Hermann Hoernes.

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closely adhered to and what change^ hav.e
been made are in the matter o.f detail; the
manufactorei-s state that thiq msup feadires
of the car remain pra^ically as they were in
the first gasoline cars built by this concern.



to tell one machine from the other at first
glance, but on looking closer it will be seen
that the smaller car, Type E, has a concave
dash, the larger machine having a flat dash ;
the lonneau of the larger car is also longer
in proportion than the other. • Bodies are of
the straight-line type, built up of bent wood
with roomy and comfortably upholstered
seats, the front seats being of the popular
divided type; running-boards extend from



ical make and break, low-tension current
being generated by a gear-driven magneto
built by the Locomobile Co., and the time
of ignition is varied by shifting the ignition
cams so as to bring different parts of the
varied-profile cams under the tappet rods.
The motor speed is controlled by hand
through a governor working on the throttle.
Power is transmitted to the transmission
gears by a leather- faced cone clutch; the
sliding gears give three speeds forward and
one reverse, operated by a single lever, with
direct drive on the high gear. Differential



LOCOMOBILE xs-ao HORSEPOWER TYPE E TOTJRniG CAR FOR 2906. WITH COlfCAVE DASH AND STRAIGHT-LINE BODY.



The new models will both be side-entrance
touring cars of the conventional type, side-
chain driven, with four-cylinder vertical
water-cooled motors. Type E will have a
motor of 15-20 horsepower, while Type H
will have a motor of 30-35 horsepower.
With the exception of the difference in di-
mensions and a few details, the two cars
are mechanically identical. In outside- ap-
pearance there is an absence of marked dis-
tinguishing features that makes it difficult



front to rear fenders, and the chain guards
form steps to the tonneau. The footboard
has the upward slope that is usually seen on
touring cars; the hood is of the Mercedes
form, of aluminum, with ventilated sides.

With regard to mechanical features, the
general specifications of the two models are
identical. The four-cylinder vertical water-
cooled motor is bolted by the crankcase
arms direct to the main frames, no sub-
frames bfeing used. Ignition is by mechan-



and bevel gears for driving the jackshaft
are enclosed in the rear end of the transmis-
sion gearcase; the rear wheels are driven
by side chains, the sprockets being bolted
to the spokes of the rear wheels.

The motor has its cylinders cast in pairs ;
heads, water jackets and valve housings
are integrally formed, and the. cylinders are
bolted to the crankcase by flanges in the
customary way: The valves are mechani-
cally operated and are placed on opposite



XOCOMOBILE 30-3S HORSEPOWER TYPE H TOURING CAR. WITH LONG WHEELBASE AND STRAIGHT DASH. -NOTE LtGGAGE RACK AT REAR.



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14



THE AUTOMOBILE.



January 4, 1996



sides of the cylinders, the inlet valves on the
right and the exhaust valves on the left;
valves are all alike and interchangeable, and
each is made from a single steel forging.
The lower end of the valve-stem is plain;
the upper end of the push-rod is equipped
with an adjusting arrangement consisting of
a cap-nut held in place by a jam-nut below
it ; by screwing the cap-nut up or down, the
effective length of the rod may be varied,
the jam-nut holding the adjustment when
obtained. The valve springs are held in
compression by concave washers kept in
place by keys passing through the stems.
Removing a valve spring is made easy by
the use of a special forked tool which is
passed over the valve stem below the



prevent the rod from turning and bringing
the axis of the roller out of parallel with the
axis of the camshaft. The squared part is
of ample size to give good wearing qualities
and, together with the roller, pin and other
parts of the rod, is hardened and ground.
The push-rod guide enters a counterbore in
the top of the crankcase for a short distance
and screws passing through flanges hold it
in position.

Each camshaft, with all its cams, is made
of a single steel forging and is hardened
and ground all over. The camshafts are in-
teresting pieces of work, especially the inlet
camshaft, which carries the ignition cams in
addition to the inlet valve cams. The valve
cams are, of course, sufficiently long so that



dinal motion without lateral play; the
movement of this shaft from extreme ad-
vance to extreme retardation of spark is
three-quarters of an inch. The camshafts
run in bronze bearings and are lubricated
from the crankcase.

The ignition system has been worked out
with a view to obtaining the greatest possi-
ble freedom from electrical troubles; there
is no wiring about the body of the car — in
fact, the only wiring is the connection be-
tween the magneto and the bus-bar on the
engine, which is in an accessible position
and not liable to damage. The fact that
there is no high-tension current to insulate
is a point in favor of the low-tension sys-
tem. The bus-bar is connected to each of



INLET SIDE OF LOCOMOBILE ENGINE. SHOWING CARBURETER. MAGNETO AND MAKE-AND-BREAK SPARK MECHANISM.



washer and its ends rested on a lug cast
for the purpose on the adjacent cylinder
wall; by raising the fork the washer and
spring are raised and the key can be re-
moved from the valve-stem, leaving the
spring free to drop and the valve-stem free
to pass upward through the guide. The
valves are removed through openings di-
rectly over them, closed by screw plugs ; the
joints of the plugs are made tight by gaskets
of copper and asbestos. In the top of each
valve head is a central boss with a slot cut
in it to take the screw-driver or special tool
used in grinding in the valves. The push-
rod has a hardened steel roller on its lower
end to take the cam thrust ; the part of the
-od tjiat slides jn the guide is squared to



the push-rod rollers will not drop off when
the shaft is moved longitudinally in varying
the time of ignition ; the apex of each valve
cam is parallel with the axis of the shaft, so
that the timing of the valve is not changed
with the movement of the shaft. The igni-
tion cams, however, being made with a view
to varying the time of ignition, have their
apexes disposed at an angle with the axis of
the shaft, like the thread of a screw of very
steep pitch. A collar for the fork, by which
the shaft is moved, is also an integral part
of the shaft. The front or gear end of the
camshaft is squared and passes through a
square hole in a sleeve on which the gear is
mounted. The shaft is a close but easy slid-
ing fit in the sleeve so as to allow longitu-



the insulated electrodes of the igniters by
knife-blade switches, the circuit being com-
pleted through the body of the magneto and
the metal of the engine, to which the mag-
neto is grounded.

The magneto is secured to the right-hand
front arm of the crankcase by a single heavy
bolt, steel dowel pins preventing swivelling
and at the same time permitting the removal
of the magneto with the minimum of trou-
ble. The magneto is driven from the gear
on the inlet camshaft through a simple little
coupling which makes it impossible to
couple up the machine wrongly — a matter of
importance, as the magneto is set to deliver
its maximum current at the time of ad-
vanced ignition. The coupling consists of



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January 4, 1906



THE AUTOMOBILE.




^



<




PABTS OF LOCOMOBILE VALVE SEPARATED, SHOWING PUSH-ROD AND
GUIDE, SPRING AND STEM WITH MUSHROOM. ^



PARTS OF LOCOMOBILE MAKEANDBREAK SPARK MECHANISM
^ SHOWING PLATES WITH HAMMER AND ANVIL AND PUSH RODS.



two plates, one on the gear shaft and the
other secured by its hub to the shaft of the
magneto armature ; in the illustration show-
ing the parts of the magneto the coupling
may be seen, one-half attached to the end of
the shaft of the separate armature shown,
and the other half lying close to it. Each
plate has a pin in one end and a slot in the
other; in coupling up, the pin in one plate
is entered in the slot in the other ; and there
is no other way of putting the parts to-
gether. The H-armature has heavy bronze
«tids secured to it by screws which are
sweated in. The short sections of shaft



and throw off any oil that might work past
the bearings. Oil is thus kept off the arma-
ture, and a serious difficulty sometimes ex-
perienced with mechanical generators is,
according to the manufacturers, avoided en-
tirely, practical road tests having shown that
the oil does not reach the armature. The
excess oil runs off through vent holes. Alu-
minum castings screwed to the body of the
magneto support the bronze bearings. The
inner end of the armature winding is
grounded in the metal of the armature core ;
the outer end is attached to a steel pin
which passes through a hole drilled through



ground connection another brush is fitted, as
the contact between the shaft and its bear-
ing is electrically imperfect owing to the oil
used for lubrication. The ground brush
is a small rod of carbon pressed against
the shaft by a light helical spring. The
manufacturers state that during the pro-
longed and severe tests to which the first
1906 cars were subjected the magneto gave
no trouble whatever, and even at the con-
clusion of the testing period required no
attention.

The make and brake electrodes are car-
ried by a plate having a tapered face like a




LOCOMOBILE CAMSHAFT WITH INTEORAL CAMS, FORGED IN ONE PIECE, HARDENED AND OROUND.



on which the armature is supported are
screwed tightly into the end pieces, the ends
riveted over on the inside and, as a final
precaution, a "dutchman" — a pin driven into
* hole drilled lengthwise half in the shaft
^^ half in the end piece — is inserted. The
journals are supported in bronze bearings
^d arc provided with rings close to the
^^niature ; these rings revolve with the shaft



the center of the shaft; the pin is insulated
from the shaft, and" the current passing
through it is taken up by a brush, made of
fiat steel bent upon itself and pressing
qgainst the pin; from the brush, which ib
insulated, the current is led to the bus-bar
by a wire. This spring brush is clearly
shown at the extreme left-hand end of the
shaft of the complete magneto. For the




poppet-valve, which fits a corresponding
seat in the side of the inlet valve chamber,
the surface being ground to a gas-tight
fit; three screws hold the igniter plate in
position. The stationary electrode in the
cylinder is insulated and carries, outside
the cylinder, the contact pieces for the
knife-blade switch; the inner end carries
an iridium contact point. The movable







LOCOMOBILE MAGNETO ASSEMBLED AND SEPARATED TO SHOW H ARMATURE IN POSITION IN HORSESHOE MAGNET, AND DRIVING CONNECTIONS ^

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i6



THE AUTOMOBILE.



January 4, igo6



EXHAUST SIDE OF LOCOMOBILE EKGINE, SH0WI1V6 PUMP AND FAN WITH BELT DRIVE AND BELT TO LX7BRICAT0R.



electrode, which is not insulated and is
therefore in electrical connection with the
magneto through ground, has an iridium-
tipped arm or hammer inside the cylinder
making and breaking contact with the
stationary electrode or anvil, while outside
the cylinder it is rigidly secured to another
arm to which motion is imparted by the
tappet rod. The contacts are brought to-
gether by the rising of the tappet rod on
its cam an instant before the spark is re-
quired; at the proper time the the cam
allows the rod to drop suddenly, with the
result that the contacts inside the cylinder
are suddenly separated and a short, hot
arc is formed.

Pistons are made slightly tapering, the
head or closed end being slightly smaller
than the open end to allow fot unequal
expansion when the motor is at work. The
piston on the 15-20-horsepower motor is

3 3-4 inches in diameter, has a stroke of

4 1-2 inches and is 5 1-2 inches long; the
30-35-horsepower motor has pistons 4 1-2
inches in diameter with a stroke of 5 1-2
inches, and the pistons are 8 1-2 inches
long. Being lijght, the pistons are cast with
interior webs for the sake of strength. The
four rings on each piston are turned ec-
centric and are split diagonally ; oil grooves
are ait in the lower part of the piston.
The piston pin is of hollow steel and is
effectually prevented from protruding and
scoring the cylinder walls by screws pass-
ing through the boss in the cylinder and the
wall of the pin. In the ends of the screws
-are holes ; a smgle wire passes through both



holes inside the pin and the ends are bent
over, making a safe locking arrangement.

Connecting rods are of I-section with
bronze bushings at each end; the piston
pin bushing is solid, while the crank-pin
end is split marine fashion and is fitted with
a series of copper shims between the
brasses. These shims are of different thick-
nesses so that nice adjustments for wear
can be made by removing a shim of the
proper thickness and bolting up the brasses
again. Two steel bolts hold the cap on the
end of the connecting rod.

Crankshafts, like all other forgings, are
made in the forging shop of the Locomo-
bile plant; they are of a special steel and
are given a toughening treatment after forg-
ing. The shaft runs inv three bronze bear-
ings. :The flywheel is* bolted to a flange
' forged integral with the shaft, steel fited
bolts being employed. The bearing sur-
faces of the crankshaft are hardened and
ground.

The crankcase is split horizontally; the
upper half is cast of manganese bronze,
which gives ample strength to withstand
the stresses imposed by the work of carry-
ing the cylinders and the crankshaft. The
lower half is of aluminum, having no more
severe work than carrying lubricating oil
and keeping out dust and dirt. The sup-
porting arms are cast integral with the
upper half of the crankcase and are of
deep box section, open side downward.
All the gearing for driving the camshafts,
magneto and circulating pump is enclosed
in an aluminum casing at the front of the



engine and all can be exposed by the re-
moval of a cover which protects all the
gears.

Circulation of the cooling water is main-
tained by a centrifugal pump bolted to the
left-hand front arm of the engine and
driven by a pinion meshing with the large
gear on the exhaust camshaft. A cellular
cooler is placed in a cradle or dropped
crosspiece, and is not attached to the side
frames. To this fact the manufacturers
attribute much of the freedom of their radi-
ator from leakage, as it is not twisted by the
springing of the frames on rough roads. A
large aluminum fan with a stiffening ring
at its circumference is mounted on a spindle
running in ball bearings in a bracket bolted
to the top of the casing tvl^ich covers the
gearing at the front of the engine. The fan
is driven by belt from a pulley mounted
on the pump-shaft between the pump and
its driving gear. The tension of the fan belt
can be adjusted by shifting the bracket,
slots for the holding-down bolts being pro-
vided for the purpose. A small circulation
indicator on the dashboard keeps the driver
informed as to the work his pump is doing.

The float fieed carbureter is fitted with an
aluminum auxiliary air inlet and has a bal-
anced throttle of the piston type, operated
by a centrifugal governor; the ordinary air
inlet is sufficient for speeds up to about 15
miles an hour on the high gear, after which
the auxiliary air valve opens. The auxil-
iary air is taken in cold, while the regular
air supply may be taken in hot from a hood
surrounding the exhaust manifold or may



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January 4, 4906



THE AUTOMOBILE.



ir



be taken in cold, according to temperature
and atmospheric conditions. Primmg may
be done from the seat by means of a handle
on the dash.

A lubricating oil pump placed on the
dashboard is belt-driven from the rear end
of the exhaust camshaft. Three leads carry
oil to the compartments of the crankcase
and to the gear casing at the front of the
motor. The lubrication of the pistons and
rod bearings is accomplished by splash. A
standpipe projects upward into each crank-
case compartment, so that when the oil is
too high it overflows and can be let out
through drip cocks placed under the crank-
case and operated from the dashboard. A
hand oil pump is fitted for emergency use.

The clutch is of the leather-faced cone
type, and has flat springs behind the leather
to prevent sudden and "fierce" gripping.
Between the clutch and the transmission
gear is a double universal joint. The clutch
is held in engagement by two helical springs
carried on studs on each side of the shaft.
The springs can be quickly adjusted and can
easily be removed if necessary. Thrust is
taken by ball bearings, and the usual pedal
controls the clutch. The transmission gears
are enclosed in a case made of three parts ;
the main or central part, which carries the
bearings and is subjected to practically all
the stresses, is of manganese bronze, while
the top and bottom sections are of alumi-
num. The case encloses the bevel driving
gears at the rear end. A single sliding set
controlled by a single lever gives all three
speeds and reverse. The gear shafts run in
plain phosphor bronze bearings lubricated
by oil from the gearcase, pockets being pro-
vided to catch the lubricant. All the gears
are of special steel, hardened. The differen-



#



tial is of the bevel gear type and its casing
is of forged steel. The left-hand differential
sleeve extends beyond the casing and carries
the drum for the differential brake. Each
half of the jackshaft is fitted with a com-
pensating joint to allow for frame spring-
ing. The outer ends of the jackshaft run in
bronze bearings ; the sprockets are of hard-
ened steel.

The frame is of pressed steel with four
pressed steel cross members and is hot riv-
eted together; the two middle cross mem-
bers are used as supports for the transmis-
sion gearcase. Forged steel spring horns
are hot riveted to the ends of the side
frames. Springs are all semi-elliptic and
have bronze bushed eyes and fitted steel
bolts. Front and rear axles are of I-beam
section, each forged in two pieces and hand
welded in the center; the front axle is
dropped at the center and with it are forged
the steering heads; all wheel bearings are
plain bronze bushings with grease reser-
voirs to ensure adequate lubrication.

Besides the band and drum brake on the
differential there is an emergency brake,
consisting of expanding rings in cast steel
drums on the hubs of the rear wheels. The
emergency brake is connected to the hand
lever by steel cables, a compensating ar-



rangement equalizing the pull on e:ich side^
Steering gear consists of an inclosed worm,
and sector.

The 15-20-horsepower car has a wheel-
base of 93 inches, 32-inch wheels with 4-
inch tires, rear springs 44 inches long and
front springs 36 inches long. The 30-35-
horsepower car has a wheelbase of 106-
inches, 34-inch wheels with 41-2-inch tires,
rear springs 44 inches long and front
springs 40 inches long. In both models an
aluminum pan is placed under the engine-
and gearcase. Running-boards are covered
with rubber and are supported by forged
steel brackets attached to the main frames;,
mud-guards are wide, and are of aluminum,,
as is also the hood, which is hinged at the-
top. Under the body at the rear is a com-
partment with a large drawer divided into-
separate compartments with places for tools
on one side and places for oil and
grease cans on the other. The color
of the paintwork is optional, as is also
the upholstering. Plain leather, however,,
is recommended by the manufacturers
for the seats, owing to its greater durabil-
ity and cleanliness. The equipment of each
car consists of five lamps, irons for top, a
tire carrier and a tool box containing a set
of tools and extra parts for the car.



Elmore Two-cycle Vertical-engine Cars.



A UTOMOBILES fitted with two-cycle
*^ motors have for years been built by
the Elmore Mfg. Co., of Clyde, O., a firm
which has devoted itself exclusively to this
t)rpc of motor. Heretofore the Elmore mo-
tors, with single and double cylinders, have
been hung under the bodies of the cars.
For the season of 1906, however, two new
^r^^}r> i,«„^ k-4»« A^i>i,^^A tijg motors still

, but placed ver-
Front. Model 15
four-cylinder 35-

Model 14 is a
wo-cylinder ver-
jrsepower. The
; ring clutch and
ansmission; the
planetary trans-

and bevel gear

is a typical large



LOCOMOBILE TRAH8MI8SI0N AlfD CLUTCH CONE, ILLUSTRATIlfG DOUBLE
UNIVBRaAL JOINT IN SHAFT.



touring car with side-entrance body, provid-
ing plenty of space for the passengers, a
wheelbase long enough to give easy riding,,
in combination with long springs, and a gen-
eral outline that is at once simple and attrac-
tive. Probably the most noticeable feature
of the engine is its clear, unencumbered ap-
pearance; there are no valves on or con-
nected with the engine, and consequently
there is no necessity for gears, camshafts
and other moving parts for operating-
valves. The only gears used about the en-
gine are the bronze bevels, of equal size,
which rotate the timer at the same speed
as the crankshaft.

The motor operates on , tbe three-port
system; this system has already been de-
s<iribed at length in The Automobile, but it
may be said that two ports in the cylin4er
wall, alternately covered and uncovered by
the piston, carry the combustible gases into*
and the exhaust out of the cylinder ; a third
port in the cylinder wall, placed low down
so as to open into the crankcase when the
cylinder is at its highest point, allows the
mixture from the carbureter to pass into-
the crankcase, where it is compressed and
later forced through a connecting passage
and the inlet port into the cylinder. An
impulse is imparted to the crankshaft once
every revolution by each cylinder; thus four
cylinders give an impulse to the crankshaft
every quarter of a revolution, the same as
two double-acting steam cylinders, and the
same as an eight-cylinder four-cycle ex-
plosion motor. This results in smooth run-
ning and a steady pull which is of special
advantage on hifls^



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THE AUTOMOBILE.



January 4, i^



N£W ELMORB 35-HORSEPOWER, FOUR-CYLmDER, TWO-CTCLE MOTOR-Uf-FRONT TOXTRIRO CAR



The cylinders of the four-cylinder Elmore
have a bore of 4 1-2 inches and a stroke of
4 inches; the heads are dome-shaped inside
and are cast integral with the cylinders, as
are also the water jackets. The pistons are
fitted with four rings each, one ring being
near the bottom; crankshaft is made from
a steel forging and has large bearings. Cyl-
inders, pistons and all bearnig surfaces arc
ground. Water piping and other engine fit-
tings are of cast brass. The pump is posi-
tive and is rotated by the timer shaft. Lu-
brication of the motor is accomplished by a
Hill precision oiler, and sufficient oil for 300
miles' running, is carried. The carbureter,
made at the Elmore factory, is of the Krebs
type and, the manufacturers state, will use
any grade of gasoline.

Throttle and ignition levers are placed in
the usual position above the steering wheel,
but do not turn with the wheel ; the throttle



is also connected with the clutch pedal, so
that when the clutch is withdrawn the en-
gine is automatically slowed down. A pedal
and a side lever control the service brake on
the driving shaft and the emergency brakes
on the hubs of the rear wheels respectively.
The three speeds and reverse of the sliding
gear transmission are controlled by a single
lever, and an interlocking system prevents
the engagement of the clutch when the
gears are not fully meshed.

The clutch is an expanding bronze ring
and is said to be smooth in action and to
require adjustment only at long intervals;
it is self-centering, so that it is always well
clear of the drum when disengaged. The
clutch is placed a few inches behind the
flywheel and is a separate unit, the flywheel
not being used as one member of the clutch
as when the cone tjrpe is employed. The
transmission shafts run on roller bearings;



a universal joint is interposed between th
clutch and the transmission gearcase. Th
transmission gearcase and the engine ar
bolted through laterally extending arms to
sub-frame. The propeller shaft terminate
at each end in a universal joint, one directl
in the rear of the transmission gearcase an
the other just in front of the bevel gear cas



Online LibraryHermann HoernesAutomotive industries → online text (page 3 of 156)