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Biblico-theological lexicon of New Testament Greek online

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13), iTTiTpe-^avro^ tov deov elt rrjv juiv SiicaCcov jVfMvaeriav koI (pavepcocrcv.

^Eir i^alv a, (I.) transitively, to show forth, to show light upon, e.g. upon the
surface ; iv toi<; irpd'yjjLacn.v i'7n,<f)aivea6ai,, Pol. xxxi. 2 0. 4, to be present in. Usually
in the passive, to show oneself openly. Plut. Galb. 11, i-n-Kpavrivai tw Bijfio), to show
oneself before the people, to come forward, to appear, usually with the idea of sudden
or unexpected appearing ; often of the gods, in Herodotus and elsewhere ; and hence
perhaps the significance of the N. T. eVu/xireta, cf. Gen. xxxv. 7 ; Tit. ii. 11, eT-ejidv-r] rj
'X'ipi'i TOV deov rj auirr]pt,o<i irauLV avOpcovoK ; iii. 4, jj ^pijcrroT');? koI rj (pCKavOpanrla
iire^avr] tov canrjpo'i rjfjiwv deov. Often in patristic Greek of the incarnation of Christ.
— (II.) Intransitively, to show oneself, e.g. of the break of day. Acts xxvii. 20, /iT^re
he rjXtov, jirjTe aaTpcov eTn^aivovToiv ; to appear, to shine, Luke L / 9, iincpdvai, rot? v
OKOTet, K.T.X., cf. (fiaiveiv tuvL

'ETTK^avr)';, h, visible, especially = celebrated, distinguished, renowned, etc., e.g.
wo'\e/xo?, epr^op, avBpe<; k.t.X., 1 Mace. L 10. In the K T. Acts ii. 20, 17 rifiepa tov Kvpiov
Tj fieydXri koi eTTKpavq'i, as the LXX. render the Hebrew N'liJ, Judg. xiii. 6 ; Joel ii. 11,
31 ; Hah. i. 7 ; Mai. i. 14, iii. 24 ; 1 Ohron.xvii. 21. They seem to have confounded NT"
and nxn, cf. 2 Sam. viL 23.

'E-TTicpdve la, 7), manifestation, " especially of the help-bringing appearing of the
gods, Dion. Hal. ii. 69, Plut., and others; also of the manifestation of divine power and
providence in extraordinary events, 97 iv rat? Oepa-irelai.^ eTricpdveia, Diod. Sic. i. 25 ;
Plut. Them. 30, Camill. 16 " (Pape). Cf. 2 Mace. xii. 22, xv. 27. In the JST. T. of the
appearing or manifestation of Jesus Christ on earth, 2 Tim. i. 10, cf 1 Pet. i. 20. It is
commonly used thus in patristic Greek, Phavor., rj tov a-coTfjpo<; r^fiiov 'Itjo-ov XpiaTou
evaapKO's olKovofila. In other N. T. texts of Christ's second advent, 2 Thess. ii. 8 ; 1 Tim.
vi. 14; 2 Tim. iv. 1, 8 ; Tit. ii. 13. — In 2 Mace, frequently of a miraculous inter-
position of God in behaK of His people, iii. 24, v. 4, ii. 21. — LXX. only 2 Sam. vii 23
= niK"ii3 ; Amos V. 2 2 = D?'*?'''!'?, for in the latter text they clearly confounded the word
with t^S'isnOj and in the former they confounded NniJ with ns"i3.

^r] jjil, to say, " from the same root ((/>«) as (palva, for the idea of explaining, speak-
ing, is a development of the primary notion of enlightening, showing " (Schenkl), and the
elementary conception is manifestation; cprjul in the Odyssey, Herodotus, and the
Tragedians signifies a divine revelation by words or signs ((p-nf^v, a divine voice).

Upo^ijTT]^, 6, is used, indeed, of soothsayers who announced beforehand the will
of the gods with reference to the future ; but this is only a secondary and derived sense,
for the 77/30 must be regarded not as having reference to time, but rather as local, as in



npo^r)Tri<; 568 npo(f)rjT7j<;



'KpocpaaK, pretext, what one. states or puts forth hefore another {ical r) a\.r]dr]<; koX tj y^evSr]9
aiTia, Pliav.). It signifies one who speats openly laefore any one, and is the technical name
for cm interpreter of the oracle, an interpreter of a divine message. ■ This signification is
never lost in profane Greek. Of. Pind. Fragm. 118, fxavTeveo Molaa, TrpotpaTeva-co S' iyco ;
Plat. Tim. 72 B, to raiv irpocpijTcov <yevo<; iirl rat? iv9eoi,<; /MzvTelaK KpiTa<; e-iriKaOiuTdvai,
vofJLO';' ov<i fMavreK iirovofMa^ovai rive^, to irav rjyvo'rjKOTe'; OTt, Trj<; Si alviy/JLOiv ovroi ^ijp.'rj';
Kol (^ai/racretu? inroKpiTal xal ovti, fidvTei<;, TrpocfirjTai Be fiavrevofiivaiv BiKaioTara bvo-
/xd^oi-VT dv; Dion. Hal. Ant. B. ii. 73, rot? ISicoraK oiroaoc firj 'icraab rov<i •jrepl rd 6ela rj
Saifiovia (Te/3aajjL0v^ i^rj'yrjTal jLvovrai, Kal '7rpo<prjTat, ; Eur. Bacch. 211, eVet av ^67709,
Teipeala, toB' oii-^ opd'i, «7^ Trpo(p-i]T7]<; aoi Xoycov 'yevijaofiat. Hence in a more general
sense = interpreter, e.g. irp. MovcrSiv, Plat. Phaedr. 262 D, of the cieadae ; Sext. Empir.
227, "TTpocjii^TT]^ Twv IIvppcovo<; Xojccv Tificov ; Lucian, Vit. Auet. 8, where to the question,
dXKa TL fidXiara elBivat ere cjia/xev ; rj riva rrjv Te'yyrjv e'^SK ; Diogenes answers, eXevde-
pcoTijii elfii Toiv dvdpdnrwv Kal larpo'; twv iraOwv, to B oXov, aXrjdeia^ koX irapp'qala'i irpo-
(j>rJT7]<; elvai, ^ovXop^ai ; Diod. i. 2, ttjv ■n-po(l>rjriv r^? dX7]deia<; laroplav. — The conception
of the 'Trpo^rjTat, toiv /leXXovTcov was obviously akin to this technical use of the word as
intcri:)reter of the gods ; see Plato, Charm. 173 C.

Now in the LXX. •n-pocpijT'rj'i is the ordinary word for N*33 (once = '^^?^, 2 Chron.
xxxvi. 15), and it harmonizes not, indeed, fully with the primary meaning of this word,
but perfectly with its ordinary use. It is disputed whether the primary meaning of ''''33
is to be derived from N33 = 313, V33, " one in whom the Divinity permits His word to spring
forth;" or from S2) = DN5, nm, to whisper, " one to whom anything is whispered," Hupfeld ;
see Tholuck, die Propheten und ihre Weissagungcn, pp. 21, 22. The usage of the word,
however, is clear; it signifies one to whom and through whom God speaks, Num. xii. 2; one
to whom God makes known His mysteries, Amos iii. 7, especially cf ver. 8 ; and this use of
the word is so constant, that it appears in its figurative employment to describe Aaron's
relation to Moses, If 3ji n;n; T(<m pnxi niriEi^ n\'i$N 'Torino, Ex. vii. 1, as compared with
iv. 16, Ci''n'!5t<p i^'n^inn nrixi nsp ^^J'ni^n; Kin. Hence it means generally, one to whom God
reveals His purposes, one to whom God speaks, Gen. xx. 7, c£ ver. 1 8 with ver. 1 7 ; Philo,
quis rer. div. haer. 510, irpo^rirr]'; yap lBlov /Mev ovBev diroc^deyyeTai, dXXorpia Be irdvTCb
inrrj'^ovvTo'; erepov. That prediction of the future, while belonging to the subject-matter
of prophecy, did not form part of the true conception of ^''33, is especially plain from the
promise given in Deut. xviii. 15, 18-20 compared with Num. xii. 8. The fact, more-
over, that the earlier name for a prophet was nxn, shower, seer, 1 Sam. ix. 9, clearly
indicates that what really constitutes the prophet is immediate intercourse loith God, a
divine commimication of what the prophet has to declare. This is further confirmed by the
relation of the aTroKaXviTTeaOai, to the TrpofpTjreveiv, 1 Cor. xiv. 26-30. Cf 1 Pet. i. 12,
oh aTreKaXw^drj , Eph. iii. 5, vvv direKaXv^Or) rot? dyioi<; dTroaroXoi.'i avTov Kal irpodij]-
Tai<; ev irvevp.aTi. That the special element of prophesying was not merely 'prediction,
but a showing forth of God's will, especially of His saving purpose, is confirmed by 1 Cor.



n p0cf)'^T7]<l 569 npO<pT]7



xiv. 3j "TTpocpTjTeveov avOpciiTroi's XaKel olKoSo/u.rjv koX iTapdKKTjcriv nal Trapafivdlav. C£
Jer. i., Isa. i., Ezek. ii., and other passages. Two things therefore go to make the prophet,
an insight granted by God into the divine secrets or mysteries, and a communication to
others of these secrets, which, from the very nature of the case, are ffis purj)oses of grace,
with the warnings, announcements of judgment, etc., pertaining thereto; and hence, in the
case of the 0. T. prophets, their preaching was a foretelling of the salvation yet to he accom-
^lislud, while in the case of the N. T. prophets it was a publication of the salvation already
accomplished, so far at least as it had not in turn to do with realities still future.
Accordingly, in Eph. iii. 5, ii. 20, the prophets, named side by side with the apostles as
the foundation of the IsT. T. church, are to be understood as exclusively New Testament
prophets, named again in Eph. iv. 1 1 between apostles and evangelists. See 1 Cor. xlL 2 8,
and evayyeXia-Trji. N. T. prophets were for the Christian church what 0. T. prophets
were for Israel, inasmuch as they maintained intact the immediate connection between
the church and (not the Holy Spirit in her, but) the God of her salvation above her, —
" messengers or media of communication between the upper and the lower world," as they
have been aptly called (Fr. in Zeller's hibl. Worterhuch). As to the place and significance
of N. T. prophecy, see 1 Tim. i. 18, iv. 14; 1 Cor. xiv. 3, xiii. 8; Eev. xi. 6. Hence
the significant admonition in 1 Thess. v. 20, Trpo^i^Teta? /a^ i^ovdevelre. — The German
weissagen, to prophesy, does not in the least coincide with vorhersagen, to foretell ; it
comes from Wizac, Wizan, to know, cf = vorawizac, forchnowing. Sanscrit, vedas, holy
scripiture ; Latia, videre.

In the K T., generally, ol irp. denote the prophets of the 0. T. ; d tt/j. is applied to
Christ with obvious reference to Deut. xviii ; John (i. 21) vi. 14, vu. 40, cf. Acts iii
22, vii. 37. irpocfn^rrj': is used of Christ in Matt. xiii. 57, xiv. 5, xxi. 11; Mark vi.
4, 15 ; Luke iv. 24, vii. 16, 39, xiii. 33, xxiv. 19 ; John iv. 19, 44, ix. 17. Of K T.
prophets in Acts xi. 27, xiii. 1, xv. 32, xxi. 10; 1 Cor. xil 28, 29, xiv. 29, 32, 37;
Eph. ii. 20, iii. 5, iv. 11 ; Eev. xi. 10, xxii. 9. — Once in a general sense of the Cretan
poet Epimenides, Tit. L 12. The fem. tt/jo^^tk, Luke ii. 36 ; Eev. ii 20.

UpojtrjTevo), to be z, prophet, i.e. specially to hold the office of a prophet, to proclaim
God's will, Eur. Ion. 413, rt? irpocpriTevei 0eov. Hence, generally = to appear as a
prophet, to prophesy, to announce something hidden on tlie strength of a divine revelation.
Matt, xxvi 68; Mark xiv. 65; Luke xxii. 64. — John xi. 51; LXX. N33 Niphal and
Hithpael. As to its meaning, see above. Used of the 0. T. prophets. Matt, xi 13,
XV. 7, Mark vii. 6, 1 Pet. i 10, Jude 14, cf. Luke i. 67, John xi 51 ; of K T.
prophesying, Matt. vii. 22; Acts ii. 17, 18, xix. 6, xxi. 9; 1 Cor. xi 4, 5, xiii 9, xiv.
1, 3, 4, 5, 24, 31, 39; Eev. x. 11, xi. 3. — The augment follows the preposition,
irpoej)rjTevcTa. Lachm. and Tisch., however, write eirpo^rjTevaa, except in Jude 14,
where Lachm. reads 7rpoe<p.

npo(f>r]Tela, r], (I.) the prophetic rank or work, the oflace or gift of a prophet,
4C



Ilpo^rjreia 570 BXaa^rjuea

Lucian, Alex. 40. 60. So Eom. xii. 6 with SiaKovia, BiBaa-KaXia as a charisma. See also
1 Cor. xii. 10, xiii. 2 ; 1 Thess. v. 20 ; 1 Tim. iv. 14; Eev. xix. 10, to Tn'evjj,a t^? vpo-
<f)7]Tela'; ; Eev. xi. 6, al rj/Mspat Trjq '7Tpo(^r]reia<; avrcov. Elsewhere (II.) prophecy, that
which is prophesied, Matt. xiii. 14, jy irpo<^7}rela 'Haatov, fj Xiyovcriz; 1 Cor. xiii, 8,
xiv. 6, 22 ; 1 Tim. i. 18 ; 2 Pet. i. 20, 21 ; Eev. i. 3, xxii. 7, 10, 18, 19.

B X a o- ^ 9; /i o ?, ov, the derivation is uncertain ; probably not from ^dineiv, for it
would in this case be /SXai|rt^7;/i09, like ^Xa-^jrlcppcov, insane, maddening, but from /SXa^,
shujgish, slow, stupid, corresponding with ^pahv<; ; one might be tempted to connect it
with ^dWeiv, Eustath. ad Horn. II. ii. p. 219, 6 rat'i cp-)jfULi,<; ^dXXcov, XolBopo<:. Like the
synonymous Xo/So/30?, St a/SoXo? (Poll. v. 1 1 8), it signifies abusive, reviling^, destroying; one's
good name; Herod. viL 8. 21, fiXdcr^Tj/xa ttoXXA eiTraiv et? rr)v 'Pcofirjv koI avyKXrirov.
Often in Plutarch; Acts vi. 11, pi^fiara ^Xda-^'qfx.a eh Mmvariv ical rov 6e6v. Already
in profane Greek it signifies in particular what is blasphemous; at least pXaa-jiTjiielv,
^Xaa<^rifiia are thus used, and by themselves, without expressly stating the reference to
God and divine things, e.g. Plat. Legg. vii. 8 C, e? rt? IhLa '7rapaara<; Tax's /Stoytiot? re Koi
lepol'i . . . ^Xaa(fi'rjfj,ol Tracrau pXacr^filav, and often. So ^Xda(f)7)/jio';, 2 Mace. ix. 28,
X. 4, 3 6, Wisd. i 6, Ecclus. iii. 1 6, Isa. Ixvi 3 = IJiJ ^'D^'p, cultum exhihens vano
numini.

It is used in the N". T., except in Acts vi. 11, Eev. xiii. 5, as a substantive, and (I.)
in a general sense, 2 Tim. iii. 2 ; 2 Pet. ii. 11. — (II.) Specially, in a religious sense, Acts
vi. 11 ; 1 Tim. i. 13 ; Eev. xiii. 5.

BXaa^ij/jiia, rj, calumniation, abuse, kuto, two?, Dem. ; eh Tivd, Herodian. It
seems to denote the very worst kind of slander, see Dem. pro cor. iv. 12. 3, ets tovtov
TToXXaKt? d-rreaicw^e Ka\ (le'^i ala'^a.'i ^Xaa-cf>'T)/ji,(a<;. — (I.) Matt. xv. 19 with ^IrevSo-
/j-aoTvpLa; Mark vii. 22 ; Eph. iv. 31 ; Col. iii. 8 ; 1 Tim. vi. 4; Jude 9, ov/c eToXfjuTjaev
KpiaLv iireveyKeiv 0Xa(rcf)rj/j,ia<;, cf. 2 Pet. ii. 11, Kpiai'^ ^da(f)T]/j,o<;. — (II.) Specially, in a
religious sense, Plat. Zegg. vii. 8 C, see /3Xao-^7?/Lio? ; Menand. /r. 1 6 9 ; 1 Mace. ii. 6 ;
cf. 2 Mace. viii. 4, Ezek. xxxv. 12 = nsxj. So in the N. T. /3X. ■jrpo'i tov deov, Eev.
xiiL 6; fj tov ttv. ^Xaaftjfila, Matt. xii. 31, cf. Heb. x. 29, to Trvev/xa t^? ^^aptTo?
evv^pl^eiv, and /3Xaa(f>rjfj,eiv in contrast with Bo^a^eiv in 1 Pet. iv. 14 ; Matt. xii. 32, elirelv
Kaja tov ttv. tov ay. (The import of this speaking against the Holy Ghost corresponds
with the import of the word as oppositely used in the confession, see Eom. x. 9, 10; and
for the rest, comp. ayto?, p. 50.) By itself = blasphemy, attacking sacred things, see
Eev. xiii. 6. So also Matt. xii. 31, xxvi. 65 ; Mark ii. 7, iii 28, xiv. 64 ; Luke v. 21 ;
John X. 33 ; Eev. iL. 9, xiii. 1, 5, xviL 3.

BXaa(j>'rjij,eci}, to revile, to calumniate ; eh nvd, wepl, KaTa tivo<;, also in later Greek
^. Tiva. Herodian, ii. 6, 20 with kukwi; dyopeveiv. In a religious sense, eh 6eov<;,
Plat. Rep. ii. 381 E, and by itself, Lcgg. vii. 800 C, Ale. ii. 149 C. LXX. 2 Kings



BXaajtrffiea 571 Ne6cj>VT0';



xix. 6 =«1!!3, parallel with oveiBl^eiv 0e6v ^(ovra, ver. 4, cf. ver. 22, rlva wveiSiaa-; koL riva
e^Xa(TJ>rifj.'naa<i ; Isa. lii. 5 = K?^». — In the N. T., (I.) generally, as synonymous with
weiS/feii;, XoiBopeiv, Matt, xxvii. 39 ; Mark xv. 29 ; Luke xxii. 65, xxiii. 39 ; Eom. iii. 8,
xiv. 16 ; 1 Cor. iv. 13 (where some read Bva-(f>rifjLov/j.evot.) ; Tit. iii 2 ; 2 Pet. ii 10;
Jude 8. — (II.) Specially, to revile Go4 and divine things, Eev. xiii. 6, ^Xaa^Tjfirjaai to
ovofia Tov Oeov, koX tt]v a-Krjvrjv avrov, Kal tov? iv rm ovpavo) crK7]vovvTa<; ; that it means
" to condemn or deny that being and life, that essential nature which any person or
thing has in virtue of its relation to God" (Schott on 2 Pet. ii 10), is an unproved and
untenable assertion. With the object against which the railing is directed, ek to dyLov
vv., Luke xii. 10 ; Mark iii. 29. Elsewhere with the accusative, Acts xix. 37, ttjv 6edv;
Eom. ii 24, to 6vo/j,a tov 6eov; Eev. xiii 6, xvi. 9. — 1 Tim. vi 1, ij h^aaKoXia; Tit.
ii. 5, d X070S TOV 6eov ; Jas. ii. 7, to koXov ovofia ; 2 Pet. ii. 2, dSos t^? akrjOeia'i ; Eev.
xvi. 11, 21, tov deov. Without object, Matt. is. 3; Mark ii. 7, iii 28; John x. 36;
Acts xiii. 45, xviii 6, xxvi 11 ; 1 Tim. i. 20 ; 1 Pet. iv. 4 : 2 Pet. ii. 12 ; Jude 10.

$ v 0), aorist passive icpvriv, connected with the Latin fui ; (I.) intransitively, to be-
come, to increase; so in Attic Greek only the 2d aorist ej>vv, perfect ire^vKa and passive
(pvo/Mai ; the active very seldom (II. vi. 149 ; Aristotle, ProU. v. 27). In biblical Greek,
Heb. xii 15 from Deut. xxix. 18, fif) Ti? ia-Tiv iv vfilv pi^a dvco <j)vovaa iv 'X^oXy kuI
TTiKpLa; Ecclus. xiv. 18, to? (pvXKov ddWov iirl BevSpov Saaeax; to. p,€V KaTa^aKKei,
aXKa he ^vei.—{ll!) Transitively, to produce ; passive, to become, to grow, Luke viii. 6, 8.

Svp,(pvTo<;, ov, from crvp-cjiveiv, crv/x(piiecr0ai, to grow at the same time, to grow
together, to grow over (Luke viii 7, avp^^veia-ai at aKavOai) ; (I.) grown at the same time,
implanted, e.g. iiruOvp^ia, dpsTij, etc. ; KUKoijOeia, 3 Mace. iii. 22. — (II.) Grown together,
grown over, Eom. vi 5, 64 ydp avfi^vToo yeyovap.ev raJ op.oiwp,aTt, tov SavaTov avTOv,
oKKa Kol T^? dvaaTdcrea)<i icrofieda, to be explained in accordance with w. 4, 5. It
signifies not merely homogeneousness, hut a being comhined and united one with another,
which is brought about by baptism, ver. 4 ; accordingly, ver. 6, 6 ■wdKaio'; fip^wv dv6ponro<i
crvvecTavpoodr). — Plato, Phaedr. 246 A, ^vfj,(pvTa) 8vvdp,ei, viroiTTepov ^evyov; t£ Kal riVLo')(pv;
Lncian, de Mart xvi. 4, wairep linroKivTavpo^ Ti? ^Te ek ev avjiire^vKoTe's dvdponro^ koI
deo'i.

N e6(j}VT 01;, ov, newly grown up; only still in biblical and patristic Greek (according
to Pollux, used also by Aristophanes) = veoyevi^';, dpTi.yevrj'^, comp. dpTbyevvTjTa j3pi<p'rj,
1 Pet. ii. 2; 1 Tim. iii. 6, Set ovv tov iirla-KO'irov . . . elvai . . . p-fj veocpvTov, Iva p,r) Tv<f)a)6el<i
el<; Kpifia ip/wecrr] tov Bi,a/36Xov. — LXX. Job xiv. 9 {SevBpov yijpaaKov), ivoirjcrei, Oepicrpov
&cnrep ve6(f)VTov ; Ps. cxliv. 14, oi viol co? veo^vra IBpvpeva iv Ty veoTrjn avTuv]
Isa. V. 7 ; Ps. cxxviii. 3.



Xaipco 572 Xdpi<!



Xaipca, future in the LXX. and N. T., '^apiqa-ofiai, aor. i'x^dprjv, answering to the
German "gem," to desire; Old High German "ger," eaffer = to- rejoice, to be pleased with.
The infinitive is often used as a term of greeting. The participle with a finite verb =
willingly, gladly.

Xdp i<;, troy, ^, accusative usually %a/3M', hut also (and not in later Greek only)
j(dpi,Ta, as some read in Jude 4; Acts xxv. 9, xxiv. 27. The import of this word has
been in a peculiar manner determined and defined by the peculiar use of it in the
IT. T., and especially in the Pauline Epistles. We cannot affirm that its scriptural use
seriously difi"ers from or contradicts its meaning in the classics, for the elements of the
conception expressed by it are only emphasized in a distinctive manner in Holy
Scripture ; but by this very means it has become quite a different word in N. T. Greek,
so that we may say it depended upon Christianity to realize its full import, and to
elevate it to its rightful sphere. It signifies in the N". T. what we designate Gnade, grace,
a conception which was not expressed by %a/ots in profane Greek, and which, indeed, the
classics do not contain. It may be affirmed that this conception, to express which the
Greek %a/3t9 has been appropriated as a perfect synonym, — a conception in its distinctive
compass quite different from the negative to fardon, to remit, — first appeared with, and
was first introduced by, Christianity, vid. ^apt'^'ecr^af. We may, perhaps, add that no
language so fully and accurately presents a synonym for it as does the Old High
German " gin§,da," literally, " a coming near," or " an inclining towards " (cf. the Latin
propitius), e.g. " diu sunne get ze gnaden ; " hence, inclination, e.g. " gnade haben zuo " —
and then " a bowing in thanks," thanks, e.g. " genade sLaer dienste, die er mir emboten
hat" (Nibel 1383). The EngHsh word grace corresponds fully with the German Gnade.

Now ')(dpi'i — which is related to the root ^(ciipeiv as ■jriaTt<; is to ireCdeiv — signifies
a kind, affectionate, pleasing nature, and inclining disposition either in person or thing.
— (I.) Objectively, and for the most part physically, it denotes personal gracefulness, a
pleasing work, leauty of speech, etc., joined with KaXKoi;, koct/xo'; (see Ecclus. xL 22), and
contrasted with a-efiv6Tr]<:, "dignity," Plut. Mor. 67 E, vapOhcov ■^^dpire';, charms, Eur.
Tro. 1108; %. 'Attikti, ^coKpaTiKij, Lucian, Zeux. 2; Dio Chrys. 257, gracefulness,
agreeableness. Thus in the IST. T. Luke iv. 22, X0704 t?;? p^aptTo?; Col. iv. 6, o Xoyoi
vjjLcov •jrdvTore ev ^(apLTi, aXari -^prvfievo'; ; Eph. iv. 29, tva BS ')(api,v TOi? aKovovcnv, in
contrast with \d'yo<; aawpo';, unless 'X^dpiv BiSovai, be = to do a kindness or act of love, and be
taken in connection with the preceding dyaOcx; Trpo? olKoBofj.'i^v. But the reference here
is not so much to the di^i of kindness as to the agreeableness of the Christian's con-
versation, see Phil. iv. 6 ; and this is expressed in classical Greek by %a/3ti' <f>epeiv rivi,
while X"P''^ SiSSvai means to do a kindness. Cf, Prov. x. 33, x^I'Kt] dvBpwv Zi,Kaiwv



Xdpii} 573 Xapiq

airocTTa^ei ■^dpoTa';. — Col. iii. 1 6, eV rfj ■^dpiTt aBovreg . . . ra 6eai, cannot be taken as an
example of this use of %a/3t?, because of the article, which must be regarded as genuine.
The word often occurs in this sense in the LXX. as = tn, Ps. xlv. 3, e^e-xyOrj ■x^a-pi'i ev
')(el\e(7iv <7ov\ Prov. i. 9, arecfjavo'; ^apircov ; iii. 22, iv. 9, v. 19; '1?1''3, Esth. vi. 3, with
So^a; iii"i, Prov. x. 33. Also in the Apocrypha, 2 Mace. xv. 13; Ecclus. xxiv. 16,
viL 19, xxvi. 13, and often. — Of also the various readings in some MSS. of %a/3t9 for
Kav')(7)fui, 1 Cor. ix 16, also 1 Pet. ii. 19, 20, %a/3t? with kXco?.

Then (II.) subjectively it means an inclining towards (c£ the adverbial accusative
')(^dpiv= on account of, literally, through inclination towards, Luke vii. 47; Eph. iii. 1, etc.);
courteous or gracious disposition, friendly willingness, both on the part of the giver and the
receiver ; in the former case = kindness, favour; in the latter = thanks, respect, homage ;
(a.) favour, kindness, inclination towards; the disposition as generally cherished and
habitually manifested, and as shown in the bestowment of a favour or in a service of
love to any one. In this last reference we find it most frequently in the classics with
BoSpov, etc. (Xen., Plat., Plut.) ; 'X^pw "Kafi^dveiv, diraiTelv, Sovvai. Cf. opyfj, ryaarpl 'xdpi.v
hovvai — to yield to, to favour. So in the N. T. Acts xxv. 3, alTov/Mevot x'^P''^> xxiv. 27,
XXV. 9, %a/3ti' (xdpna';) KaraQeadai, tlvL In particular, of the freewill offerings of the
Corinthians, 1 Cor. xvi. 3 ; 2 Cor. viii. 4, T-qv %ayDti/ icoiX ttjv Koivwviav tt}'; BiaKov[a<; tjj?
et? Toii^ dyiov;; w. 6, 7, 9, ix. 8. More frequently in the N. T. of the disposition =
kindly inclination, favour, grace. Thus in classical Greek with evvoia. Plat. Legg. xi.
931 A, Plut. 3Ior. 72 F; (jjiXia, Plut. Lye. 4; TrpaoTri';, Plut. Mor. 1108 B. As opposed
to i^Opd, opyi], fua-o'i, Dem., Plut., and others. Thuc. iii. 95, tuv Meaarivluiv %aptTt
ireLadek, from kindness to the Messenians. So in the N. T. of divine and human favour in
general, Luke i. 30, ii. 40, 52; Acts ii. 47, iv. 33, vii. 46.

But the word especially denotes God's grace and favour towards mankind or to any
individual, which, as a free act, excludes merit, and is not hindered by guilt, but forgives
sin ; it thus stands out in contrast with ep'^a, voimc;, dfiapria. It is called grace as
denoting the relation and conduct of God towards sinful man, 17 ^api? tov 6eov, Piom. v.
15; 1 Cor. xv. 10 ; 2 Cor. vi. 1, viii. 1 ; Gal. ii. 21 ; Eph. iii. 2 ; Col. i. 6 ; 2 Thess.
L 12 ; Tit. ii. 11, 1? %a/3t9 tov 6eov 17 a-coTijpio<; ; Heb. ii. 9, xii. 15 ; 1 Pet. iv. 10 ; Jude
4; 1 Pet. V. 10, ^eo? -Trdairi ;i^a/3tT09 ; joined with Christ, because manifested in and
throuo-h Him, 2 Tim. ii. 1, r/ ^apt? 97 ei^ Xpiarw ; 1 Pet. i. 13, TeXet'co? eXiriaaTe iirl rrjv
<bepofiev'r]v vfuv vdpiv ev diroKoXv^frei, ^Irjaov Xpicrrov, cf. i. 10, ot Trepl t^? et? u/ia?
ydpiTCi '7rpoij)7jTevaavTe<; ; hence 17 %a/9t9 tov Kvpiov ■^fiwv, XpiaTov, Pom. xvi. 2 0, 24;

1 Cor. xvi. 23 ; 2 Cor. viii. 9, xiii. 13 ; GaL i. 6, vi. 18 ; Phil. iv. 23 ; 1 Thess. v. 28 ;

2 Thess. iii. 18 ; 1 Tim. i. 14 ; Philem. 25 ; 2 Pet. iii. 18, av^dveTe iv x^-pi-Ti' Kal yvooa-ei
TOV Kvplov vjxwv 'Iriaov Xpicrrov ; Pi,ev. xxii. 21. See the phrase used in the beginning
of the Epistles, %apt? vjjuv Kal elprjvq diro 6eov ■waTpo<; tj/jluv koI Kvpiov 'I-rja-ov XptaTov,

1 Cor. i. 3 ; Eom. i. 7, etc. ; %a/3t?, e'X.eo?, elprivt] k.t.X., 1 Tim. i. 2 ; 2 Tim. i. 2 (Tit. i 4) ;

2 John 3. Then for the most part used alone, ■^ %apt?, as in Ptorn. v. 17, 01 rrjv irepia -



Xapii 574 Xapf!

(rdav T»5? '^apiTO'i Koi rf;? Scopea.'; t?}? Bikmoo-vvt]'; \a/jij3dvovTe'i ; ver. 2 0, o5 Se iifXeovaaev
7] afMapria, vTrepeirepicraevcrev rj %a|3t?.

Xa/3t? has been distinctively appropriated in the N. T. to designate the relation and
conduct of God towards sinful man as revealed in and through Christ, especially as an act
of spontaneous favour, of favour vrherein no mention can be made of obligation. See Eph.
ii. 7, where xa.pi'; is mentioned as a special form of 'y^prja-roTr]';^ 'Iva ivBei^TjTai iv tol';
al&aiv Tot? eVep^OyCieyot? to virep^aXKov 'jr\ovTO<; tt}? '^dpnoq aiirov iv ^pijo-TOTTjTi e'0'
rifia<; iv XpiaTw 'Irjaov. This element of spontaneousness is not prominent in the classical
use of the word, though it is traceable even here, e.g. Thuc. as before, ruv Meaarivlcov
■^dpiTi TTeiadel'i ; and %a/3t? is used to express the willingness or consent of a wife. But



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