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Biblico-theological lexicon of New Testament Greek online

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or weaker sense, (a.) to ruin or destroy, chiefly of living things, to kill, to destroy. — Soph.
Oed. Col. 395, vvvyap deal a opdovcn, irpoaOe S' wXXvaav; (6.) to lose, — the subject being
the sufferer; Hem. Od. xix. 274, kraipovi (uXeue koX vija. Especially Ov/mov, '<{rvx,vv, etc.,
= to lose one's life. — (II.) Middle and 2d perfect intransitively, to perish, to die, to go to
ruin, of living beings, and generally in case of a violent death ; also, without implying
loss of life, oXcoXa = I am lost or ruined. The fundamental thought is not by any means
annihilation, but perhaps corruption, an injurious force, which the subject exerts or cannot
hinder. — In the N". T. only a7roXXu/it occurs ; but in the LXX. the simple verb often is
used as = n3K, Job iv. 11, Prov. i. 32, xi. 7 ; "W, Job xviii. 11 ; ma, Prov ii. 22.

'AttoXXv/mi,, (I.) (a.) to destroy, to ruin ; Homer uses it chiefly of death in battle ;
rarely in prose = to kill. Synon. Biacpdeipeiv ; Plat. Bep. x. 6 8 E, to fj,ev aTroXXvov koI
Biadidelpov Trav to kukov elvai, to Be aco^ov /cal ccicf)eXovv to aya96v. In the N. T. Matt.
ii. 13, xiL 14, xxi. 41, etc., 1 Cor. i 19, airoXco rrjv (TO(^iav twv aoc^wv (Isa. xxix. 14).
— (&.) To lose by decay, or simply, to lose in contrast with Xa/jL^dvetv, e^eiv, evpla-Ketv (Plat.
Farm.. 163 D, Phaed. 75 E); Xen. Kell. vii. 4. 13, ecjjvyov Kal ttoXXov? fxev dvBpa<;,
iroXXd Be oirXa d-TrdiXeaav ; Matt. x. 42, ou /u,^ dTroXlar) tov jiiaQov avTov ; Mark ix. 41 ;
Luke XV. 4, 9 ; John xviii. 9, vi. 39 ; 2 John 8. — (II.) Middle and 2d perfect, diroXcoXa
= to go to ruin, to perish (by force), in opposition to accQrjvai. The form of imprecation,
diroXotiinfiv, KaKicrTa d'jroXolpi.'rjv, is worthy of notice ; cf Job iii. 3, dTroXoiTo rj ■^/juepa. The
2d perf, it is all over with me, I am ruined, I am lost. Matt. viii. 25, acoaov v/^ci'i, diroX-
Xv/j-eda; ix. 17; Mark ii. 22, iv. 38; Luke xi. 51, xiii. 3, 5, 33, xv. 17, xxi. 18, 6pl^
e« TTj'i Ke(f>aX7]<; vfjiwv oil furj dTroXrjTai, cf. Acts xxvii. 34, v. 37 ; John vi. 12 ; 1 Cor. x,



'A'n-oWv/ii 452 ATroWvfii

9, 10, aTToX. vTro ti,vo^, cf. Xen. Cyrop. vii. 1. 47. — Heb. i. 11 ; Jas. i. 11 ; Eev. xviii.
14, etc. ; John Ti. 27, ■^ ySpwcrt? 17 airoXKvfievr], transitory food, in contrast with i? fxkvovaa
ek ^(orjv aldviov ; 1 Pet. i. 7, ■^pvcriov to a7roWvfj,evov. — The use of the 2d perfect par-
ticiple, TO a7To\.aiX6<i, Luke xix. 10 ; Matt, xviii. 11, rjXde 6 ufo? tov av6p. aaiaai to aivo-
XojXo?, is worthy of notice ; it corresponds with the expression tA irpo^aTa tcl airoXcoXora
o'cKov 'Iffparjk, Matt. x. 6, xv. 24, cf. Luke xv. 4, 6. This expression is derived from
Ezek. xxxiv. 4; Ps. cxix. 175, cf. Isa. Uii. 6, and it means the sheep which are no
longer in the fold, who are lost to the flock and to the shepherd, cf 1 Sam. xix. 4, 20 ;
hence = Trpo^. irKavm/jieva, 1 Pet. ii. 25 ; Matt, xviii. 12—14. In the sphere of saving
grace, to which Ps. xxiii., c. 3, xcv. 7 may be referred, it denotes those who are not within
the pale of Christian blessings. It is doubtful, however, whether the distinctive N. T.
use of airoXKvcrOai is to be referred to this.

The application of the word (in the middle), which is peculiar to the N. T., and is
without analogy in profane Greek, is to the future and eternal doom of man ; and thus it
is used specially by St. Paul and St. John, while hints only of this meaning occur in the
synoptical Gospels. Thus John iii. 16, "va ttS? ■jroa-reveov et? avTov firj ccn-oXrjTai,, aXX'
^XV ^(^V^ almviov; x. 28, ^ai-qv almvbov SiScofii avToi<; Koi ov fir] aTroXcovTao ; Eom. ii. 12,
oaob dvofiQ]'; rjfiapTov, avoixw; koI airoXovvTai ; 1 CoT. XV. 18, ol KoifirjOevTe'! iv XpLaTa
airdiKovTo ; vui. 11, aTToXXuTat 6 aadev&v ... St' bv XpLcrTo<i a'rreOavev (cf Eom. xiv. 15) ;
i. 18, ol airoXKufievoi, as against crw^o/xevoi,. So 2 Cor. ii. 15, iv. 3 ; 2 Thess. ii. 10 ;
2 Pet. ui. 9, fjiT] /3ovX6/j,ev6(; Tiva'; airoXeadaL. Compare the corresponding use of the
transitive in Jas. iv. 12, e?? icnlv o vofiodeT7]<; koi KpiTtj^;, 6 Bvvd/j,€vo<; awaai /cat airoXecrai ;
John vi. 39, 'Iva irav b BeSwKev fioi, fir) dTj-oXecrco e^ avTov dXXh dvaaTrjam avTo iv ry
ia-^aTrj rjfi. (xviii. 9, cf. xvii. 12). An indirect correspondence only is traceable in the
use of the word in the synoptical Gospels, where the transitive diroXXvvai prevails (except
in Matt. v. 29, 30, avficpipet, ydp crot, iva dTroXrjTai, ev t&v fisXSiV aov koI firj oXov to
(TWfia (TOV ^riOfi 6t? yeivvav). See Matt. x. 28, o Bvvdfievo<; Kal yjrv^riv koi aSifia cltto-
XeaaL iv yeevvrj ; x. 39, evpobv Trjv ■\\rv)(r]V avTOv aTToXeaet, aitTrjv, Kal 6 aTToXecra? Trjv
yp-v^riv avTov eveicev ifiov evprjcrei, avTrjv ; xvi 25; Luke xvii. 33, 0? idv l^rjTrjcry rrjv
yfrv^rjv avTov "Tvepiiroir^aaadab, airoXeaei avTrjv, Kal o? iav diroXearj, ^aoyovijcrei avTrfV ;
Mark vui. 35, dm-oXeaei, . . . amcreo ; Luke ix. 24; ver. 25, t/ 70.^ axpeXelTai, dvOpcoTrot;
KepBrjaa<; tov Kocrfiov oXov, eavTov he dvoXecra'S rj ^rffiimdei's ; cf. Mark viii. 3 7, tI <ydp
avToXXajfia Trj<; ■\\rv'\(fj'; avTov ; Liike ix. 56, Eeceived text (for ■\lrv^a'} d'jroXea-ai, some
Mss. read ■f-. diroKTelvai). The most striking parallel in the synoptical Gospels is the
figurative expression in Luke xv. 24, 32, veKph^ rjv koI e^rjcrev, Kal aTroXcoXm? Kal evpedtf.
We cannot say that diroXX. is used in these passages exactly in the sense in which it
occurs in the writings of St. Paul and St. John, viz. with reference to the everlasting
salvation or misery of man. It is inexactly used both where it occurs as a strong synonym
for diroKTelveiv (Matt. x. 27, 28), and where it stands as the antithesis of evpiaKeiv.
0. T. usage, moreover, furnishes no analogy, because none of the corresponding Hebrew



^ AttoWv/j,!, 453 "Ovofia

words (nis Jin, T'DB'n) are used in this sense. In most places airoKK. is simply a strong
synonym for aTroKTeiveov or aij-oOvijaKeiv. In the Apocrypha, too, the word does not
occur in the N". T. sense. The intransitive a.'rrdoXeia, ruin or destruction, occurs in some
passages of the 0. T. in ^close connection with Hades, and thus serves to denote the state
after death; Prov. xv. 11, aS?;? koI aircoXeia — li'^?^?. ; Ps. Ixxxviii. 12, firj SiTjyijaeTai tk
ev Tacfxp TO eXeo? aov, koX rrjv aXrjdebdv crov iv ry aTrcoXela, comp. ver. 1 3 ; Job xxviii. 2 2,
17 airdikeia koX davaTo<; elTrav ; xxii. 6, jv/ivo^ aSi;? ivat'mov avrov, koX ovk eari irepi-
jSoXaLov rfj dircoXeia. In these passages it is = ti'^?^. Considering that this word only
occurs here and in Job xxxi. 12 ; that in post-biblical Hebrew it signifies Hades (l^^K,
Ki'nas, ^^nais, see Levy, Chald. Worterh., who quotes Isa. liii. 9, KJiaKT xnio, " the death of
perfect annihilation, the extinction of future life"); that, judging from Eev. ix. 11, it
must be a significant and distinctive word, — see Wetstein's quotation from Emek Ham-
melech, xv. 3, " infimus GeJiennae locus est Abaddon . . . unde nemo emergit . . .," — the
most probable conclusion is, that the N. T. use, especially of the intrans. diroWva-Oai,
denotes utter and final ruin and perdition. Nevertheless, we must always keep in mind
the expression " lost sheep ; " the state of the case may perhaps be rather, that the con-
dition of the lost sheep obliges us to regard this airoXKva-dai as a state which may he
reversed. — ^vvaTroWvcrdai, Heb. xL 31.

'AirmXe la, rj, (I.) transitively the losing or loss ; Matt. xxvi. 8, et? ri 17 aTrdikeia
aijTT) ; Mark xiv. 4, cf. Theophr. Char. Mh. 15, on airoWvcn Kal tovto to dpyvpu)v = to
squander; (II.) intransitively, perdition, ruin (Deut. iv. 26; Isa. xiv. 23, and often). In
the N. T. of the state after death wherein exclusion from salvation is a realized fact,
wherein man, instead of becoming what he might have been, is lost and ruined ; cf. diroX-
Xvadai, often contrasted with yuyvecrdaL in Plato, Farm. 156, 163 D, E ; Bep. vii. 527 B ;
Oonv. 211 A; corresponding with !n?i<, Job xxviii. 22, xxvi. 6 ; Ps. Ixxxviii. 12 ; Prov.
XV. 12. See airoWyfti. Eev. xvii. 8, fieXKet dvajBaivew iic Trj<; a^va-aov Kal el<; d-jrcoKetav
virdryet; ver. 11. Opposed to acoT-qpia, Phil. i. 28 ; ^(orj. Matt. vii. 13. See Heb. x. 39,
rjfiei'i Be OVK icTp,ev v'rrocTToXrj'; 6t? dTTOoXeiav, dXKa TrtcrTeto? et? TrepLirourjaiv ^(oi]<; ; Eom.
ix. 22, cTKeur] opyrj's KaT7jpTta-jj,eva et? dircoXeiav, cf. ver. 23, a 7rporjTOLp,aaev eh So^av;
PhU. iii 19 ; 1 Tim. vi 9 ; Acts viii. 20 ; 2 Pet. ii. 1, 3, iii. 7, 16 ; o mo? tt;? diraiXeia^,
John xviL 12, is a name given to Judas, and to Antichrist, 2 Thess. ii. 3. We cannot
correctly compare the passive expression with the active one D''n''nE'p D'':3, Isa. i. 4,
rendered by the LXX. rightly, viol dvo/jLoi, cf. viol t^9 ^acnXela<;, and other like expres-
sions ; see vl6<;.

^AiroWvwv, Eev. ix. 11, a Greek name for the dyyeXo'; Tfj<; d^vaaov ; 6vo/xa avrw
'E^palcrrl 'A^aBBmv (vid. dTroXXvfii) = destroyer, from diroXXvco, a non-Attic form, side by
side with aTroXXvfii,, occurring in later Greek in the N". T., Eom. xiv. 15.

"Ovo/j, a, TO, from the same root as vov^, yiyvmaKw, viz. TNO ; originally perhaps
oyvofia (Ion. ovvofia), cf the Latin cognomen ; Sanscrit, naman, from gnd — noscere ; hence



"Ovo/ia 454 "Ovo/j.a

equivalent to sign or token ; — appellation, name, and, indeed, usually a proper name. In
Homer, of persons only, afterwards of things also. In the IsT. T. (excepting in Mark xiv. 32 ;
Luke i. 26 ; Eev. iii. 12, xiii. 17) of persons only. Matt, xxvii. 32 ; Mark v. 22 ; Luke
i. 5, 27, and often. The mention of a name is introduced by the word ovo/iari, (Xen..,
Plat. ; cf. Kriiger, § xlviii. 15. 17), Matt, xxvii. 32, Luke 1 5, v. 27, etc., the name itself
being in the same case as the substantive ; the accusative Tovvofxa = to ovofji,a, only in
Matt, xxvii. 57. The usual and distinctive usage of the N. T. rests upon the significance
of the name, and this corresponds with 0. T. precedent. The Heb. 0& means originally
sign or token, cf. Isa. Iv. 13 with niX, ecrrat eh ovofia koi et? a-ojfieiov almviov. Gen. xi. 4,
DB' UjiTityw, of the tower of Babel. The name is a sign or mark of him who bears it ; it
describes what is, or is said to be, characteristic of the man, and what appears as such, just
as we find in Gen. ii. 20, of the naming of the animals by Adam, with the statement,
^•njaa ItV KVp-^?!5 tn^'?, tS Be 'ABafi ovx eipedrj I3o7]0o^ o/j,oio<: ainm; Gen. iii. 20, v. 2, 29,
xvL 11, xvii. 19, xxvii. 36, the names of Jacob's children, and many others. This
specially appears in changes of name, as in Gen. xvii. 5, 15 ; Euth i. 20, etc. Indica-
tions of this significance of a name are traceable in classical Greek, e.g. in the contrast
sometimes drawn between the name and the thing or fact itself, e.g. Eurip. Or. 454, ovofia,
epjov S' ovK ej^oucrtj/ ol (jjlXot, cf. Eev. iii. 1, ovofju e'X^ec<; on ^^?, kuI veicpo'i el. For this
significance in the naming of a person, see Matt. i. 21, KoXia-ei^ to ovo/jm avrov ^Irjaovv.
avTo<i jap (Tcoa-ei rov Xaov k.t.X. ; w. 23, 25; Luke i. 13, 31, 63, ii 21; Mark v. 9,
XeryMv ovofid /jLoi, on ttoWol icrp,ev; Eev. xix. 12, 13, ix. 11, cf. xiii. 17, xv. 2, etc.
Hence we find changes of name, and the addition of a new name, Mark iii. 16, eiredrjKev
ovofjLa T& Xt/J'CovL UeTpov, ver. 17, cf. Matt. xvi. 18; Luke ix. 54 sc[. ; Acts iv. 36,
xiii. 6, 8; Phil. ii. 9, i'^apicraTO aiira) ovop,a to inrep Trav ovofia; Heb. i. 4, toctoutm
KpeiTToov yevop.evo'i tcov ar/jeXcov oaui Siacpopcorepov Trap' avTov<; KeK\r)pov6/j,7jKev ovofia.
Hence, too, the import of such declarations as Eev. ii. 17, too vlkSivti, Bcoaco . . . ovojxa
Kaivov; iii. 12, ypd^jro) eir aiiTov to ovofxa tov 6eov p,ov . . . KaX to ovo/jLO, fiov to Kacvov,
xxii. 4. The name represents the person who bears it, see Phil. iv. 3, &v t^ ovop,. ev
^i^Xui ^wrj'i; Luke x. 20; Acts i. 15, xix. 13, e'7re')(eipr](Tav Be TLve<; t&v . . . e^opKia-Tcbv
ovofJid^eLV ewl Tov<i e')(pvTa<; tcl irvevjiaTa t^ irovrjpd to ovo/xa tov Kvplov 'Itjaov ; xxvi. 9,
TTjOo? TO ovojjLa 'Irjaov tov Na^copalov TroWa ivavTia Trpa^ai; Eph. i. 21, vtrepdvca Trdarj's
ap'xfi<; . . . fcal iravTO'; 6v6/jmto^ 6vop,a^op,evov k.t.X. ; Lev. xviii. 12, and other places ; and
hence we may explain ^aiTTi^eiv et? to ovo/xd tivo's, Matt, xxviii. 19 ; Acts xix 5, cf.
1 Cor. i. 13, rj eh to ovojjba UavXov e^airriffdriTe; vv. 14, 15, where Paul says that he had
himself baptized none, so that no one could say that they were baptized in his own name ;
cf. 1 Cor. X. 2, ■7ravTe<; eh tov Mcovarjv ej^aivTia-avTo ; Eom. vi. 2, eh XptcrTov 'Irjcrovv (vid.
^ttTTTtfo). Still between eh to ovofid Tivof and e'h Tiva there is this difference, — the name
expresses not who, but what one is ; cf. Matt. x. 41, 42, eh ovofm TrpocjjiJTov, BikuCov, p,a6rjTo£
Tiva Be-^eaOai; Mark ix. 41, o? lydp av woTlay vp.af ivoTrjpiov uSaTO? ev ovofiuTt otl Xpia-
Tov ea-Te ; 1 Pet. iv. 1 6, el Be o)'; XpiaTLavoi, firj aicry^weffdco, Bo^a^eTCC Be tov Oeov iv t^



"Ovofia 455 "Ovofia

ovofian TovTO) (i.e. "on account of this name of Christian for which he suffers"); Acts
iii. 1 6, icTTepeaia-ev to ovofia avrov. Generally the name describes, for the sake of others,
what the individual is ; it expresses what he is for another, and hence the names Ishmael,
Isaac, Jacob and his sons, Moses, the children of the prophet Isaiah (vii. 3, viii. 3, etc.),
as is clear from the fact that the name is generally given by another, and when given by
any one to himself, it is an account of his relationship to others. Eev. ii. 17, ovofia
Katvov, o ovSeh olSev el /j,r) 6 Xafi^dvav, is not an exception to this, but must be taken as
analogous with 2 Sam. xii. 25, Nathan called Solomon's name Jedidiah nin^ Ti3y3. The
same applies to the altered names Abraham, Israel, Peter, and others. To baptize
"in the name of," etc., means to baptize into that which the person named is for the
baptized ; and therefore it is not merely a designation of the person in whose name the
rite is celebrated, but a full designation of his character and relationship. See Matt.
xviiL 20, avvTjyfievoi eh to ejj,bv ovofia. This is specially true when the name of God
and of Christ is used. The name of God denotes all that God is for man, and this is said
to be known by men so that they are said to know God accordingly ; it is the expression
for men of what God is. Hence 2 Sam. vi. 2, of the ark of the covenant, e^' fjv eweKX.rjdr)
TO ovofia Tov KVplov Tcbv Bvvd/jie(ov Ka67]fj,evov iirl rav •)(epov^lv eV avrfjii. It is the
representation of God which is expressed thereby. In His name God manifests Himself
to men (Gen. xvi. 13), see especially Ex. vi. 3, " I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,
arh ^ri5)"]i3 i6 nin'; •'DK'i •'•vd bH2 ■" Ex. iii. 15, iM ^i^ ''l^r nti d^V^ "^m nt, — and where God's
glory is manifest, His name is said to be there. Compare Ex. xx. 24, iv Travrl Toira ov
eav eirovofjudaa to ovofid fiov exel koI rj^o) irpo'; ae, km eiiXoyrjo-co ae ; 1 Kings v. 3, ovk
Tj^vvaTo olKoSofiTJaai oIkov toj ovofiari Kvpiov, cf. iii. 2, OLKa t& Kvpia, Hebrew njnj DE'p ;
viii. 43, oTTtB? ryvcaai, Traj/Te? ol \aol to ovofid aov, — and therefore God's name is the
expression or revelation of what God is as the G-od of salvation (see ho^a, and compare
the connection between the first and second petition in the Lord's prayer), and not only
the expression, but the communication thereof, intended for the knowledge and use of men.
See above, Ex. xx. 24; 1 Kings xiv. 21, rjv (ttoXiv) e^eke^aro Kvpio^ BeaOat to ovofia
avTov eKel; 2 Kings xxi. 4, 7, xxiii. 27 ; 2 Chron. vi. 33, xxxiii. 4 ; Ps. xlviii 11, KaTo,
TO ovofid (TOV, 6e6<;, ovtw<; Kal r] atvecrk aov eVi to, irepaTa tyii <y^'i ; Isa. xxvi. 8, " the
desire of our soul is to Thy name and to the remembrance of Thee." Isa. xviii. 7 ; Jer. xiv. 9,
Nip3 V'PV ''IpB'1 nin; I331i?3 nnK1;Isa.Lii. 6,lxiii. 14, 16, 19,lxiv. 1; cf Johnxvii 6, icpavepwcrd
aov TO ovojjLa Tot? dvdpdyiroK; ver. 26, xii. 28, ho^aaov aov to ov. This explains the
various ways in which the name of the Lord is spoken of, as also in Ex. xxiii. 21, where
it is said of the angel who was to keep and guide Israel, i^npa iDK'. (It must be observed
that ^V^^., as Oehler shows in Herzog's Bealeneyhl. art. " Name" is not properly God's name.)
The distinction between ovofia and ho^a tov deov, Kvplov, is simply that the latter is the
manifestation of that which God is towards us, and the former announces this so as to
determine our relation towards Him (for the name is said to be uttered and hallowed by us.
" We have not, indeed, already with the name itself the person, but that which leads to



"Ovofia 456 "Ovo/Ma

this," Culmann, Ethik, p. 165). Thus in the N. T. the name of Christ signifies what
Christ is, Mark vi. 14, <pavepov yap iyevero to ovofia avTov, and expresses this for us;
it is the embodiment and presentation of what Christ is, demanding our recognition, see
the texts already cited, Heb. i. 4 ; Phil. ii. 9 ; Acts iii. 16, iv. 12, ovk eanv iv aXXp ovSevl
■fj aairrjpta' ovBe <yap ovofid kariv erepov . . . to BeBofiivov iv dv9pooTroi<; iv S Bei crwdrjvat
rfjia^; ix. 15, ^aardaai to Svofid fxov ivdnrtov idvcov ; Eev. ii. 3, KpaTei<; rb ovo/j,d jxov.
Hence the expression inaTeveiv ek to ov. avTov, John i. 1 2, ii. 2 3, iii. 1 8 ; 1 John v. 13;
Tft) ovofi. Tov v'lov T. 6., 1 Johu iii. 23, cf. Acts iii. 16, eV^ t^ TTLcrrei tov ovojm. avTov.
We must ever remember that what Christ is not only lies in His name, but is said to be
present to us in the name whenever we use it ; hence iiriKaXela-dai to ov. t. Kvp., Acts
iL 21, and often; 2 Tim. ii. 19, 7ra? o ovojid^wv to ovofia Kvpiov. And this explains
such expressions as John xx. 31, tm iriaTevovTe'; ^corjv e'^iiTS iv Tat ovofiaTi aiirov (see
John xvii. 5, 6) ; Eom. i. 5, ek viraKorjv irlaTeco's . . . virep tov 6vofiaTo<; avTov ; Matt.
xix. 29, oaTi,^ d^aev aSeX^oii? ^ dSeX(/)a? . . . eveicev tov ovofiaTOf; /jlov, xxiv. 9 ; Mark
xitL 13; Luke xxi. 12, 17, ea-eaOe /.ua-ovfievoi . . . Sia to ^vofxa /xov; John xv. 21, cf
John xvii. 11, 12, iTrjpovv avTov<^ iv tq> ovofiaTl, ffov; Acts v. 41, ix. 16, xv. 26, xxi. 13.
And particularly in the oft-occurring declaration that something is done " in the name "
of God or of Jesus Christ, it is clearly meant that the name is the presentation of what
He is. This iroielv rt, iv ovofiaT^ Ttz/o? does not occur in profane Greek ; and this is not
(as Buttmann says, Gramm. des N. T. § 147. 10) because, through Oriental influence, a
meaning strange and contrary to usage has been put into the preposition, — viz. that of
the Hebrew 3, as denoting the instrument (of persons = Bid with the genitive, adjutus,
opera), — but because such a meaning of the word ovo/ia, and such a significance as
belonging to the name, is foreign to profane Greek. It may be taken for granted that
Christianity first introduced the use of the expression, in the name of, into our western
languages. 3 certainly, in DCf'a, does in some places denote the instrument, but only in
the weakest sense. Thus Ps. cxviii. 10, 11, 12, tw ovojiaTi, Kvpiov rjfivvdfi'qv avTovs; Ps.
Uv. 3, ^609, iv T& ovojiaTl aov craicrov fie (cf Matt. ix. 34, iv Ta> apj^ovTi, t&iv Baifiovicov
i/jb^dWeiv to, Sat/xoviu). We shall not be far wrong if we take the 3 in OB'S in most
cases simply as the 3 of accompaniment, e.g. XaXelv oKijOeiav iv 6v6/jl. Kvp., 1 Kings
xxii. 16 ; 2 Chron. xviii. 15 ; 1 Sam. xviL 45, aii epxy irpbi /j,e iv pofi^aia . . . Kayon
TTopevofiai, Trpo? ere iv 6vo/m. Kvpiov 6eov ; Mic. iv. 5, iropevaofieOa iv ovo/x,. Kvp. ; 1 Kings
xviii. 32, wKoSofjLTjae 'Xldov<; iv ovofiaTt, Kvplov; xviii. 24, /3oaTe iv 6v6/jmti decov vfiwv, koL
iyo) iTTiKaXeao/jLai iv tw ov. Kvp. tov 6eov fiov. The presentation of God denoted in the
name brings the act or effect into immediate relation to Him as its cause ; hence,
frequently, eV ovofi., e.g. evKoyelv ivl tw ov. uvtov, Deut. xxi. 5 ; XaXeiv, -rrpocprjTeveiv iirl
TW ov., Jer. xi. 21, xxvi. 16, 20 ; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 18. The actor may thus appear as
the representative of the person referred to, e.g. 1 Kings xxi. 8, eypai^e ^i^lov eirl tw
ov. ^A')(ad^, though elsewhere another form of expression is chosen, Esth. viii. 8, ypd^lraTe
Kol vfiels e'/c ToO ovofi. fiov; ver. 8, toO /3aaiXeco<i iinTd^avTo<s ; ver. 10, Bia tov /Jao-tXeo)?.



"Ovofia 457 "Ovofia

The context^ however, must in these cases contain a reference to this representative action
or writing by proxy, and it must not be taken as the ordinary meaning of the phrase.
The actor or speaker does not always represent truly the person to whom he refers ; this
reference of his is intended to imply that the person referred to authorizes the act or
statement in question ; see Jer. xiv. 1 9, yfrevSr] ol irpo^riTaL irpo^rjTevovcnv eVl t& ovofiarL
jjLOV, ovK oLTvicTTeiXa avTov<; koI ovk ivereiXdijiTjv avTov's ; xxix. 23. The iv op. is used just
in the same way as this eV 6v., ci. 1 Sam. xxv. 5, epeorijaaTe avrov eVl tw ovo/j,. (jlov et?
elpijvTjv, with ver. 9, XaXovcrt tou? X07011? tovtov<; iv rm ovo/j,. AavlB. Side by side with
evXoyelv eVt tm 6v. we have iv, 2 Sam. vi. 18, 1 Chron. xvi 2; XaXelv, ■7rpo(f>r]Teveiv iv
ov., Zech. xiii. 3; 1 Chron. xxi. 19; Mic. iv. 5. The simple dative is also used in
similar connections, irpoiprjTeveiv tqj 6v., Jer. xxvi. 9, xxix. 21 ; XaXelv rm 6v., Jer. xHv. 16 ;
Deut. xviii. 22, 7, of. Matt. vii. 22; Jas. v. 10. In general, it may be said that
reference is thus made to the cause to which the act or effect is traceable, to the person
who sanctions it, or to the motive which occasions or determines it ; comp. for this import
of the dative, Winer, § xxxi. 6. This, beyond a doubt, is always the case when eVl tw 6v.
occurs ; see Matt, xviii 5, os &v Be^rjrai ev "TraiSiov roiovrov iTrl t& bv. /jlov ; Mark ix. 37 ;
Luke ix. 48; Mark ix. 39, 0? Trofijaet Svvafj,i,v eTvl rm bv. fiov; Luke xxiv. 47, KTjpv^-
Orjvat iirX t§) bv. avrov fieravoiav koI d<pecnv d/j,. ; Acts v. 28, BiBdaKeiv eVt ra bv.
'Itjo-ov ; Matt. xxiv. 5, ttoXXoI yap iXevaovraL iirl rm bvbp,. fiov Xeyovre^ ija elfii 6
Xpia-Toi; Mark xiii. 6 ; Luke xxi. 8 ; ^aTnU^eiv iirl tS bv., Acts ii. 38. The same is true
of the expression ev bvop,., Luke x. 1 7, t^ Sai/j,6via inroTda-aeTai rjfuv iv t^ bvop,. crov ;
Matt. xxi. 9, ip')(oixevo'; iv bvofi. Kvpiov, xxiii. 39; John v. 43, xii. 13; 1 Cor. vi. 11,
aveXovaaade . . . iv tw bvofi. t. icvp. 'Irjaov Kal iv rtp irvevfiaTi rov deov rjjxSiv ; Acts
xvi. 18, "n-apayyeXXoi croi iv bvop,. 'Irjcrov Xpiarov i^eXOeiv cltt avTi}'; ; 2 Thess. iii. 6;
Phil ii. 10, "va iv tco ovo/j,. 'Itjo-ov ttclv yovv Ka/j,-^. So also alvelv, Bo^d^eiv iv bv., and
others, 1 Pet. iv. 16 ; Ps. cv. 31 ; 1 Chron. xvi. 10. This may amount to the statement
of the means or instrument, e.g. Acts iv. 1 0, iv tw bvop,. ^Irjaov Xpicrrov ovto? TrapeaTrjKev
iryirjt;; Mark xvi 17, ix. 38 ; Luke is. 49 ; Acts iv. 7. (In this case, however, 8ta tov
bv. is also used, Acts iv. 30, repara yuveo'Oai Bia tov bv. tov d/yiov TratSo? crov ^Irjaov.)
But the expression is very seldom used in this instrumental sense. 'Ev bvo/iart, in its
various applications, denotes that which characterizes or accompanies the act, the sphere
(according to the Greek manner of thinking) in which it is performed (c£ Lys. in Agar.
130. 42, direKTeivav iv TavTy Trj TrpocpdcTei, i.e. the pretext or reason). So evyaptaTeiv iv
bv. TOV Kvp, fjfiSiv 'iTjaov Xpiarov, Eph. v. 20 ; alrelv iv tS bvo/MaTi, John xiv. 13, 14,
XV. 16, xvi. 23, 24, 26; Kplveiv iv tS bv. tov Kvp., 1 Cor. v. 4. As ev'^apiaTeiv iv bv.
Xpia-Tov cannot mean, to give thanks in Christ's stead, no more (to refer to a seemingly
profound explanation) can aiTeiv iv bv. Xpiarov signify a prayer in which the person
praying appears as the representative of Christ. Eather is it a prayer for which Christ
Himself appears, which Christ mediates, — a prayer based upon the truth that Christ is
our Mediator, and intercedes for us. Kplveiv iv ru> bv. rov Kvp., 1 Cor. v. 4, comp. Ps
3 M



"Ovofia 458 Upoaanrov

IxKxix. 13, 17, a<yaXX,t,a(r6M iv ov. The word also furnishes the reason in John x. 25 ;
1 Pet. iv. 14 ; Jas. v. 14 ; John xiv. 26, and other places.

O n, root of the future of opdw, o^ofjiai ; aorist passive, &j>6riv ; future passive,

npoacoTTov, TO = TO TTpo? Toi^ a)\]rl fiepo'i, the front face, as /jbiranrov, the forehead =
TO fxera tov? uira?. In Homer and the Attic writers "Kpoamirov signifies the face, and, in
a wider sense, the aspect, august appearance; usually of persons, rarely of animals ; applied



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