf Matt.
xii. 31, 32 ; Mark iii. 28, iv. 12 ; Acts viii. 22, el dpa dcped^a-erat r} eTrlvoia ttj? Kap8ia<i
aov. — (II.) d^Uvai ri, without dative of the person, Matt. vi. 15, rd -Kapa-mmp,. ; ix. 5,
d<j>iQ}i>Tai a-ov al dp,.; ver. 6 ; Mark ii. 5, 7, 9, 10 ; Luke v. 21, 24, vii. 47-49 ; Johnxx. 23 ;
Eom. iv. 7. — (IIL) Without accusative of the thing, d(f>i,evai rtvi, to forgive a person, to
forego the legal claim against him, Matt. vi. 12, 15, xviii. 21, 35 ; Luke xi. 4. Of the
divine forgiveness, Matt. vi. 14; Luke xxiii. 34, a^e? atirot?; Jas. v. 15, dcfted^a-erat
aiiTw. Without either personal or other object, Mark xi. 26, el he vp,eh ovk dcplsTe.

"A (j)ecr i<;, rj, discharge, setting free, e.g. of a prisoner, putting away of a wife (Ex.
xviii. 2), starting a racehorse, etc., cf. d(f)ecri,'; vButcov, Joel i. 20 ; Lam. iii. 47; 6aXdcrar](;,
2 Sam. xxii. 16. In the other passages of the LXX. and in aU passages of the N. T.,
only (I.) = Setting free, remission ; in LXX. mostly with reference to the year of
jubilee = in'j, Ezek. xlvi. 17, Lev. xxv. 10, Isa. Ixi. 1 = n^tpip, Deut. xv. 1, 2, 9, xxxi.
10. An explanatory rendering of the Hebrew byi\ Lev. xxv. 28, 30, 40, 50, xxvii. 17,
xviii. 21, 23, 24. In the N. T. Luke iv. 19, KTjpv^ai aljQj.aKaiTOi'; d<j>eaiv . . . dTToa-TelXac
red paver pevov^ iv d<pecrec ; cf. Lev. xvi. 26, et's a^ecrw = ?t.KTVp. — (II.) Eemission of debt,
e.g. Dem. xxiv. 45, o^Xrjp.aTO'; xal ra^eaj? ; Deut. xv. 3, top dXXoTpiov dij-aiTijcrei'; oaa
edv y <J0(, Trap avTO), tS Be dBeXijxp irov dcpecriv Trot^tret? tov y^peov^ a-ov. Remission of the
legal punishment of a crime. Plat. Legg. ix. 8 6 9 D, o he Trepl ttj'; ai^ecreco? e'lpr/Tat, (povov
irarpl, raiiTov tovto ecTTco trepX d'rrdarj<; ruv Toioxncov d^eaew;. Corresponding to this is
the N. T. dcpea-i'i dpapricov (not iu LXX.), the forgiveness of sins on the part of God, and
with reference to the future judgment, Matt. xxvi. 28 ; Mark i. 4 ; Luke i. 77, iii. 3, xxiv.
47 ; Acts ii. 38, v. 31, x. 43, xiii. 38, xxvi. 18 ; Col. i. 14 ; Heb. x. 18. rcSv -Trapair-
raiparcDV, Eph. i. 7. Absolutely d^ecn'i = forgiveness of sins, Mark iii. 29, Heb. ix. 22.
2 P



napt7)iii 298 ndpem'}

n aplr] fit, to let pass, let go, e.g. the sails. Passive, to he exhausted, e.g. Plat. Legg.
xi. 931 D, 7»?joa m-apeifievo^ ; Plut. Gonsol. ad Apollon. 1, TrapeiiJbivov to re crc3/Aa «ai riyi^
ylruyhv vito rrj'i crv/icfiopa'i. So Heb. xii. 12, ra? Trapei.fieva'i xelpa^ Koi ra irapaXeXvfieva
ryivaTa avopdwaaje. Cf. Zeph. iii. 17; Jer. xx. 9; Isa. xxxv. 3, laxvcraTe, xetpe? avei-
fihai KoX '^ova-ra irapaXsKviieva. It has also the meaning, to allow anything, or to pardon
anything, to let anything pass unnoticed, that is, impunished ; synonymous with acpiivM,
from which it only differs in that the latter denotes chiefly judicial remission of punish-
ment, the former a personal lenieney ; whose result, however, is in like manner exemption
of the particular action from punishment. Herod, vii. 161, aXXa> 'Traprjaofiev ovSevl vavap-
yeeiv = to allow; Aristoph. i^aw. 699, t^ fxlav ravTTjV irapelvai, ^vp,^opav alTovfiivoi'i ;
Philostr. 517. 39, (Vcttj? ylveTai pivqcnKaKiav re avrai Trapetvai koI 6p<yr]v = to pardon.
That 7rap(7]fii alone does not signify the remission of punishment, but needs some addi-
tional word or words, as in Xen. Hipipareh. vii. 10, ra ovv roiavTa a/xapT'^fiara ov ■xpr]
•n-apdvai aKoXacna ; Dion. Hal. Ant. Bom. iii. 35, nrapUfiev ovv avroh ttjv aiMaprdBa
ravTTjv d^rjfiwv (Fritzsche on Ptom. iii. 25), is contradicted by the above citations, also by
Ecclus. xxiii. 2, "va i-rrl rot'i d'^vor]\Laai /lov firj j>elaovrM ical ov fir) irapff to, afiapr-iffiara
avT&v. Of the remission of taxes it is used exactly like d<f)ievaL in 1 Mace. xi. 35,7raz/Ta
iirapKw -napUfiev avroh. One might be tempted to say that d(f>iivai, is = to remit punish-
ment, irapievav = to leave unpunished, did not the latter appear to exclude the judicial
cognition; while Dion. Hal. Ant. Bom. vii. 37 (see irdpeoK), favours the meaning a remis-
sion of punishment, which implies the judicial cognition of the case in point. — On the
whole, however, the word cannot be used as a synonym of d^dvai.

TI dpecT i<;, rf, letting pass, ' relaxation. The meaning, remission of punishment (see
■TrapiTffii), occurs only in Dion. Hal. Ant. Bom. vii. 37, t^i/ fiev oXoa^eprf irdpeatv ov^
evpovro, ttjv 8' et? x,P°'^°^ oaov rj^iovv dva^oXrfv eXa^ov, where the subjoined adjective
only strengthens the contrast between remission and respite. For the rest, this pas-
sage decidedly shows that the word also in Piom. iii. 25 denotes not a temporary and
conditional, but actual and full, remission of punishment, hib, ttjv trdpeabv twv ■n-po'ye'yo-
voTwv dfiaprrffidrav iv rff dvo-yri tou d^ov. The word appears to have been chosen here
instead of the more common dcfjeaK, only because the latter represents the characteris-
tically ISr. T. salvation, which differs from the corresponding 0. T. and pre-N". T. remission
of punishment, in that this latter is traceable solely to the divine patience, whereas every
sort of collision with God's righteousness is abolished in the N. T. forgiveness of sins, cf.
ver. 26 ; 1 John i. 9. Not 7rdpecn<;, but the dvo^v tov deov, is the characteristic of the
former forgiveness ; still this long-suffering of God did not at all leave open the possibility
of a later punishment, as some have supposed Trapecrt? to imply, but was exercised in view
of the future sacrificial death of Christ. In order simply that this anticipatory forgiveness
of sins might not be confounded with the final judicial remission of punishment, Paul
chooses the less used word. Cf. Heb. ix. 15 with ver. 22, x. 18, Acts xvii. 30,Wisd. xi. 23.



Xw(r}iJ,l 299 SvvirjfU

H vv iT] fit, strictly, to bring together, e.g. in hostile sense = to set people against one

another. Then and generally confined to the sphere of mental perception = to hear,

notice, perceive, recognise, understand, etc. By keeping in mind the origin of this use of

the word, we shall find out its root-idea. Xwlr^iio must strictly denote the collecting

together of the single features of an object into a whole, so that avvievai expresses the

opposite idea to the Hebrew 113, to which it answers almost universally in the LXX.

(more rarely = b^E', jn*, HNi) ; J^ia, strictly = to separate, to divide ; cf. 1 Kings iii. 9, tov

(Tvvievai ava fiiaov ayaOov Kal Kamv. This appears, e.g., from what Arist. Mh. Nic. vi.

11 says of the crweo-t?, that it is simply KpiTiKrj, whereas (ppovticni; is einraKTiKri (cf.

Eph. V. 17, yLt^ iyivea6e a^pove';, aXKa ffvvievre<s ri to 6e\7jjj,a tov Kvpiov). Eemembering

also that, according to Aristotle (l.c), it is a synonym of fiavdaveiv (Wisd. vi. 1), cf p.

Hiphil = hSda-Keiv, we may say that the German zusammenfassen, auffassen (to collect, to

apprehend), come nearest to the original signification ; and it will be well to consider the

use of the word to express mental activity in the first place, and the sensuous meaning,

as being the feebler, in the second place.

(I.) = To collect, apprehend, grasp, comprehend, understand, distinguished from aKoveiv,
the sentient affection, as the corresponding mental activity. Matt. xiii. 13, 14, 15, 19,
23, XV. 10 ; Mark iv. 12, vii. 14; Luke viii 10 : Acts xxviii. 26 ; Rom. xv. 21, oh ovu
avriyyeX-rj irepl avrov, o^ovTai-, Kal ol ovk aKtiKoaaiv, avvrja-ovaiv. The synonym voeiv is
conjoined with it for the sake of emphasis, Mark viii. 17, oinro) voeiTe, ovSe avvieTe ; Matt.
XV. 16, aavveToi eVre ; ov voeiTe k.t.X, while it is distinguished from voeiv, as activity
from capability, cf. Luke xxiv. 45, Sn^i/ot^ei/ aiiruv tov vovv tov avvievai ra? <ypa^d<;.
Further, the synonym yuyvwa-Keiv differs from it as knowledge acquired by reflection,
consideration, differs from immediate knowledge, Luke viii. 9, 10, xviii. 24; cf Prov.
ix. 6, f'jjT77o-aT6 (j^povrjaiv Kal KaTopOwcraTe iv 'yvdicrei avveaiv. The earnest occupation
with the object, which the word denotes, makes it specially suitable to express moral
reflection = to ponder, to lay to heart ; cf Eph. v. 17, whence also may be explained the
application of avvievai to the moral-religious conduct, and its being attributed to the KaphCa,
Markvi. 52, ou r^ap avvrjKav eirl Toh dpToir '> yap avTwv rj KapBla Trevayprofievrj ; viii. 17,
ovTTO) voelre, ovhe avvleTe ; Tre'irapQyiJiivnv 6%€Te tvjv KapBiav vixwv; Acts xxviii. 27, Kal ttj
KapBla avvcoaiv, Kal iTriaTp^fcoaiv. In profane Greek, avveaK alone is used with a similar
moral' signification ; whereas, in biblical Greek, o-uz/ero?, aavveTO'?, are also used in the
same manner. Without an object only seldom, e.g. Theogn. 904, ol avviivTe';, the intel-
ligent, cf TT-a? yiyvihaKwv, " every sensible man." In the N. T. Eom. iii. 11 ; 2 Cor.
x.°12'; Acts vii. 25 ; Mark viii. 21, cf Wisd. vi. 1 ; Tob. iii. 8. Also Matt. xiii. 51,
xvi. 12, xvii. 13 ; Luke ii. 50 ; Acts vii. 25,

(II.) Weakened form = to notice, heed, hear. Not thus in K T. ^ Cf Neh. viii. 8,
avvTiKiv \ao<; h ttj dvayvwaei; ver. 12, a-vvi^Kev iv rot? Xo7ot? oh iyvwpiaev avToh^to



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