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Biblico-theological lexicon of New Testament Greek online

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of procedure and action, Eom. xi. 33; Eev. xv. 3; also Acts xviii. 25, KaTr]^r]fievo<! ttjv
oBov TOV Kvplov. Ver. 2 6, aKpi^ecrTepov i^edevTO avTw ttjv tov deov oBov, must, it seems,
as more appropriate to the connection, be explained in this sense, the ways which God
has taken (for the revelation and working out of His salvation, in order to carry out His
saving purpose); compare iBlBaa-Kev aKpi^m to, irepl tov 'Irjaov, ver. 25. There still
remains (c.) the use of the word in the book of the Acts to denote the way or manner of
life presented in the Christian community. Acts xxiv. 14, Kar^ Trjv oBov rjv Xeyovaiv
alpecTiv ovTw; XaTpevo) tS TraTpwo) 6eS) ; xxii. 4, Tainrjv Trjv oBov eBlco^a. Without
closer qualification, Acts ix. 2, idv Tivai; evpy t?}? oBov 6vTa<i ; xix. 9, KaKoXoyovvTet ttjv
oBbv evm-mov tov ttXtjOov; ; ver. 23, xxiv. 22. In explanation of this expression
reference can hardly be made to "^"n as denoting religious cultus, according to Amos
viii. 14 (as explained by the Targums). Apart from the consideration suggested by
Hitzig against this explanation, this passage is too isolated, and does not in the least
show that '^'^/l by itself signifies a definite religious tendency or way. It is less difficult
to prove an affinity with the usage of profane Greek, inasmuch as, at least in one
indisputable passage, the word stands for philosophic systems or schools, Lucian, Hermotim.
46, e^ets fioi Tiva eiTreiv dirda'rjt oBov "TreireLpafjievov iv (piXocrocpia, Kal o? ra re vtto
UvOayopov Kai, IIXaTa>vo<} Kal ApL<jTOTeXov<; Kal Xpvalinrov Kal 'E'TTiKOvpov Kal twv
dXXwv Xeyofieva etSta? TeXet/TWj' filav etXeTO i^ d-Tracrwv oBoJv aK7]6rj re BoKifidaat Kal
ireipa iiadmv to? piiOVT} ar/ei eiidii t^? evBat,p,ovla<; ; compare Acts xxiv. 14.

M e 6 o B e I a, r) [jieOoBo'i, the following or pursuing of orderly and technical pro-

MeOoSela 445 OIko';

cedure in the handling of a subject ; fieOohevw, to go systematically to work, to do ox
pursue something methodically and according to the rules of art, e.g. ol rh Srjfjioa-ia
teKt) fieBoBevovTe';, to collect the taxes, — in Du Cange. Of the rhetorical arts or
tricks of speakers, Philo, de vit. Mas. 685 A, oii'^ oirep (leOohevovcnv ol Xoyodrjpai koI
a-ocf)t,aral, '7rt,'jrpdaK0VTe<; . . . Boy/MaTa koI Xoyovi;. Generally = to overreach, Polyb. xxxviii.
4. 16 ; cf. Chrys. on Eph. vi. 11, fiedoSevcrai earl to a.'jraTrjcrai koX Bia o-vvto/jlov eXeiv;
2 Sam. xix. 2*7, fieOcoSevaev ev tc3 BovKcp aov, I'^.^W ?.3']''.. So also /iedoBo<; = cunning,
2 Mace. xiii. 18, Kareirelpacre Bict, fiedoScov roti? tottou?; Artemid. iii. 25, avdrr) Kal
/xe^oSos] = overreaching, cunning, trickery, as it appears only in Eph. iv. 14, vi. 11, and
sometimes in ecclesiastical Greek. Hesych., ri'^vai; Zonar., eTri^ovXal, eviBpai, SoXoi,;
Eph. iv. 14, TTjOo? TTjv fjuedoBeiav t?)? irXavrj'; ; vi. 11, aT^vau Trpo'i Tas fie6oBeia<i roii
Bia^oXov; Luther, cunning assaults.

OIko<;, 6, house, (I.) a dwelling, Matt. ix. 6, 7, and often. '0 oIko^ tov 0€ov denotes,
first, the temple (already in Ex. xxiii. 19, xxxiv. 26 ; Isa. vi. 24) as the place of God's
gracious presence; cf. Ex. xxix. 45, xxv. 8, xxvii. 21, xl. 22, 24; 1 Kings viii. 18, oLko-
Bofielv oIkov Tft) ovofiart tov Oeov; Ezek. xliii. 4, Bo^a Kvplov ela-rfkOev et? tov oIkov;
Acts vii. 49, •kowv oIkov olKoBoftijcreTe not, Xeyei Kvpio<;, t) to<; totto? tjj? KaTairavaedi'; fiou
So Matt. xii. 4, xxi. 13 ; Mark ii. 26, xi. 17 ; Luke xvi. 27, xix. 46 ; John ii. 16, 17;
Acts vii. 47. 'O olKO'i by itself is used as a name for tlie temple in Luke xi 51 ; cf.
2 Chron. xxxv. 5 ; Ezek. xliii. 4, 12, o otico'i v/imv, the temple of Israel;' Matt, xxiii. 38,
compare Ps. Ixxxiv. 4; Isa. Ixiv. 10, "our holy and beautiful house, wherein our fathers
praised Thee, is burned up with fire" (Zunz). See my dissertation on Matt. xxiv. 25,
p. 2. As otKo? TOV 6eov is, secondly, a designation for the people of G-od, so olKO'i
denotes (II.) a household or family, Thuc. i. 137; Xen. Cyrop. i. 6. 17 (more frec[uently
oIkm). Matt. X. 12; Luke i. 27, 69; Acts x. 2, xi. 14, xvi 15, 31,xviii 8; 1 Cor.
i 16; 2 Tim. i 16, iv, 19; Tit. i 11; Luke ii 4, i^ o'Uov koX ivajpici'i AaviB; the
twelve tribes were called ^vXai, and were divided into ninsB'D, waTptai, gentes, and those
constituting these ^rarpial formed oIkoi. or families; cf. 'Sum. i 2 ; 1 Chron. xxiii 11,
xxiv. 6, and often. See "Winer, Bealworterb. article " Stamme." OIko'; ^laparjk, Matt.
X. 6 ; Acts ii. 36, vii. 42, cf. Luke i 33. Acts vii. 46 is a common 0. T. expression to
denote the people with their progenitor (cf. Eom. ix. 6), see Euth iv. 11. — 'O oIko<; tov
Oeov is not always (as Delitzsch affirms on Heb. x. 21) the Scripture name for the church
of God. In the few 0. T. passages that can be cited in proof of this, it is not the church,
but the temple of God which is meant; cf. Hos. vui. 1 with ix. 8, 15 ; Ps. Ixis. 10 with
John ii. 17. But in Num. xii. 7, which is referred to in Heb. iii. 2-4, Mavai]'; . . . iv
6Xa> T(p o'i,Ka fiov ttocttoi; ia-Ti, Nin I0K3 ''ri''3"?33, oIko^ means not the people of God, but the
stewardship of that which God provides for His people (hence ot/co? = domestic affairs;
see (III.)). Its use to denote the church occurs first in the IST. T., because the i/CKX-Tjo-la is
that which the temple in the 0. T. typified, the abode of God's presence, 1 Tim. iii. 15,

OIko^ 446 OMa

irm Set ev oUa deov avaarpecjiea-Bai, ^rt? iarlv iKKXrjaia 6eov ^cavro^;, of. 1 Cor. iii. 16 ;
2 Cor. vi. 16; Eph. ii. 19; henoe Heb. iii. 6, ov oIk6<; ia-fiev rifxeh; 1 Pet. ii. 5, cu?
\i6oi, ^uivTe<i obKoSof^e^crOe, oIko'; TrvevfiarLKO'; k.t.\., of. Epk ii. 22, KaTotKTjrijpiov tov
deov ev •jrvevjj.aTi. — Heb. x. 21, ep^joj/re? . . . lepea /Meyav iirl tov oIkov tov deov, does not
(as is evident from ver. 19) refer to the church, but to the heavenly sanctuary; vid.
ix. 11, X. 19; Ps. xxxvi. 9 {fj elKmv r<bv irpwyixdrav, rj /jLet^aiv Koi TeXeioTepa a-KrjVTf). —
(III.) Household concerns. Acts vu. 10 ; 1 Tim. iii. 4, 5, 12 ; Heb. iii. 2.

I ice 109, belonging to the house, akin to ; synonymous with avyyev^';, but denoting
the closest kinship ; opposed to aXXorpto?, strange. In the IST. T. as a substantive, olneloi;
kinsfolk, of the same household; Eph. ii. 19, ovKeTi iaTe ^evoi Kal irdpoiKot, aX)C io-Te
a-vfiTToXiTai. Tcbv dyicov Kal olKeloi tov 6eov, belonging to the household of God ; cf. ver. 1 9,
and o2«:o9 (II.) ; TrdpoiKc;, Lev. XXV. 23, i/XTj ydp iaTiv r] yrj, Sioti irpoarjXvTOi Kal irapoiKOl
iaTe ivcoTTiov (xov. In 1 Tim. v. 8, el 8e Tt? twv ISiav Kal fidXicTTa tu)V olKelmv ov irpovoei,
the word is also masculine ; for if we take it as neuter, to, 'iBia denotes one's own private
affairs, and to. oiKela would signify some special distinctively domestic affairs; but such
a particularizing cannot be maintained, rather as ra thia means private affairs; cf. Thuc.
ii. 40, ivl Se Tot? aiiTot? olKeicov d/xa Kal ttoXitikuv iirifieXeia. Accordingly oSloi, is = those
belonging to us ; oiKeioo is = those most closely belonging to us, our nearest relatives. Cf.
Isa. iii. 6, o olKeloi; tov Trarpo? = Vax JT'S. Cf Gal. vi. 10, ol olKeiot Tr]<; iriaTew'i, with
Polyb. v. 87. 3, oIk. Trj<; riavx^ia<;; iv. 57. 4, Xiav oliceiov; 6vTa<; Tav toiovtcov iy^eiprj-
fiaTWV ; xiv. 9. 5, irdvTa rjv olKela ttj'; fieTa^oXr]';.

01 Keco, (I.) intransitively, to dwell, usually with ev following, as in Eom. vii. 1 7,
18, 20, viii. 9, 11 ; 1 Cor. iii. 16. In these places applied to moral and spiritual
relations, Eom. vii. 17, 20, 57 ocKovaa ev ifiol dfxapTla; ver. 18, ovk olKel ev ifiol d.ya96v;
viii. 9, "TTvevfia 6eov oIkeI ev vfuv, as in 1 Cor. iii. 16, for which Herod, ii. 166, oSto?
vofio'; ev vija-m olKeet, cannot be cited, because there we must read, not vofic;, but vo^6<;,
pagus, as the preceding KaXacripiwv Be o'lSe dXkoi vop,oi elm and the following dvrlov
Bov/SdaToo^ TToXw? oblige us to do (against Pape, W'drterb.). Of marriage relations,
1 Cor. vii. 12, olKelv /ji,6t avTov; ver. 13, ot/cetz/ fier avTrj<;, as in Soph. Oed. B. 990,
iToXvySo? ?ji wKei i^eTa. — (II.) Transitively, to inhabit ; rarely in Homer, frequently in
Herodotus and the Attic writers. 1 Tim. vi. 16, (^cS? oIkwv d-n-poa-nov. Comp. Gen.
xxiv. 13 ; Prov. x. 30 ; 2 Maco. v. 17, vi. 2. Aldn is the use of the participle r/ oIkov-
fievT], sc. ryrj ■ primarily, " the land inhabited by the Greeks, in contrast with barbarian
countries" (Herod, iv. 110; Dem. p. 242. 1, 85. 17; Schaef. App. i. 477; Maetzner,
Lycurg. 100); "and afterwards, when the Greeks became subject to the Romans, the
entire orUs Romanus; and not till very late, the whole inhabited world" Passow, Worterb.
As to Scripture usage, in Ex. xvi. 35, ^ olKovjxevr] seems to denote the land of Canaan;
it is, however, clearly nothing but a clumsy rendering of the Hebrew nntyii pN, land
inhabited, as contrasted with the wilderness. Also in Josephus, Antt. viii. 13. 4, "irept,-

OlKifo 4:4*7 ndpoiKO'!

TreiM-yJra^ Kara iraaav ttjv olKov/jbevrjv ^rjTrjcrovTa'; tov vpocjjrjTrj 'HXmp ; xiv. 7. 2, vavTCOV t5>v
Kara T-qv olKovfievT]V 'lovSalav Kol aefiofiivcov tov deov, en Se koX rmv aTro rrji; 'Aaiw; koX
TYit EvpioTTTji; 649 avTo avficpepovTcov, it does not stand for Jewish land ; compare for the
first passage, 1 Kings xviii., and for the others. Acts xxiv. 5. It always denotes either
the whole inhabited earth, the whole world in general, or this as it presents itself in the
comprehensive unity of the Roman Empire. In the LXX. the former only, 2 Sam.
xxii. 16 ; Ps. xviii. 16 ; Isa. xxxiv. 1 ; Ps. ix. 9, xx. 8, xlix. 1, xcvi. 13 = 7yr\. So also
in the Apocrypha, Wisd. i. 7; Bar. vi. 62, etc. On the contrary, in the N. T., both in
this comprehensive sense, as in Heh. i. 6, Acts xvii. 31, compare Ps. ix. 9, and in the
more limited sense of the Roman Empire, Luke ii. 1, i^rjXdev Soy/xa irapa Kalaapo^
Avyova-jov airoypdtpeaOai, iraaav rrjv olKovfjisv'qv, Acts xvii. 6, — a usage, however, which
has nothing in common with the primary limitation of the word to the world of the
Greeks as distinct from the lands of the barbarians, but which simply expresses the
tendency to universality of the Eoman Empire. Maintaining this, the question becomes
superfluous whether the word signifies the whole world or the Roman Empire, in any of
the other places in the N. T., Matt. xxiv. 14; Luke iv. 5, xxi. 26 ; Acts xi. 28, xix. 27,
xxiv. 5 ; Eev. iii. 10, xii. 9, xvi. 14. — Peculiar to the K T. is the designation ri oIkov-
pAvT} f] fieWovaa in Heb. ii. 5, as synonymous with aluv fieWmv, yet differing therefrom
as space differs from time, and chosen in Heb. iL 5 with reference to i. 6, 10, 11. "With
nice distinction, the expression used is not o /co 0-^09 /xiXKav, as against k6(t/xo'; ovto<;,
because the word k6c7/j,o<; already in itself possesses a moral import, and in keeping there-
with can only be ic6a/j,o'; ovto^. See Kocrfio';.

n dpo tKo<s, neighbouring. This is the classical sense of the word ; but it does not
occur in this meaning in the N. T. So also of irapoiKia, ivapoi.Kelv ; the latter only in
Ps. xciv. 1*7 = to live neighioior to. In later Greek, TrapoiKelv is used of strangers who
have no rights of citizenship, and who live anywhere, without a settled home, Diod. Sic.
xiii. 47, 0/ TTapoiKovvre'; ^evoi; Julian, c. Christ. 209 D, BovXevcrai Be del koI TrapoiKrjaai.
= ni5, Gen. xii. 10, xix. 9 ; Ex. vi. 4, etc., cf. Deut. v. 14; Luke xxiv. 18 ; Heb. xi. 9 ;
irapoifcta, Ps. cxx. 5; 2 Esdr. viii. 35, 01 viol t^9 TrapoiKia'i, mti}"'p,^; Acts yiii 17;
1 Pet. i. 1 7. •jrdpoiKO'i, one who dwells in a place without the rights of home, LXX. = "13 ;
Gen. XV. 13, vdpoiKov ecrrai to aTrepfia crov ev 'yfj ovk IBia; Ex. ii. 22, irdpoiico'i elfii iv
yfi dXKoTpia; xviiL 3 ; Lev. xxv. 35, 47 ; Ps. xxxix. 13, cxix. 19. ("i?! is often = Trpoo-??-
Xdto9, Ex. xii 48 ; Lev. xix. 33 ; Fum. ix. 14, xv. 14 ; Josh. xx. 9 ; Jer. vii 6 ; Zech.
vii. 1.) = 3B''in^ Ex. xii. 45 ; Lev. xxii 10, xxv. 6, Ta5 irapoiKO) tw Trpocnceifievq) irpb'i a-i,
which in Gen. xxiii 4, Ps. xxxix. 13 = TrapeTriBrjfioii, one who abides a short time in a
strange place. 3f in means HteraUy, a dweller, as distinct from "13, one who halts or tarries
on a journey ; but often both words are used together, e.g. Gen. xxiii. 4, Lev. xxv. 35, 47,
in contrast with nnjK, Num. ix. 14, xv. 30, or ns, Deut. L 16. And hence, in 1 Pet.
ii. 11, 0)9 irapoiKovi Kal •jrapeTriBi^fiov;, both words conveying the same thought, — ■jrapeTrih.

TlapoMO^ 448 OlKoSofieco

giving prominence to the homelessness already expressed in Trdpoi/c. See also Eph. ii. 19,
ovKETt ea-Te ^evoi koL irdpoiKoi, where irapoiicoi has the same force in relation to ^eVot,
(Lev. XXV. 23, quoted under oUeio'i, is not a parallel instance here.) Elsewhere, in Acts
vii 6, irapoiKO'i ev yfj dXKoTpla ; vii. 29.

OtKoSo/iO';, 6, one who builds a house or anything, an architect ; e.g. oik. <ppajfia)v,
Isa. Iviii. 12, 2 Kings xii 11, and elsewhere. In the IST. T. Acts iv. 11, o XiOo^ 6 i^ov-
OevTjdel'i vcf)' v/jLcbv tuv olKohofiav (Laehm. and Tisch. read this instead of olKohofiovvrcov,
Ps. cxviii. 22 ; Matt. xxi. 42). Those who build the temple are thus named, and those
also who build " the house of God " in its K T. sense.

OlKohojMeca, to build a house, or, generally, to build anything ; irokiv, -Trvpyov,
Ta^ov?, etc., Matt. vii. 24, 26, xxi. 33, xxiii. 29, xxvi. 61, xxvii. 40 ; Mark xiL 1, xiv. 58,
XV. 29 ; Luke iv. 29, vi. 48, 49, vii. 5, xi. 47, 48, xu. 18, xiv. 28, 30, xvii. 28 ; John
ii. 20; Acts vii. 47, 49. Metaphorically, in 1 Pet. ii. 5, cos Xldoi ^(ovTe<; oiKoSofieca-Oe,
o1ko<; 7rvevfidTi,Ko<; ; Matt. xxi. 42, \idov ov aTreBoKifj-aaav ot otKoSo/xoOz'Te? ; Mark xii. 10 ;
Luke XX. 17 : 1 Pet. ii. 7, vid. olKo<i; Gal. ii. 18, el lyap a KaTekvaa ravra irdXw oiKa-
Sofiw; Matt. xvi. 18, im TavTr/ ttj Trerpa olKoSofiija-ai /lov tt]v iKKXTjaiav; Eom. xv. 20,
of the labours of the apostles, eV aXXop 6efj,e\i,ov olKohojxS). This use of the word in
reference to things to which it cannot literally be applied, is foreign to classical usage.
In Xen. Cyrop. viii. 7. 15, /i^ o?iv a ol Oeol vj>i'i<yr}VTai dya6h et? otKeiOTrjTa dSeX(f)oi';
fidraid "jrore rronja-rjre, dXX' eVt ravra ev6v<; olKoSofielTe aXXa (ptXcKo, epya, the word is
suggested by the preceding oiKet6Trj<;. The N. T. use of the word can be explained only
by the Hebrew of the 0. T., where nja^ to huild, is used to denote the advancement of
any one's welfare or prosperity; Mai. iii. 15, koX vvv rifiei<i fiaKapi^ofiev aXXoTpcovi, Kal
dvoiKoBofiovvTai irdvret; iroiovvTe<s dvo/j-a, Kal avTeaTijcrav t& deoj Kal iaa>drjcrav ; Ps.
xxviii. 5, KaOeXeii avToii's Kal ov /xf) olKohofi'^creci; avToii<; ; Jer. xlii. 10, xii. 16, xxxi. 4,
olKohofirjdca ae Kal olKoZofjL'qOrja-ri irap9evo^ 'laparjX; xxxiii. 6, 7, laTpevaco auTrjv Kal
TTOtTjcro) Kal elprjvrjv Kal itigtiV . . . olKohofirjaco avTov? KaOm'; Kal to irporepov. Jer. i. 1 0,
xviii. 9 ; Job xxii. 23, n.ian I'lK'-lj? 3wri-DK. (It will be observed that the word is used
especially of prosperity brought about by God.) Of 1 Cor. viii. 1, ^ dyd-rrr) oiKoSofiei:
X. 23, irdvra e^ecrriv, dXX' ov irdvra av/j,cj}epei- iravra e^eanv, dXX' ov irdwa oiKoSojjiei.
In contrast with Ka6aipeiv, KaraXveiv, ci. 2 Cor. x. 8, ^9 (e^oi/cria.?) eScoKev 6 Kvpto'i ek
OLKoSoiMrjv Kal ovK ek KaOatpeaiv vfiwv ; xiii. 1 0. In the E". T. it denotes an activity
brought to bear upon the Christian's state, and tending to the advancement of the work
of God (Eom. xiv. 19, 20); to growth in the grace and knowledge of Jesus Christ
(2 Pet. iii. 18); to the development of the inner life (Eph. iv. 16), especially within the
Christian community, where the process is said specially to be carried on. With irapa-
KaXelv, 1 Thess. v. 11, TrapaKaXeire dXXrjXov; Kal olKohofielTe eh rov eva, see 1 Cor.
xiv. 3, o Ti-pocpTjTevaiv dydpoiTroi,^ XaXel olKoSofirjv Kal TrapaKXtjcnv Kal irapafjivOiav ;
X. 23, c£ ver. 24; Rom. xiv. 19, cf. ver. 20; 1 Cor. xiv. 4, o XaXcov yXcoa-a-y eavrbp

OlKoSoij,eco 449 OlKovofioi

olKoBojjbet 6 Se TTpocjjrjTevaiv iKKXija-iav olKoSof/,el ; ver. 1 7. We have a catachresis (or
forced use) of the word in 1 Cor. viii. 1 0, 57 avveiBTjcrK avrov dadevov'; ovto^ oIkoSo/li,7)6-i^-
aerai eh rb to, elScoXoOvra ea-Oieiv. The middle, in Acts ix. 31, 17 fiev ovv eKKXTjata . . .
olKoBofiovfj,ev7) Kal 'jTopevofi.evrj tS (polSa rov KvpLov k.tX. Cf. otKoSofii], STroiKoBofielv.
See my treatise, JJeher den hiblischen Begriff der Erhauung, Barmen 1863.

O IkoSo firj, rj, unusual in profane Greek, literally, the act of building, building as a
'process, and hence also that which is huilt, the building. The latter in Matt. xxiv. 1 ;
Mark xiii. 1, 2 ; 1 Chron. xxix. 1 ; Ezek. xl. 2. Metaphorically, 1 Cor. iii. 9, 6eov •yap
ecTfiev (TwepyoL- deov yempyiov, 6eov olKoSofiij icne ; 2 Cor. v. 1, olKoBofif)v sk deov 'i'^ppLev ;
comp. the preceding oIkm and the olKijrijpMv following in ver. 2 ; Eph. ii. 21, Traaa
oiKoSop,r) (Tvvapp.okoyovpev'q av^et et? vabv dyiov iv Kvpia>, of the Christian fellowship.
In its first meaning, the act of building, it harmonizes with the K T. sense of oLKoSop.eiv,
the advancement of God's work of grace within the Christian fellowship, both in individuals
and in the whole ; Eom. xiv. 19, 20, ra ttj? elpr}vri<s StdiKwpev koX to, t?}? olKoBop-rj'; ttj? et?
d.W'jjXoi'?. pr) evEKev /Spcu^aro? KaraXve to epyov rov 6eov ; 2 Cor. x. 8, rj^ (i^ovaiati)
eScoKev rjpAv 6 Kvpio'i eh olKoBop,rjv ical ovk eh KaOalpeaLV vp,liiiv, as in xiii. 1 ; Eph. iv. 1 2,
eh olKoBop,r}v tov ampaTO^ tov Xpicnov p^e^^pi k.t.X. ; ver. 13. Ver. 16, e'^ ov "ttolv to
a'&p,a . . . TTiv av^7](Tiv rov crdoparo'; iroielrat eh oiKoBoprjv eavTov iv dyairrj. Also in
Eom. XV. 2 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 3, 5, 12, 26 ; 2 Cor. xii. 19 ; Eph. iv. 29.

'E TT 1 KoB o p^ea, to buLld upon, 1 Cor. iiL 10, &>? cro^os dp')(i,TeiiTaiv OepiXiov
redei/Ka, aXXo^ Be eVowoSo/tet. eKaaTO<; Be pKeireTO) irm iiroiKoBop.ei ; vv. 12, 14; Eph.
ii. 20, e'iroiKoBopv}devTe<; ivl tS depeXuo tmv diroaroXav k.t.X. See oIkov tov 6eov of the
Christian church. Hence generally = to build up, in the same sense as olKoBopelv ; Acts
XX. 32, irapuTldep.aL vp.a'i rm 9em Kal tqJ \6yq) t^9 '^apiTO^ avrov, ra> Bwapeva eiroiKoBo-
prjcrai. Kal Bovvai KXrjpovopilav ev roh rjyiacr pivot'} rraaiv, the full accomplishment and
perfecting of God's gracious work, the carrying on of the work already begun, Phil. i. 6.
Comp. the difference of the tenses in Col. ii. 7, ev Xpia-ra •n-epnrarelre, ippi^ojpivoi Kal
erroiKoBop,ovp,evoi ev avrm. The word also occurs in Jude 20, eirocKoBop.ovvrei eavrov<;
rfi ayuurdrr) vpbwv iricrrei, ev rrvevpan dylm rrpoaev')(ppevoi.

OlKov6po<i, o, one who manages the house and the household affairs (Plat., Xen.,
Aristot., Plut.), generally, steward. LXX. = n;3n"i'y, 1 Kings iv. 6, xvi. 9, xviii. 3 ; Isa.
xxxvi. 3, 22 ; Luke xii. 42, xvi. 1, 3, 8 ; Gal. iv. 2 ; Eom. xvi. 23, d oIkov. ttj? nTo\ea><;,
chamberlain or governor. Metaphorically applied in 1 Cor. iv. 1, outm? 17/ia? Xoyi^ecrOw
dvOpawo'} CO? inrripera'; Xpt,(jrov koI olKov6pov<; p,var7}pl(ov 6eov ; Tit. i. 7, Set 70^3 rov
erria-KoiTOV dveyKXrjrov elvai w? Oeov oiKovopbov ; 1 Pet. iv. 1 0, eh eai/roii? to 'x^dptcrp^
BiaKovovvre<s co? KaXol olKovopoi rroiKiX'r)'; ^aptTo? 6eov. To understand this application
of the term, we must remember that the olKovopo'i stood in a twofold relationship, first to
the Lord, to whom he was answerable, 1 Cor. iv. 2, Luke xvi. 1 sqq. ; and, secondly, to
3 L

OlKov6fjio<; 450 OlKovofica

those with whom he had to deal in the Lord's name, Luke xii. 42, -rh apa ia-Tiv 6 inaro'i
OiKOvofMO^ 6 ^p6vifio<;, ov KaTaar-ijcrei 6 Kvpwi enri Trj<; OepaTrela^ avrov SiBovai iv Kaipm
a-iTOfiirpiov (with ver. 43, cf. Matt. xix. 28). With 1 Pet. iv. 10, cf. Matt. xxv. 14-30
and 1 Cor. xii. 28, vii. 14, 26.

O licovofiia, fj, administration of the house or of property (one's own or another's,
Xen. Ok. 1) ; applied also to the administration of the affairs of state, Aristot. Polit.
iii. 11, 57 ^aaiXeia TroXeiB? Koi eOvovi evo? r) ifKelovo'; olKovofila, Luke xvi. 2, 3, 4. Paul
applies the word to the office with which he was entrusted, 1 Cor. ix. 17, olKovofiUv
ireiricTTev^ai, sc. tov evajjeXi^eadat,, ver. 16 ; cf. olKovofiot p,var7}pl(ov 6eov, iv. 1. It is
not so easy to understand the word in the other passages where it occurs, Eph. i. 10,
yvcoplcra'; rjfuv to jjLVcrTrjpiov tov 6e\'^fiaT0<; avTov kuto, ttjv evBoKiav rjv irpoeOeTO iv avTa>
eh olKovofjiLav tov 'jj-\'rjpd>/xaTo<i tu>v Kaipwv ; iii. 2, it ye rjKovaaTe ttjv olKovofiiav TJ79
ydpi.TO'; TOV 6eov ttj's hodeia'q'i fioi et? vfiag ; iii. 9, 10, (pcoTlaat, ■jravra^ Tk r] olKovo/j,la
Tov uvcTTijplov TOV a'TTOKeKpvp^iMevov K.T.X. Iva jvcopiaOfj vvv ... 17 'TToXviroifciXo'; cro(pla tov
deov ; Col. i. 25, '^9 (eKKXrjcria';') iyevofiTjv hidKovo<s Kara ttjv oiKovofJ-iav tov 6eov ttjv
Sodeladv fioL eh v/u,d'} irXt^pSyaai tov Xoyov tov 6eov ; 1 Tim. i. 4, aiTive<; ^rjTTjaec';
irapeyovcnv fiaXXov rj olKovop,(av deov ttjv ev iriaTei. In this last text the olKovop^ia
Oeov clearly denotes that which was Timothy's duty, everything which hindered this he
was to avoid ; hence = olKovo/ilav oIkov deov, according to which we may explain Col.
i. 25 ; the ttjv Bodeladv p-oi there may he compared with Luke xvi. 3, d<pat,pelTai ttjv
olKovoplav dtt ep,ov. In the passages from the Epistle to the Ephesians, however, the
word manifestly does not denote a duty which the apostle had to perform. As the word
may denote the action either of a commander or subordinate, Harless (on Eph. i. 10)
takes the word in the first case to denote regulation and arrangement, and in the latter
to signify administration and performance; but usage does not sanction this. OiKovofila
denotes either (I.) actively, the administrative activity of the owner or of the steward (c£
Xen. Oec. 1) ; or (II.) passively, that which is administered, the administration or ordering
of the house, or the arrangement, e.g., of a treatise or discourse (Plutarch). The most
difficult passage is Eph. i 9, 10, (Kara Tfjv evBoiciav avTov, rjv irpoedeTo iv avT&)
eh oiKovoplav tov rrrXripdopaTO'; twv Kaipuv. The question is, What are we to regard
as the object of oMovop^la ? Hofmann makes the TrXrjpcapia tcov Kaipwv the object, and
explains the expression in harmony with olKovofielv to ifKi^papa twv Kaipwv, which
is said to be analogous to the expression oiKovopeiv ttjv vXrjv, Lucian, Hist. Conser. 51,
a procedure directed to the fulness of times, i.e. which gives thereto an application cor-
responding with the design. But olKovopbelv T-qv vXtjv signifies not the applying, but the
forming or moulding of the material, and thus olKovop,elv to ttX. t. k. would be a pro-
cedure directed to the establishing of the fulness of times (Storr and others), for which, at
the most, oiKovofieiv tov<; Kaipov's might be said. But, upon the whole, to TrXrjpaipa, twv
Kaipwv is an utterly inappropriate object for olKovop,ia. The true object is to be found

OlKovofjbla 451 ^ATToXkvfii

in the relative ^v TrpoiOsTO. It is the divine purpose which here is said to be administered.
The genitive tov ifkrjp. r. k. is not to be taken as a characteristic feature of this admini-
stration (Meyer), — which would have no meaning, — it denotes quite generally the relation
of pertaining to ; the administration of God's saving purpose pertaining to the fulness of the
times, as Calov and Eiickert rightly explain, dispensatio propria plenitudini temporum.
Thus oLKovofiia here is to be taken as passive. The olKovofiM in ui. 2, 9 also has
reference to the administration of grace in the N. T., — iii. 2, oIk. rrj'; •^dpno'i, ver. 9, tov
/j,va-T7jpiov K.T.X., — inasmuch as salvation is made known and communicated to men
according to the divine order and arrangement, and thus a further sanction is given to
take the word passively in these places also.

"OWv /j,t, fut. 6\S> (cf. in the N. T. 1 Cor. i. 1 9 from the LXX.), okeaa, aor. wKecra ;
2d perf. oKmXa, intransitive, like most perfects of this kind, with a middle signification,
oXKvfiai,, oXovfjiai, Q)\6fir]p. Doderlein, Horn. Gloss. 2163, compares oXcoXa with oKoXv^as,
to cry, to howl ; but Curtius rejects this because of the difference in the stem- vowel (u in
oXoXv^eo). Schenkl (Worterhuch) considers the primary form to have been oXvvfib, and
that this may be akin to the Latin volnus, vulnus. The simple verb occ\irs for the most
part in poetry, and aTroXXvfM in prose. It signifies, (I.) like the Latin perdere, in a stronger

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